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Regent Research Roundtables

Regent Research Roundtables

From the Editors

Dr. Bruce E. Winston & Dr. Kathleen Patterson

Welcome to the Proceedings of the 2022 Regent Research Roundtables. In addition to presentations of empirical studies, the Roundtable format allows presenters to discuss new concepts, possible future research topics, consulting methods, new teaching methods, and panel discussions of topics that are of interest to our academic communities. The topics are wide-ranging in content and delivery, and we trust you find nuggets of truth, things to think on, and lessons for your own research, leadership, followership, and organization.

NOTE: All authors own responsibility for APA and/or formatting.

An Advancing Profession: Teams, Trends, and Technology in Coaching: Chair Narrative Reflections on the 2022 Regent University School of Business and Leadership Professional Coaching Roundtable

Dr. Diane M. Wiater

Roundtable: Professional Coaching

This article highlights insights from three live panel discussions about professional coaching presented at the Regent University School of Business and Leadership 2022 Annual Roundtables. Ten presenters from this event are featured in this reflective narrative. The live panels provided an opportunity for all professionals who recorded presentations to have a voice in the live element of the roundtables. These panel discussions advanced the professional coaching conversation, as presenters included research and ideas from recorded presentations. The panel content was collaborative, engaging, and authentic. My reflection of this event is intended to expand the professional coaching field as a whole.

Keywords: coaching, development, organizational, leadership, teams, global

An Exploration of Team Coaching: Coaching Through Psychological Safety and Trust with Teams

Kelly M. G. Whelan

Roundtable: Professional Coaching

With 80% of organizations operating in teams, team coaching is quickly being recognized as a way for teams to significantly impact those they serve. Psychological safety in teams is paramount to this success and is established when team members feel valued, wanted, accepted, and heard. When the collective body is psychologically safe, trust and powerful team learning is the outcome. As teams learn to operate in a state of psychological safety, they become more than high-performing teams, they become confident, high-value teams that create transformation and impact (CVTI) for their stakeholders. This paper outlines the difference between individual, group, and team coaching and psychological safety and trust. Further, this paper offers practical application for coaches and teams to generate psychological safety through agreements, processes, and systems.

Keywords: psychological safety, trust, team coaching, high-value teams, transformation, impact

Virtual Coaching is Inevitable and Effective

Dr. Jeffery S. Doolittle

Roundtable: Professional Coaching

The world has changed and the hybrid workplace with work-from-home opportunities has shifted in-person meetings and events to virtual. Technology enables individuals and teams to work collaboratively remotely. As the world changes, professional coaching has changed and will need to continue to change. Both coaching professionals and their clients have adapted to the circumstances of the times, with more and more utilizing technology tools for coaching sessions. Virtual coaching is a technology facilitated partnership between a coach and a client to maximize the client’s personal and professional potential. Virtual coaching differs from traditional face-to-face coaching by offering added convenience, service, and support benefits, such as accessibility, rapid response to needs, affordability, access to resources, and evaluation.

Thoughtfully incorporating virtual coaching has many positive impacts, but that does not mean it is without challenges. It is best to assess the situation, coach/client, and context to determine its best use. Coaching does not have to be face-to-face to be personalized and effective. A skilled coach with virtual coaching competencies can effectively utilize virtual technology to achieve lasting results.

Keywords: virtual, coaching, competencies, leadership

Charles Spurgeon and Followership

Lance Croy

Roundtable: Followership

The paper examines the exemplary followership of Charles Spurgeon while pastoring at the Metropolitan Tabernacle. It may appear odd at first to ascribe followership attributes to such a high-profile leader, but Spurgeon’s correspondence between himself and the deacons displayed courageous followership behaviors. Followership is a mutual reciprocation of communication, compensation, and collaboration that concurrently forms and re-forms between both parties, furthering the organization’s primary cause. Over the last few years, the Christian industrial complex has seen the downfall of many of its most prolific figures. Given the pitfalls of power many leaders face, the need to study exemplary followership is critical. The paper’s methodology is a bounded case study in the field of pragmatic qualitative research utilizing primary (autobiographies), secondary (biographies), and tertiary sources (followership theory). Additionally, Spurgeon’s sermons underwent syntactic concordancing to determine what the Prince of Preachers thought and taught about leadership. The paper’s underlying theme is that Christian leadership is paradoxically followership, and Spurgeon’s life exemplified it.

Keywords: Charles Spurgeon, followership, qualitative research, case study, biography

Followers Ready for Leadership as Demonstrated by St. Mary and St. Josephine

Jane R. Caulton

Roundtable: Followership

This presentation explores the link between Chaleff’s (2009) courageous followership model and Kellerman’s (2007) diehard and Kelley’s (1988, 2008) star performer models as demonstrated through the lives of Mary, mother of Jesus, and Josephine Bakhita, canonized in the year 2000. As shown through a sacred texture analysis, these female followers exemplify characteristics that lead to preparation for higher levels of organizational responsibilities (Hersey et al., 1979; Robbins, 2004, 2010; Schermerhorn, 1997). The study is a contribution to research on females as followers.

Keywords: star performer, diehard, follower, sacred texture, courageous follower, Chaleff, Kellerman, Kelley, St. Mary, Bakhita, St. Josephine

Followers’ Independent Critical Thinking and Active Engagement for Collocated vs. Virtual Work Teams

Kellie Playter

Roundtable: Followership

There is a gap in the research on followership in the virtual space. As such, this study explored the levels of active engagement (AE) and independent critical thinking (ICT) between collocated followers who work in a traditional office setting alongside coworkers and followers who work entirely virtual and rely on technology to connect, make decisions, and accomplish tasks. Current research has indicated that there are both strengths and limitations to virtual teams. However, it is often found to be more challenging to be as engaged and display ICT as a member of a virtual team. This study employed Kelley’s (1992) Followership Scale to determine the difference between followers’ AE and ICT to determine how most followers are classified in these different contexts and explored whether there are differences by gender. Followers who work in either virtual or collocated teams were recruited through online social media platforms. The survey results indicated no significant difference between collocated and virtual followers for AE or ICT; both types indicated they were exemplary followers. There was also no significant difference for gender, although that was expected for ICT, even though COVID-19 and childcare responsibilities have impacted more women. This study can contribute to this body of research, or lack thereof, by helping people better understand exemplary followership within different types of work arrangements to find out where the differences are and offer tools for organizations to develop followers who work in these spaces (Finlayson, 2021).

Keywords: followership, independent critical thinking, active engagement, collocated
teams, virtual teams

Servant Leadership Through Selfless Sacrifice: An Examination of John 10:7-18, 13:1-20, and 21:15-19

Johann Acuña & Derrick Bledsoe

Roundtable: Followership

Leadership is essential in the church of Jesus Christ, however the term itself is ambiguous. This paper will argue that leadership should be understood through the agency of a vice-regent to the Lord Jesus, and thus subject to His power, truth, and authority, such that the leader is merely subject to what Christ has commanded. A careful examination of John 10:7-18, 13:1-20, and 21:15-19 demonstrates that leaders should adopt a slave mentality and submit to Christ’s commands, love their Lord, and express their love to Christ through shepherding His sheep as they themselves follow Him.

Keywords: Vice-regency; leadership; followership; Christian leadership; John; shepherd; slave; servant leadership; feet-washing; sacrifice; sacrificial leadership

Leadership and Culture: What Difference Does it Make?

Michelle G. Segundo

Roundtable: Global Consulting

Culture is a complex, multilevel, and multidimensional phenomenon consisting of visible and invisible traits that directly and indirectly influence people and behavior (Aymin & Korabik, 2010). As culture is embedded into the way people think and live, it also significantly influences leaders who in turn influence employees and organizations as a whole. Leaders attempting to conduct business on a global level and lead teams crossculturally, must not only have an understanding of diverse cultures but must also appreciate core cultural values to lead effectively. Hofstede’s (1980b) four dimensions of cross-cultural leadership: (a) power distance; (b) masculinity; (c) individualism; and (d) uncertainty avoidance contributed to House’s (1993) twenty-year, cross-cultural GLOBE research project asserting that certain leadership styles such as transformational, servant, and autocratic were optimal leadership methods in certain cultures. The purpose of this paper is to explain how culture affects leadership and how certain leadership theories (transformational, servant, and autocratic) are applicable to certain cultures (Latin American, Confucian Asian, and Anglo) based on their dimensional scores.

Keywords: transformational leadership, servant leadership, autocratic leadership, crosscultural leadership

Managing Today’s Employees for Business Success

Melody Avery Cazort

Roundtable: Global Consulting

It is common knowledge that our social, economic, wellness, cultural, and especially sense of security are in an unprecedented era. Fear thrives in the environment as people suffer losses from COVID, mass shootings, housing, inflation, and a pending war. Thus, people changed; they have merged from working at a brick and mortar location or they are new members of “The Great Resignation”. The purpose of this article is to explore the current situation, meet the emerging values, and provide recommendations from a consulting perspective for success. To recruit and retain employees, mid-level and senior managers must offer more for a successful enterprise. Motivating employees, whether in the workplace or remotely, increase productivity for success. To assure the latest information for the paper, research only derives from December 2021 (revised in 2022) and 2022. The paper concludes with recommendations to leaders on how to encourage productivity by adapting to employees. A goal is a positive organizational culture fulfilling employees’ current needs, thus creating more success for business today.

Agility in the Age Of Amalgamation and the Role of HRD

Alina Wreczycki

Roundtable: Human Resource Development

It appeared that the contemporary organizational environments undergo rapid amalgamations stemming from the necessity to alter business processes to realize maximum effectiveness and efficiency. It was also apparent that high-intensity rivalry in this dynamic global setting marked by uncertainty called for expeditious decision making that necessitates agility. While being expeditious within the context of this research meant the ability to combine velocity and effectiveness, agility applied to human condition reflected an individual’s level of resilience to quickly embrace the speed and the implications of change for amalgamation and sustainability. It was hypothesized that resilience necessitated the presence and the active involvement of an intellectually curious adult learner based on (a) the need to know, (b) the learners’ selfconcept, (c) the role of learners’ experiences, (d) readiness to learn, (e) orientation toward learning, and (f) motivation (Knowles et al., 2015) to be committed to life-long learning also known as the andragogy learning and self-development to acclimate to rapidly changing and amalgamating environments. Agility appeared to be the framework of organizations that focused on not only developing and sustaining technical competencies through human resources development (HRD) based on training and knowledge transfer, but creative and critical reasoning empowered by compassion and collaboration. HRD in short was perceived as the training and development of a company’s personnel. While HRD could be delivered in a formal fashion such as training and training transfer into the existing or evolving processes for retention and sustainability, fostering agility appeared to call for the informal aspects of HRD such as coaching and mentorship to create and sustain a workforce of enthusiastic adult learners. This research involved analyzing qualitative data from four participants—two males and two females—to examine how closely their perception of agility matched the working definition presented and what traits they attributed with agility. Further inquiry examined the application of agility as interpreted by the participants into the organizational environments as they interacted with other firms to amalgamate and to incorporate changing conditions while doing business and their views on the role of HRD in sustaining agile and amalgamating organizations.

Keywords: agility, amalgamation, andragogical model

Building a National Kingdom Business Culture Through Integrated Discipleship and Entrepreneurship for the Youth: Lessons From Rwanda

Richard L. Miller & Patrice Habinshuti

Roundtable: Kingdom Business

Christian research has revealed that one effective and sustainable way to transform people and nations is through business from the heart or kingdom business. Koshal (2008) noted that kingdom businesses are businesses started by Christians that pursue a multiple strategy—(a) profitability and sustainability and (b) job creation and income generation—and affirm that such businesses help make both an economic, as well as a spiritual, impact in developing countries. As Rae (2005) affirmed, exposure to entrepreneurship education and training delivers orientations to the cognitive features and skills necessary for initiating and managing entrepreneurial ventures. In the same way, efficient prior discipleship and transformation training is believed to inculcate kingdom business principles (Miller, 2012). This paper outlines the process of building a national kingdom business culture in developing countries through equipping youth to run kingdom businesses by integrating discipleship and entrepreneurship in high school teaching. The process has been developed by the authors and tested in Rwanda for over a decade (2012-2022).

Keywords: kingdom business, entrepreneurship, discipleship, youth, Rwanda

Business by the Stomach, Head, or Heart

John E. Mulford

Roundtable: Kingdom Business

This exploratory paper posits a typology of business thinking and behavior, draws logical implications of how each type would think and behave, and suggests how business results might differ under the three patterns of thinking and behavior. The paper draws on a biblical analysis of human nature to classify thinking and behavior into three categories: (a) stomach—controlled by the flesh, (b) head—controlled by the intellect unsubmitted to God, and (c) heart—controlled by the Holy Spirit. As defined here, stomach and head are manifestations of man’s sinful nature, whereas heart represents thinking and behavior led by the Holy Spirit. Scripture supports the description of each category; however, are the categories non-overlapping descriptors of reality that exhaust all possibilities of thinking and behavior in business? Are those categories useful for understanding and guiding thinking, behavior, and results in business? Further research is required to answer these questions.

Keywords: kingdom business, business as mission, theology of business, marketplace ministry, faith at work, Christian worldview and business

Heart, Soul, and Mind: Basis for Spiritual Transformation for Kingdom Business

Richard L. Miller

Roundtable: Kingdom Business

In Waking the Dead, Eldredge (2003) wrote, “The story of your life is the story of the long and brutal assault on your heart by the one who knows what you could be and fears it” (p. 34). Therefore, if you are seeking to be transformed to the image of Jesus, Get ready for the battle! This paper records the results of various courses of study and investigations conducted by Richard Miller to determine the effectiveness of selected change agents with the ultimate goal of identifying change agents and processes to enhance biblical, spiritual growth in believers. Miller (1992) reported the positive change in soil quality from adding various levels of nutrients. This project also proved beneficial as a learning vehicle to conduct research. Miller’s (2003) doctoral dissertation reported the results of a correlation study to evaluate the change in spiritual traits using scripture verses as change agents. The results of this study led to the development of a seminar titled Tools for Transformation (TFT; Miller, 2004), which uses Scripture verses as the change agents to enhance spiritual development in believers. The TFT seminar was beta tested with a group of 15 believers over 6 months, which confirmed the hypothesis that ingesting scripture verses increases spiritual development. The TFT seminar was adapted for use in Rwanda as a joint effort between Richard Miller and Patrice Habinshuti and was titled Rwanda Kingdom Entrepreneurship Caravan.

Keywords: heart, soul, mind, zone of congruence, transformation

Abraham Lincoln: A Wise and Just Servant Leader Motivated by Natural Law Principles, Faith, and Virtue

Jacqueline A. Faulhaber

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

One can hardly doubt the servant leader’s contribution toward a more just society. Well-researched are the virtuous qualities of the servant leader. Not as well explored are the steadfast convictions and principled beliefs driving the servant leader’s reasoning. This paper explores Abraham Lincoln’s conviction of beliefs and steadfast principles primarily noted in his 1860 Cooper Union speech through the lens of natural law theory that serves as a foundation for his servant leadership style. It further asserts in companion to virtue in the servant leader is the principled belief in justice and unity that contributes to a just and flourishing civil polity for all. It is hopeful that this study of Lincoln’s servant leadership, rooted in natural law, could benefit society in improving race relations, just public policy making, and just public leadership.

Keywords: Abraham Lincoln, natural law, servant leadership, virtue

Nelson Mandela: Leading in Volatile and Uncertain Environments

Joycelynn Green

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

The purpose of this article is to make it possible for leaders to have a better understanding of the overarching idea of servant leadership as well as the qualities that define servant leaders. An examination of Nelson Mandela’s style of leadership is used as a model to better comprehend the notion of servant leadership as described by Robert Greenleaf. Greenleaf is widely regarded as the person who pioneered the idea of servant leadership. This report aims to discuss the significance of servant leadership from the perspective of one of the greats in a turbulent and unpredictable environment with base points on leading through service, remembering servant leadership is a choice, and leading with servant leadership. Compassion, respect, and sacrifice are just a few of the components that are essential to the servant-leadership style of leadership. An examination of Mandela’s leadership style as that of a servant leader offers a context within which servant leadership can be better understood, while also attempting to determine whether or not leadership in today’s world exhibits attributes that are characteristic of servant leadership.

Keywords: servant leadership, leadership, characteristics

Beyond Traditional Risk Management: Integrating Horizon Scanning and Strategic Risk Prioritization

Dr. Rodney B. Woods

Roundtable: Strategic Foresight

This journal article examines current efforts to merge horizon scanning and risk prioritization methodologies to comprehend emerging concerns better and classify them as either risk-related problems to be resolved or strategic opportunities to be exploited. Continuing to concern governments and global enterprises is the lack of correlation between data on developing challenges and credible strategic decisions. As demands for time and money expand, these obstacles are expected to intensify. Gathering insights would guide strategic choices at every level of the firm. Efforts to merge horizon scanning and risk prioritization using a qualitative weight of evidence framework is one method for developing a systematic procedure. This strategy detects all potential signs of future change with a significant influence on risk-stratified strategic missions and underlying values. Moreover, this approach supports the investigation of elements beyond the control of organizations, understanding that resilience is contingent upon the adaptability of management methods and the readiness to deal with various unforeseen events. I will also examine how leaders may utilize this framework to develop an excellent strategic plan with consistency. Last but not least, there will be proposals for future improvements to bolster trust in using horizon scanning for risk-stratified strategic planning.

Keywords: futures, horizon scanning, prioritization, risk, strategic decision-making

The Value of Servant-leadership in Sodexo

Jeffery S. Doolittle

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

This essay explores the servant-leadership theory and the value it brings to the complex and globally diverse workforce of Sodexo, the global leader in the business services and supplies industry. The discussion includes a servant-leadership literature review, Sodexo’s servant-leadership journey, servant-leadership across cultures, leadership dilemmas, and a business case for servant-leadership. Servant-leadership is a globally relevant leadership approach built on dimensions such as love, humility, and service. While cross-cultural differences influence different ways of considering leadership and service or exceptions and rules, servant-leadership connects differences in discovering solutions for organizational dilemmas. The benefits of servant-leadership extend beyond solving problems to include both expected benefits such as improved performance and productivity, and unexpected benefits such as organization citizenship behavior and intrinsic motivation. Sodexo, the global leader in the business services and supplies industry, demonstrates the value of servant-leadership in achieving strategic goals in a complex organization.

The Impact of Servant Leadership on Racism in Society

Tamara R. Morton

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of racism in society and offer solutions by the impact of servant leadership. The development of racism and the present circumstances today call for change to bring healing and justice. Biblical principles can be applied to combat racism, along with servant leadership, to reflect the love of God for the entire world. The Old Testament and the New Testament confirm the message of Christ to bring good news to all people. Servant leadership can foster service to others, move society toward community, and build trust (Reinke, 2004). Many scholars have studied the theory of servant leadership, and the contribution of research can engage the issue of racism. The attributes and characteristics of servant leaders implemented can result in justice for all and transform communities. The humility of servant leaders puts the leader as a servant and embraces the differences of others to show compassion to those they serve (Northouse, 2019). The impact of servant leadership empowers the oppressed and brings forth freedom. As a result, action steps can be taken by utilizing awareness and perception, demonstrate acceptance and empathy, exemplify altruism and love, and build community and trust (Greenleaf, 1977 and Patterson, 2003).

Servant, Leader, Prosecutor: A Servant Leadership Training Program for Prosecutors

Tabitha B. Anderson

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

The criminal justice system is currently under direct scrutiny to implement change. Specifically, prosecutors are accused of bearing responsibility for mass incarceration, disparate sentences, and unethical conduct. While all attorneys are subject to a code of ethics and professional responsibility, prosecutors bear additional competing duties and discretion. They must seek justice, represent the interests of victims, defendants, and the community, satisfy competing interests of stakeholders, comply with ethical mandates, moral responsibilities, professionalism, discretion, and personal aspirations. Both seasoned and inexperienced prosecutors must balance these competing duties, burdens, and responsibilities. While they receive extensive legal training, they receive no leadership training. Prosecutors are, by definition, leaders within the criminal justice system and their communities. Servant leadership is a successful model for prosecutors because it mirrors the multiple duties of a prosecutor to put the needs, development, and wellbeing of others first with the goal of producing servant leaders in others. A servant leadership training program teaches prosecutors to manage their competing interests, discretion, and professional fatigue through the ideals and behaviors of servant leadership. It is not intuitive. It must be taught.

Servant Leadership and Conflict Management in the Faith-Based Organization

Michelle G. Segundo

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine how servant leaders manage conflict in faith-based organizations (FBOs). Data was collected through the qualitative method of semi-structured interviews with two servant leaders who serve in executive leadership positions in their faith-based organizations located in South Texas. The interviews were conducted utilizing the video conference application, Zoom, as requested by the participants in accordance with their Covid-19 safety measures. The first cycle coding of both participants’ responses revealed 60 codes with 806 frequencies, sharing 26 first cycle codes (Appendix). The second cycle of coding produced five themed clusters reflecting the participants’ shared values of (a) communication; (b) biblical standards; (c) vision; (d) unity; and (e) empowerment when managing conflict in their FBOs (Table 2, Table 3). This phenomenological study places the servant leader in managing group conflict within a faith-based organizational (FBO) context allowing the servant leader to connect with the FBO’s biblical foundation and incorporate SL attributes (Table 1) that complement the faith foundation of the organization. Although the literature reveals that leaders exhibiting specific servant leadership qualities (Table 1) have a positive impact in both minimizing and managing conflict in the FBO, the existing research incorporating all three factors of SL, FBOs, and conflict management was limited validating the necessity for this study and its outcomes that will provide help to servant leaders attempting to manage conflict in a faith-based organizational context.

Nurturing a culture of hope in leaders and organizations in globally turbulent times

Karen Cerff

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

This article supports the extended theoretical model initially developed by Patterson (2003), encompassing the seven virtuous constructs of love, humility, altruism, vision, trust, empowerment and service, extended by Winston (2003) to include a circular motion, demonstrating the leader’s service that results in a continuous circular motion by positively affecting the followers’ Agapao love, commitment, self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation and altruistic attitudes towards their leaders. Cerff and Winston (2006) included the cognitive theory of hope emanating from the field of positive psychology (Shorey & Snyder, 1997) in the conceptual model, as a virtuous construct that is an outcome of both the leader’s Agapao love and the follower’s Agapao love. Recent marketplace research indicates deliberate initiatives to nurture hope in leaders that continue to influence both leaders and followers in organizations with positive ripple effects in contrast to the erosion of hope. This article will present empirical research that validates the inclusion of hope in the servant leadership model and the pivotal value of hope during turbulent times for leaders and followers alike.

An Exploration of Successful Global Entrepreneurial Innovation Leadership Attributes and Behaviors

Jeffery S. Doolittle

Roundtable: Human Resource Development

This viewpoint paper aims to identify the entrepreneurial leadership behaviors and attributes associated with successful entrepreneurial innovation to guide global business considerations. As designed, the insights covered will lead to the transformation of society and workplaces by applying proven innovation thought leadership. This paper combines a contemporary exploration of the literature on leadership with insights on national culture to develop more nuanced understandings of key entrepreneurial innovation leadership behaviors and attributes within multicultural and national contexts. The literature on entrepreneurial innovation leadership behaviors and attributes underpinned with insights on national culture provides more nuanced understandings of how leaders can appropriately adapt their leadership approach to transform an increasingly diverse and complex workplace and society. This helpful insight that may assist decision-makers in developing innovation leadership and transform global organizations. This paper offers a contemporary review of innovation leadership behaviors and attributes underpinned within a national cultural context.

Repurposing the Purpose of Higher Education in the Post-Pandemic World

Chad H. Newton

Roundtable: Human Resource Development

The purpose of this study pertained to an exploration of a senior professor’s experiences during the immediate shift from traditional classroom teaching to fully online teaching during the pandemic in 2020. A primary goal of this research involved a purposeful focus on the experiences of a senior faculty member from a phenomenological perspective. The implications of this study included several suggestions: (a) opportunities for applying the laws of learning acquisition associated with human resource development (HRD), (b) exploring the participant’s experiences that occurred during the immediate change from traditional lecture halls to online teaching, and (c) the need for developing traditional professors in the practice and application of Knowles’s theory of andragogy. This study incorporated the phenomenological method of research design and interpretation of the findings, and it used four additional methods of interpretation and analysis: (a) IPA, (b) case study method, (c) the laws of learning acquisition described by Gilley, Eggland, and Gilley (2002), and (d) in vivo coding with an emphasis on personal narratives that emerged during the semi-structured interview. The findings included several insights for reflection and perspectives about the future of professorship in the post-pandemic world. In particular, the professor’s statement about repurposing higher education in the postpandemic world held considerable value for insight generation.

Shipyard Industry Succession: A Case Study Analyzing Supervisor Developmental Programs

Charles Hulse

Roundtable: Human Resource Development

The purpose of this case study is to explore the organizational phenomenon of leadership development. It is important to note that this case study is specific to GC1’s leadership development program and the work environment it has been designed around. This research is a qualitative phenomenological study that analyzed the data collected from the interviews of three participants; 1) one who completed the program, 2) one who is currently active in the program, and 3) one who just started the program. Data were analyzed utilizing the descriptive coding technique. This case should only be viewed as a preliminary study designed to answer the question- what are private sector organizational developmental programs producing? More managers or leaders for the shipyard industry?

Human Resources Development and Group Cohesion During Technological and Management

Alina Wreczycki

Roundtable: Human Resource Development

Based on Turner and Tajfel’s (1986) social identity theory of intergroup behavior and Arrows et al.’s (2000) group dynamics, this work explored the relationship between human resources development (HRD) and group cohesion during technological and management changes. The exegesis for this study occurred at Matthew 5:3-12, which provided traits conducive to support group cohesion during management and technological shifts. Robbins’ (1996) inner texture as part of the socio-rhetorical analysis was used to exegete traits from Matthew 5:3-12 (NIV). It was hypothesized that HRD during times of technological changes called for managers to function as situational leaders who inspired and motivated group members to attend training for knowledge transfer into the succeeding organizational processes for sustainability while safely idling the existing procedures. While there appeared to be synergies between Turner and Tajfel’s (1986) social identity of intergroup behavior theory and group cohesion during management and technological changes, it became evident that the balance between HRD and group cohesion was critical and predominately placed in the hands of the manager as an effective leader. The traits that emerged from the participants’ narratives on the relationships with the retired and succeeding managers using Saldana’s (2013) were compared to the exegeted set from Matthew 5:3-12 (NIV). While the traits of the retired manager were consistent with the pericope, those of his successor were not.

Utilizing horizon scanning to attain timely awareness in a future of uncertainty

Rodney B. Woods

Roundtable: Strategic Foresight

The article aims to help leaders understand Horizon Scanning and its benefits in addressing unforeseen challenges arising from various calamities and emergencies in a world of increasing uncertainty. Leaders armed with the necessary tools and resources will be able to create a focused vision, clear identity, and secure future for their organization. Furthermore, the swiftness of their response will indicate a sense of urgency and significantly define their leadership, positively impacting their stakeholders. Therefore, the appropriate application of Horizon Scanning is crucial to business success both now and in the future.

Beyond Strategy and Design: Gaining a competitive advantage in an uncertain world

Jeffery S. Doolittle

Roundtable: Global Consulting

Leadership is facing a time of significant challenge and complexity. Numerous sociological and technological advances are driving the complexity, making it necessary for leaders to discover solutions to meet new challenges. There is no serious question on the need for organizational strategy and design alignment. Numerous studies have demonstrated that successful organizations align their strategy and design with their unique operational environment. Although, while alignment is essential, especially during turbulent times, it is not sufficient. This article considers what leaders might do to gain a competitive advantage in an uncertain world. This author’s premise based on research: Focus on individual and organizational virtues and character. When organizations solely focus on behaviors, they fail to account for habits that can both contribute to or against organizational success. Today’s world is too chaotic not to deepen understanding of how people think, act, and feel. The addition of character and virtues holds the key to unlocking productivity, creativity, and competitive advantage. Moving beyond behaviors and focusing on the development of leadership virtues and character improves performance and provides a competitive advantage.

The Apertures of Consulting Across Disciplines

Chenille White

Roundtable: Global Consulting

The objective of this proposal is to present to practitioners the apertures of consulting across disciplines during the “Empowering Consulting Practitioners, Leaders, and Educators” 2021 Leadership Roundtable. The global pandemic resulted in unprecedented changes and challenges for society. It mandated a re-imagining and restructuring within organizations. The effects are drastic and demand new organizational solutions that adjust to the changing times. Government leaders seek to identify the needs of entities and individuals because of this catastrophic event. Leaders across diverse organizations seek to identify ways to move from survival to organizational advancement. Consultants seek to determine how to meet the needs of both the government and business leaders with strategic consulting that offers long-term solutions. This paper identifies the commonalities and divergences that contribute to the apertures in consulting. The findings reveal the leadership of the government must create systems of communication that includes the leadership of organizations and consultants. The remaining findings exist under this overarching aperture. New theories are nonexistent but merely continuations of approaches and leadership theories seen in such unprecedented conditions. A brief overview and analysis of the current challenges and apertures, emerging theories, and best practices are provided to include recommendations on how to successfully consult in the 21st century and beyond. Additional insight for a proposed case study offers an avenue for further research on how to address the apertures of consulting across disciplines.

Building the Kingdom by Tearing Down Cultural Walls: A Cross-Cultural Leadership Analysis of Jesus’ Elevation of the Despised Samaritans

Michelle G. Segundo

Roundtable: Biblical Perspectives

Organizational success depends on effective leadership whose praxis are often inexorably intertwined within the predominant culture (Dorfman, 1996). Effective leadership entails direct interaction between leaders and their followers; however, the most pervasive and lasting form of leadership happens through the indirect process of influence as the leader is able to communicate the organization’s needs and unify his followers in facilitating and fulfilling shared objectives through collective efforts (Yukl, 2013). Christ not only expected His disciples to carry out His mission, but He demonstrated leadership methods that focused their hearts and motives on loyalty to the kingdom of God rather than remaining loyal to their Judaic culture that traditionally excluded other races and cultures. Grindheim (2017) asserted that the kingdom exerts a liberating, community-shaping force as Christ’s inclusivity was countercultural to the religious tradition that often excluded people from the church and God. The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate methods of cross-cultural leadership through Christ’s personal praxis of cross-cultural leadership and more specifically, Jesus crossing cultural constraints and elevating the role of Samaritans in the New Testament thus promulgating the Great Commission (Matt. 28:18-20) reinforcing Christ’s mission of salvation, healing, restoration, empowerment, and eternal life for all mankind.

Ethical Leadership: Being Transparent in Differing Belief Systems

Gladys M. Monroe

Roundtable: Kingdom Business

Ethical leadership (EL) “motives, values, and behaviors (e.g., honesty, trustworthy, altruistic, fairness)” (Yukl and Gardner, 2020, p.231) lay the foundation for transparent communication, leading to a work environment conducive to a platform for dialogue between differing opinions. Organizational culture mirrors the expectations and values demonstrated by leaders who design the mission, objectives, and vision, but followers must meet these parameters to execute their tasks. “Being self-aware, transparent and vulnerable” (Hendrikz and Engelbrecht, 2019, p.4) are constructs that form the principled leadership scale (PLS) that lends to the leader comprehending their interaction with their followers having an impact and demonstrating humility, exhibiting inner moral character. Downe et al. (2016) assert that good governance within government organizations demonstrates a standard for ethical conduct when managers at all levels and politicians exemplify value-based attributes, which can gain public trust. Examining interaction and reaction among cohorts, experiencing comradery within a structured context, their discussion of workplace challenges, environmental work culture, and relational differences in beliefs, values, and professional roles recognized that it shaped their workplace culture. Baker and Power’s (2018) emphasis on Spiritual Capital (SC) empowers leaders to exert their beliefs and faith in the public realm bringing a stance before those who have different belief systems to recognize that Kingdom Principles have operational validity correlated to value-based doctrine. Clarity of meaning is imperative to effective communication (Konopaske et al., 2018) and accurate interpretation. The follower’s mindset is influenced and changed from self-serving to the ethical leader’s illustration of what they observe and experience.

The Regent Research Roundtables is the proceedings of the School of Business & Leadership Regent Research Roundtables that provide a forum for scholars in the field of business and leadership studies. Participants in the Research Roundtables are selected through a peer-review process. Inclusion in the proceedings follows an editorial selection process with the specific roundtable chair selecting specific articles that fit the style and structure of a proceedings document.

Editorial Staff

Dr. Bruce E. Winston
Regent University

Dr. Kathleen Patterson
Regent University

Editorial Members
Faculty, School of Business & Leadership

Dr. Debra Dean
Regent University

Dr. John Mulford
Regent University

Dr. William (Dave) Winner
Regent University

Dr. Steve Firestone
Regent University

Dr. Virginia Richardson
Regent University

Dr. Joshua Henson
Southeastern University

Dr. Diane Wiater
Regent University

Production Staff

Ms. Myrnalyn Castillo
Website Production
Regent University