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Dissertations – Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership Program

The final requirement for School of Business & Leadership Ph.D. students is the scholarly research dissertation. To access full-text versions of these dissertations, please contact your university’s library or UMI Dissertation Services. Regent students, staff and faculty may access full-text versions from the Regent University Library.

Servant Leadership Theory: An Empirical Test of Servant Leadership Perceptions of University Students in Ethiopia

Solomon Chafamo Abiye | 2023


In this exploratory study, I examined the workability of servant leadership theory (Patterson, 2003) in an Ethiopian context for the first time. Patterson’s servant leadership theory is comprised of seven servant leadership virtues, agapao love, humility, altruism, vision, trust, empowerment, and service. I investigated the causal relationship between her servant leadership virtues using 211 participants from Wachemo University in Hossana, Ethiopia. The participants assessed the servant leadership of their instructors using Dennis and Bocarnea’s (2005) revised Servant Leadership Assessment Instrument. The simple and multiple regression analysis results revealed the causal relationship between the servant leadership virtues, which extended the findings of previous studies (Koshal, 2005; L. Nelson, 2003), which indicated the compatibility of Patterson’s servant leadership virtues with African cultural values. In addition, I performed t tests to answer the research question that addressed the perception of servant leadership of leaders by leader– follower gender similarities. The result of the tests indicated differences in three of the constructs, humility, altruism, and empowerment. However, it showed no difference in servant leadership by gender–follower relationship in the love, vision, trust, and service constructs. I discussed possible implications of the deviation in the results, and the role of the love construct to support the unconditional aspect of servant leadership. By testing Patterson’s servant leadership virtues in Ethiopia, I pioneered a new leadership model for the country that has been through a lot with an unsubstantiated socioeconomic and political structure to see itself and work toward human-centered leadership philosophy.

Followership and Preferred Leadership Behaviors: Conversion of Passive and Alienated Followers Into Exemplary Followers

Ayodele Adepoju | 2023


The review of existing literature established a need to explore the leadership behaviors that help transition passive and alienated followers, including quiet quitters, into much more actively engaged followers in the organization. It reviewed the relationship between Kelley Followers Styles (KFS) and the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). I utilized descriptive and correlation analysis, using the results of a self-administered survey of 135 individuals using a nonprobability convenience sampling. I derived the questionnaire using the instruments of Kelley’s Power of Followership Survey and Kouzes and Posner’s LPI. The hypothesis testing assessed the strength of the relationship, whether significant, in the 10 hypotheses developed from the five metacategories of LPI and two KFS dimensions. The findings established a positive correlation between the two KFS dimensions and LPI’s five practices. Second, the testing results showed that nine out of 10 hypotheses were fully supported as the correlation coefficients (r ranging between .701 and .784) showed a high correlation or marked relationship, and the results were statistically significant. Third, the top two LPI variables that correlate the most with KFS’s active engagement are Model the Way (r = .784) and Encourage the Heart (r = .776). Lastly, the top two LPI variables that correlate most with KFS’s independent critical thinking are Inspire a Shared Vision (r = .735) and Challenge the Process (r = .730). The results of this study contributed to the field of knowledge as it extended previous research on followership and leadership relationships. In addition, this is the first study to evaluate the type of leadership behaviors required to convert passive and alienated followers into a much more integral part of the team. It is also the first that examined the correlation between KFS and LPI. Future research can explore cultural effects, adopt qualitative or mixed research methods, explore the presence of mediating or moderating variables, or use other followership or leadership instruments.

A Phenomenological Study of African American Women’s Experiences in Church Leadership

Dwayne Castro | 2023


Leadership is among the most discussed topics in the contemporary world, as increased competence fosters the institutions’ success; however, continued research has shown that the phenomenon has been a reserve of the masculine males for many decades, leading to women being comprehensively underrepresented, especially in church leadership. Recent observations have shown that women have continually taken leadership roles, which have introduced a new set of challenges faced during their rise to church administrative duties and when they attain full pastoral positions. Some of the obstacles/experienced by clergywomen are related to the societal biases which have permeated society for centuries. These include unconscious bias (external), imposter syndrome (internal), and double-bide paradox. These biases have been reinforced by various biblical perspectives and misinterpretations and the patriarchal society, which has framed leadership as assuming the male figure leading to women leaders facing adverse experiences while undertaking their leadership roles. Further, there is an observed glass cliff situation where women are only appointed to positions of power in the face of crises, setting them to fail, an aspect that reinforces the societal view that women are not equally capable as leaders. Glass cliff is a situation in which women are promoted to leadership positions during a crisis. Based on the above, the researcher designed a qualitative study to investigate the diverse experiences faced by women in church leadership. The researcher used a semistructured interview to analyze the experiences of 12 women in leadership positions drawn from churches adopting egalitarian and complementarian philosophies to make solid inferences on the persistence of the experiences and offer diverse recommendations.

Keywords: Egalitarian, leadership, bias, women leadership, experience, church, church leadership

The CRED Study: Reimagining the Work, Worth, and Well-Being of American Clergy

Wayne Emmanuel Credle | 2023


This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of 11 American full-time pastors at the senior and executive level to examine how personal, interpersonal, vocational, and social stress affect the well-being of clergypersons. Completing the study answered the calls of both Asimakoupoulos (1997) and Pooler (2011) who called for new models of organizational support for clergypersons. An exhaustive review of (a) spiritual leadership, (b) Christian leadership, (c) workplace spirituality, and (d) role identity theory was conducted, which yielded five research questions: RQ1: What does a typical day look like for American clergy? RQ2: How does clergy find purpose and meaning at work? RQ3: What is needed for clergy to have purpose and meaning at work? RQ4: How is the well-being of clergy? RQ5: What support do American clergy need to support their work, worth, and well-being? Ten interview questions emerged from the five research questions used in a one-on-one interview with the participants. Participants were chosen from a mixture of convenience sampling and purposive sampling for a 1-hour virtual interview. Participants were between the ages of 33-64, male and female, African American and Caucasian, and represented the Baptist (3), Presbyterian (2), and United Methodist Church (3) as well as nondenominational churches (3). Eight of the participants pastored a local church, and two of the participants served as chaplains at a university and in the Air Force. One participant served as a pastor of two churches and a hospital chaplain. The study concluded that clergypersons do more paperwork than pastoral care; are motivated inwardly, outwardly, and eschatologically; need place, space, and grace; handle stress by integrating, isolating, compartmentalizing, or being actively inactive; and need competitive pay, consistent practices, covenant people, and unconventional principles. As a result, the four domains of connection, restoration, empowerment, and development (CRED) emerged as a tool to assess the needs of clergypersons and assist with crafting strategies of intervention to maintain clergy well-being.

Leadership in High-Performance Organizations: Quantitative Research on Belonging, Servant Leadership, and Personality in High-Performance Work Systems

Matthew A. Dussia | 2023


The relationship between belonging, servant leadership, and personality in high-performance work systems was explored in this quantitative study. The University Belongingness Questionnaire (UBQ), the Global Servant Leadership (SL-7) Assessment, the High-Performance Work Systems Survey (HPWS), and the mini-IPIP were utilized. SurveyMonkey was the online data platform to aggregate data. Advertising took place on selected social media platforms and through various organizations. Descriptive statistics characterized the sample. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was conducted to determine whether there is a linear association between the variables. If a p-value was less than 0.05, then the hypothesis was correct. The study’s goal was to inform leaders to what extent servant leadership should be employed in high-performance work systems. Authorization from the Regent University Institutional Review Board was obtained before collecting surveys.

A Qualitative Study of the Relationship between Self-Compassion, Self-Care, and Self-Efficacy Among School Psychologist Leaders

Laura Gali | 2023


Self-compassion and self-care are challenges for leaders, including school psychologists who are especially vulnerable to burnout, which could cause harm. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between the self-efficacy of school psychologists as caregiving leaders and their self-compassion and self-care. Specifically, the researcher explored the behavioral relationships of self-efficacy, self-care, and self-compassion among school psychologists as caregiving leaders and the role of these relationships in informing stress or burnout in their leadership roles. The researcher used a qualitative descriptive design to gather the participants’ descriptions of the phenomenon to address the posed research questions. It provided an understanding of how to describe the characteristics of self-compassion, self-care, and self-efficacy through their descriptions obtained through semi-structured interviews from the target population, which included school psychologists at public schools in the United States. From the results of the study, the self-compassion behaviors shared by school psychologists include compassionate self-talk, self-advocacy and boundaries, welcoming help, and physical acts of kindness toward themselves. The school psychologists also shared several self-care characteristics, such as mindfulness, common humanity, and kindness. In addition, the researcher found that increasing the school psychologists’ self-confidence and positivity influenced their performance of their duties as caregiving leaders and improved their overall job performance. Additionally, school psychologists influence their colleagues and peers in many ways. School psychologists’ self-compassion, self-care, and self-efficacy helped them manage their stress and burnout. The primary outcomes of self-compassion on preventing burnout included improved mental health, increased resilience, stronger boundaries, and improved mental clarity. The lack of self-awareness among school psychologists contributed to high levels of stress and burnout, leading to adverse outcomes for both the psychologists and the students they serve. The implications for practitioners included mindfulness practice, developing support networks, and creating a culture of self-care and compassion.

The Balancing of Social Identity and Christian Identity in Christian Leadership: Successful Principles for Christian Leaders Operating in the Diverse Cultural Context of Ethiopia

Girma Altaye Gebremedhin | 2023


The identity quest has intensified globally and locally (Friedman, 2000). The issues relating to identity vary from one context to another. In some western countries, sexual and gender identity-related issues have become critical (Carr, 2010). In the Ethiopian context, issues like ethnicity, language, and traditional religion have become the centerpiece of the sociopolitical life of Ethiopians (Zewde, 2004). Evangelical leaders are not exempt from these issues. The intensified identity quest makes balancing social identity and Christian identity a daily struggle for many evangelical leaders. This study intended to answer three questions: What is the proper balance between social and evangelical Christian identity in the Ethiopian context? How do exemplar leaders maintain the balance between the multiple identities they have? And how do exemplar Christian leaders manage to keep their Christian identity to be their core identity? Applying the qualitative case study method, framed by social identity theory and the related social categorization theory, and interviewing 18 exemplar leaders from the evangelical community in Ethiopia, successful principles were drawn. The study confirmed that balancing social identity and Christianity identity is a daily struggle for evangelical Christian leaders in Ethiopia. The study also revealed the growing importance of identity in leadership. Nicholson and Carrol (2013) concluded that the global identity quest resurfaced identity as an essential dimension of leadership. The findings of this study reveal that Christian leadership has to pay due attention to the issue of identity. One can argue that developing skills for balancing social identity and Christian identity has become crucial for effectiveness in Christian leadership. This study revealed some fundamental principles for balancing social and Christian identity, which are discussed.

Comparing Organizational Change Impacting Commitment and Burnout on Essential Childcare Workers During COVID-19: A Qualitative Analysis

Kimberly Amanda Gentry | 2023


The purpose of this qualitative research study was to determine the impact of organizational change on both organizational commitment and employee burnout, specifically related to COVID-19 through a postpandemic lens. The conceptual background of the study highlighted the importance of this research, and the study was designed to answer the call by numerous scholars including Yates (2022), Jung et al. (2020), Kim et al. (2016), Allen et al. (2007), and Peng et al. (2020). Based on the body of previous literature, a qualitative bounded case study fell into place as the research methodology. The researcher interviewed 12 research participants following the interview guide derived from literature and answered the two research questions: 1. Utilizing the theoretical constructs derived from Maslach’s Burnout Inventory and Meyer & Allen’s Organizational Commitment, in what ways did COVID-19 impact the essential worker’s organizational commitment and level of burnout in childcare-focused organizations comparing nonprofit and for-profit small businesses? 2. Through the lens of influence with Kotter’s eight steps of organizational change, is employee burnout related to organizational commitment within nonprofit and for-profit organizations? Qualitative data were collected and analyzed by the researcher and coded using ATLAS.ti software. The two cycles of qualitative coding including descriptive and thematic coding were used, and a total of 10 themes emerged for greater understanding. The themes found included leadership, COVID, communication, motivation, perspective, atmosphere, strategy, COVID accommodations, communication (comparison), and deficiencies. Practical implications, limitations of the research, and future recommendations are provided to conclude the study.

Spiritual Calling and Authentic Followership of American Korean Workers

Seongeun Kim | 2023


Recently, the relationship between spiritual variables and job-related ones to organizations and their members has begun to be discussed in greater depth. Through this study, the researcher aimed to investigate the relationship between spiritual calling and authentic followership in American Korean workers. Based on the Spiritual Calling Scale of Neubert and Halbesleben (2015) and the Authentic Followership Profile (AFP) of VanWhy (2015), The researcher designed this study as a multiple regression analysis study to test 4 hypotheses under a central research question. Data were collected via survey from simple random sampling and snowball sampling methods of 146 American Korean workers through Facebook, email, and the Kakao Talk mobile messaging app. The participants completed the full questionnaire online anonymously using Google Forms. The sample size was 146 individuals. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the data using SPSS statistics. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis in SPSS 28 revealed that spiritual calling was positively related to authentic followership, p < .001, that spiritual calling was positively associated with authentic followership, p < .001, but that other gender, age, education, religion, and years did not play critical roles in any of these measured relationships. Therefore, positive relationships between the sense of spiritual calling and authentic followership were validated in American Korean workers. This study contributed to finding the positive relationship between spiritual calling and authentic followership by extending the GLOBE project and follower-centered leadership.

Key Words: Spiritual Calling, Authentic Followership, the GLOBE project, and Multiple Regression Analysis.

A Phenomenological Analysis of the Effects of Leader Toxicity: Examining the Lived Experiences of U.S. Naval Officers Exposed to Toxic Leadership

Emmanuel Mamaril | 2023


The purpose of this dissertation was to understand the perspectives of followers/subordinates exposed and subjected to toxic leadership within the United States (U.S.) Navy. Specifically, this study centered on the lived experiences of U.S. Navy junior officers with leader toxicity and how they coped with such circumstances. The goals of this study were to add to the growing dark leadership literature with an emphasis on specifically contributing to the U.S. military toxic leadership literature from the U.S. Navy perspective. A phenomenological inquiry design was employed to capture the study participants’ perceptions and descriptions regarding their experiences with toxic leadership. To further investigate the study’s chosen phenomenon of understanding U.S. Navy junior officers’ experiences with toxic leadership and how they coped with the leader toxicity, an in-depth review of existing studies regarding dark leadership, toxic leadership, and subordinate coping strategies was conducted. The in-depth review of the available literature regarding these topics helped inform the generation of the study’s two research questions that consisted of the following: (a) What are the lived experiences of U.S. Navy junior officers with toxic leadership? (b) How do U.S. Navy junior officers cope with leaders and supervisors who exhibit actions, behaviors, and conduct associated with toxic leadership? In order to collect data to answer these two research questions, an open-ended format interview guide that contained 11 questions was applied during the interviews with the five study participants. Applying an iterative coding process to the collected data from the interviews yielded eight overall themes that provided insights in helping answer the study’s two research questions. Four of the themes described the lived experiences of the participants with toxic leadership as debilitating, negative, relentless, and resilience building. The other four themes explained how the participants coped with the leader toxicity through reframing, responding directly, avoidance, and seeking help. This study provided insights for U.S. Navy leaders to explore that may contribute to the emergence of toxic leadership and offered suggestions for subordinates and victims on how to manage challenges associated with toxic leadership.

Identifying Factors Influencing the Choice of Full-Time Ministry as a Vocation

Mark L. Milioni | 2023


The purpose of this qualitative analysis was to determine the identifiable factors in the life and environment of those that choose the vocation of full-time ministry. Churches in the United States are experiencing a concerning decline in the number of pastors available to fill their pulpits. Is it possible to understand better how God works in lives to encourage men and women to pursue a life of ministry? Can the factors surrounding the experience of those that have experienced a calling be identified? Can these factors help determine the environment in which God works to call a person? Can we better understand how God is preparing a person for a calling? If these questions can be answered, then perhaps the decline in the number of people choosing ministry as a vocation can be stemmed. The researcher sought to explore the phenomena of the environment in which specific influences may impact the choice of ministry as a career. The researcher employed a qualitative study to answer these questions. The primary method of gathering data for this study was semi-structured interviews. Twelve successful career ministry leaders who met the study criteria were asked eight questions in face-to-face narrative interviews. Evidence was gathered through these interviews to discover common themes, phenomena, and environmental influences that led to the participants’ choice of ministry as a career. The collected data was analyzed using multiple cycles of coding. Four primary environmental influences were identified that impact the choice of ministry as a career choice: Godly Family and Home Environment, Church is the Center of Family Culture, Mentors that Show Interest and Give Encouragement Toward Ministry, and Significant Spiritual Experiences. This study can contribute to understanding and identifying those with a life that God may be preparing for His service.

A Qualitative Investigation of Organizational Communication During Change

Chad Matthew Minor | 2023


There is currently a gap in the literature surrounding organizational communication and its impact on follower emotions and workplace efficiency. This phenomenological qualitative inquiry investigated the organizational change of Christ Community Church, how it was communicated, and the impact that the communication style had on follower emotion and workplace efficiency. This research benefits organizations navigating through change, the impact change has on followers, and how organizations can effectively communicate change. This research identifies how the style and method of communicating change impacts followers’ emotions and workplace efficiency. This qualitative analysis determines if various organizational communication methods negatively affect followers’ emotions and workplace efficiency. Through snowball sampling, the research demonstrates data saturation that highlights the outcome of ineffective communication and its negative impact on followers’ emotions and workplace efficiency. This analysis provides literature on organizational communication, change, and followership while determining the importance of future research on how communication impacts followers. This phenomenological analysis provides organizations with research about the method of organizational communication during change and gives them the ability to identify follower emotions during change, thus allowing them to develop a positive organizational culture.

Mentorship Praxis: A Case Study of Regent University’s School of Business & Leadership Executive Mentor Program

Brian T. Moore | 2023

Abstract Purpose. This case study aimed to explore and explain the praxis and outcomes of contemporary mentorship and servant leadership in Regent University’s School of Business & Leadership Executive Mentor Program (EMP) from the perspectives of volunteer mentors and student mentees. Methodology. I used quantitative and qualitative approaches in a one-phase convergent mixed methods design to simultaneously collect quantitative and qualitative data for analysis and comparison. The quantitative approach included (a) nonexperimental and cross-sectional survey design, (b) internet survey data collection, (c) EMP mentor and mentee populations, (d) single-stage sampling procedures, (e) nonprobability sampling, (f) the Essential Servant Leadership Behaviors (ESLB) instrument, (g) independent t test for analysis of variance of mentor and mentee groups, and (h) single-sample t test for frequency analysis of groups. The qualitative approach included a phenomenological design with purposive sampling and semistructured interview methods. I analyzed data in a three-phase cycle: (a) first cycle Exploratory Coding methods, (b) second cycle Cumulative Coding methods, and (c) the development of first and second cycle coding tables for comparison, analysis, and theme refinement. Findings and Results. This case study (a) revealed three emergent servant leadership attitudinal, behavioral, and performance outcome themes; (b) exposed the need for improvements within the EMP; (c) recommended the need to modify the ESLB for testing and universal application; and (d) presented the emergence of the mentorship succession theory (MST). First, exploring the praxis of the EMP revealed the emergence of three overlapping and integrated servant leadership themes: (a) attitudinal outcomes (feelings and emotions), (b) behavioral outcomes (actions), and (c) performance outcomes (gains or improvements). EMP mentors and mentees perceived high levels of servant leadership attitudinal, behavioral, and performance outcomes while at the same time noting areas for improvement. Second, the ESLB instrument had two limitations: workplace and leaders-rating focus. Future research testing and validating the modified ESLB could lead to a one-factor servant leadership instrument with counterpart and self-ratings for universal application. Third, this dissertation presented the emergence of the MST. More specifically, with leadership as a means of succession, MST is a succession process whereby one generation perpetuates the next through servant leadership. First, succession is the beginning and continuation of generational groups. Second, the MST process is not bound to personal characteristics, traits, or designated leaders. The MST is the process of applying servant leadership attitudes and behaviors for succession. Third, generation under the MST construct encompasses groups to include, but is not limited to, individuals, families, organizations, nations, and mankind. Fourth and final, servant leadership in the context of MST is a system of leadership built on timeless biblical principles from which all other leadership theories spring: Servant leadership actuates succession. With this in mind, more research is needed to explore, explain, and validate the MST.

The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Successful Succession in Philanthropic Family Organizations

J. Todd Nichols | 2023


Successful succession in philanthropic family organizations was analyzed through the lens of transformational leadership theory. The methodology used was a hermeneutic guided interview approach. Nine participants from four philanthropic family organizations participated in the research. In vivo coding, based in grounded theory methodology, was used to analyze each narrative. The coding stages follow: open coding (to see what themes emerge), axial coding (to ascertain the linkages between these themes), and selective coding (to make sense of the megathemes and examine the work from a holistic view). Eighteen noteworthy codes with three subcodes were identified. From these codes, three megathemes emerged: values, factors shaping succession, and leadership. Selective coding identified three primary themes: spirituality, strength of family relationships (loving, nurturing relationships, and communication), and succession as an elemental and organic process. Finally, these three megathemes were analyzed through the lens of transformational leadership theory attributes of individualize consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence. The analysis found that aspects of transformational leadership were observed in each philanthropic family organization. However, transformational leadership was not the only leadership style identified. Ultimately, successful succession occurred through the strength of family relationships, aspects of spirituality based in orthodoxy or orthopraxy, and that succession was an elemental and organic process.

Leadership Presence Within Transformational Pastoral Leadership: An Exegesis of Matthew 16

Doreen F. Oconnor | 2023


This study examined transformational pastoral leadership and ecclesial leadership presence through a sociorhetorical analysis of Matthew 16. The study of transformational pastoral leadership was derived from the literature on transformational leadership and distinguished through studies specific to the ecclesial context. Furthermore, leadership presence literature was reviewed, as was case study research on the burgeoning field of ecclesial leadership presence to establish behaviors and skill sets recognized as increasing perceptions of leadership effectiveness. The research applied exegetical methodologies of sociorhetorical criticism and included rhetorolect analyses, as well as analysis of the textural layers. The exegetical study provided data to assess support for the constructs of transformational pastoral leadership, including idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration within the ecclesial context. Furthermore, the data were compared to behaviors and skills recognized as contributing to principles of ecclesial leadership presences. The exegesis supported the four constructs of transformational pastoral leadership and provided guidance in the application of these constructs to the modern ecclesial context. The study provided limited support for the behaviors and skills that support ecclesial leadership presence as a method for increasing perceptions of leadership effectiveness and furthermore recommends additional exegetical study to develop operational definitions that will guide the expectations of these behaviors and skills.

Leadership in Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (LCMS) Universities: An Exploration of Perceived Organizational Support and Motivation to Lead in Relation to Gender, Marital Status, and Parental Status

Kellie Playter | 2023


There is a lack of women in leadership in organizations worldwide, but especially in Christian higher education (Longman & Anderson, 2016). While some research has been conducted to better understand this phenomenon in Christian universities, only one other study to date has examined gender differences in Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (LCMS) universities that are part of the largest Protestant school system in the United States (Concordia University System [CUS], n.d.). With student bodies becoming increasingly diverse, it is even more important to have women and diversity among presidents and senior leadership because “leadership must reflect the voices of those served” (Hsu, 2021, p. 35). The purpose of this quantitative study was to better understand why there is a lack of women in senior leadership roles across the CUS, which is overseen by the LCMS, and compare perceptions of perceived organizational support (POS) and motivation to lead (MTL) by gender. In addition, marital status and parental status were considered to see if there was also a significant difference in POS and MTL within these groups. An online survey was distributed to full-time faculty and staff at three LCMS universities in the CUS. The data were analyzed through several t tests. While it was hypothesized that there would be significant differences in POS and MTL by gender, no support was found. There was also no significant differences in POS and MTL by parental status and marital status except for one significant difference between married and unmarried faculty and social-normative MTL. This finding demonstrates that married employees feel a stronger sense of duty to be leaders in their LCMS institutions. Other findings and directions for future research are discussed. While the results may not be generalizable to all Christian universities, it can help the seven LCMS universities across the United States better understand gender dynamics among their faculty and staff and help advance more women into senior leadership roles in the future.

Leader-Follower Development: The Relationship Between Followers’ Perception of a Leaders’ Implicit Followership Theory and Psychological Empowerment 

Lance Patrick Reichenberger | 2023


In the post-COVID-19 workplace, the devastation to the supply chain and corporate boards turned upside down as the world went home to work. Understanding and nurturing the leader-follower relationship is required for organizations to survive such challenges. It is time to put the followers first instead of the shareholders, as the followers bring success to the shareholder. This is the first empirical study focused on the human resource side of the business by expanding the critical follower-centered theories. The implicit followership theory (IFT) and concept of psychological empowerment (PE) can change how organizations attract, maintain, and grow their teams. The current dissertation was designed and undertaken to prove a relationship between IFT and PE to determine how to psychologically empower followers through a thorough understanding and growth of the post-millennial generations. This dissertation was designed as a quantitative correlation study with 24 hypotheses tested. The dissertation required a minimum of 128 respondents, as estimated using G*Power. A complex SurveyMonkey questionnaire was created and distributed via targeted emails, social media campaigns, and Slack direct to leaders and managers in the technology industry. The managers completed and IFT Likert scale instrument for each of their followers they chose to include in the research, and the followers completed a PE Likert scale instrument survey. To statistically aggregate the data received from the surveys, I used IBM’s SPSS software. The results from SPSS showed that a few variables and hypotheses were statistically significant and correlated, ranging from -.3 to .92 with a p < .05 within the Good Citizen, Conformity, and Insubordination of the IFT. These findings proved that the leader’s perception of their followers and the follower’s direct report of their PE are associated. The results determined that organizations and academia can benefit from the study, catapulting followership and leadership homogeny.

Self-Awareness and Development of Leader Self-Identification During Ascension to Judgeship: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Black Women Judicial Leaders

Meghan N. Rivers | 2023


In 2022, Black women occupy a special place in the American judiciary and their occupation, leadership, and relevance as judges, beyond a mere demographic head count, are largely unexamined and misinterpreted. Within an interpretative phenomenological study of nine Black judicial leading women serving as active state or federal judges, this study answered three inquiries: What are the lived experiences that contributed to the success of Black women’s ascendancy from attorney to judicial leadership (judgeship), what factors contribute to the engagement experience and cognitive framework of Black women judges in their respective leadership roles in the judiciary, and to what degree does the culture within the judiciary and values within the legal profession impact the career progression of Black women? The literature review revealed that this investigation serves as a genesis for thorough empirical investigation of judiciary leaders representing this marginalized demographic. The findings indicated that these unique judicial leaders exhibited strong leader identity recognizing exceptionality within formative years. Established and realized self-identity of both leadership and minority identity, along with a strong desire to serve, exist as primary themes within this investigation. This and other nuanced thematic findings are presented within four categories: (a) the disposition, (b) the periphery, (c) the robe, and (d) the relationships. Overall, this study revealed multiple factors influencing Black women’s lived experiences of ascension from the attorney to state or federal judgeships.

An Investigation of Authenticity in Judges 4

DeLoria Coleman Savoy | 2023


Important to Christianity is developing an understanding of the engagement of biblical context and contemporary relevance. Interpreting Scripture responsibly, studying the Word of God faithfully is necessary for gaining wisdom in applying biblical truth to living present-day. Authentic leadership, along with authentic followership, is taking space in present-day scholarly discussion. The social and cultural, moral, and ethical climate conditions are declining, and the well-being of one is not a consideration of another. Much of that decline is being blamed on modern leader behavior and people’s dismissal of basic concern for each other. This study investigated Judges 4 for the contemporary principles of authenticity as demonstrated by the behavior of the characters Deborah, Barak, and Jael. Judges 4 is a story of individuals acting out of authenticity in contradiction to their societal role customs for purposes greater than their individual preservation. The investigative process employed socio-rhetorical criticism as the analytic to organize and argue for the presence of the authenticity construct in biblical times. The investigation yielded inference of individual authenticity in character behavior in Judges 4.

Paradox and Transition: Exploring Women Veteran’s Leadership Identity Construction From Military Leader to Civilian Leader

Amelia Frances Underwood | 2023


The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological research study was to explore the lived experiences of women veteran leaders and how they constructed and negotiated their leadership identity as they transitioned from leaders in active-duty military service to leaders in the civilian workplace. This study’s intersectional approach investigated the lived experiences of five noncommissioned officer women veterans and five officer female veteran leaders who currently or have served in a civilian leadership position. I applied Schlossberg’s (1981) 4S’s of transition (situations, self-directed actions, supports, and strategies) to better understand women veterans’ perceptions of their transitional experiences from military leader to civilian leader. Eight themes emerged in this study that addressed how the military-to-civilian (MTC) transition process positively and negatively impacted the participants’ perceptions of their leadership identity. As women combat veterans, all of the participants in this study expressed great pride in their military service and readily claimed their veteran status within their civilian work environments. The participants identified positive impacts of MTC to include valuable relationship-building with other military women and women veterans and an increased desire to help other women in the workplace. The participants experienced a multitude of struggles following MTC to include homelessness, posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol addiction, legal trouble, serious health issues, grieving the loss of a spouse and fellow servicemembers, financial difficulties, and feeling a sense of loss that deteriorated their perceptions of themselves as leaders. The participants shared how their MTC transition offered them new insights into their leadership identity to include increased levels of empathy and understanding of others while also recognizing the need to establish personal and professional boundaries, speak up more, delegate more, and regulate their emotions. The findings indicated that women veterans require additional time, networking skills training, and opportunities to network such as virtual and in-person conferences before, during, and after MTC. Recommendations included civilian organizations efforts to recognize women veteran’s military contributions while also building communities of support for transitioning women veterans in their workplaces.

Toward Understanding the Mental Drivers of Transformational Leadership Behaviors

 Megan Weinkauf | 2023


Understanding what drives transformational leadership (TL) behavior is a growing interest for researchers (Bauman, 2013; Gardner et al., 2011; Hurst, 2012; North, 2017; North et al., 2019; Rock, 2010; Yukl, 2012). To answer the call, this dissertation specifically sought to understand the mental drivers of TL behavior. Downtown (1973) sparked a movement to develop the theory of TL stemming from dissatisfaction with charismatic leaders’ actions not aligning with their words. Burns (1978), Bass (1985), and then Bass and Avolio (1992) answered the call of Downtown and built out the TL theory and framework. Hartman (1967) developed a way to understand thought patterns through value theory and the Hartman Value Profile. Blanchard (2003) built upon the work of Hartman and developed the Habit Finder Assessment, which provides a way to understand how mental drivers support or sabotage your behavioral efforts. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (5X Short) in the study assessed TL behaviors and the Habit Finder Assessment to understand the mental drivers. In the hypotheses testing, each category of the Habit Finder (My Dreams, My Joy, My Self, People, Work, and Structure) was analyzed through Pearson correlation to determine a relationship. The relationship between TL and the Habit Finder People construct was β = .18 and p = .03. Although statistically weak, it is still significant due to the other factors in evaluating the complexities of human behavior and mental drivers (Pearl & Mackenzie, 2018). The amount of variance HF-People accounts for predicts or explains in TL behaviors unique to itself is significant. That means the HF-People score explains something in TL that the other five areas of Dreams, Joy, Self, Work and Structure did not explain. Thus, HF-People uniquely explained a significant amount of variance in TL behaviors. Additionally, the People category of the Habit Finder provided a level of correlation with TL. Although the other categories of the Habit Finder did not have a direct correlation, each habit within every category impacts the habits of thinking about people.

Diverse Models of Change Agency: Sitting at the Table of the Black Church

Lionel Frazier White II | 2023

Abstract This qualitative study explored the radical and revolutionary change agency of the Black church, looking to understand better the church’s impact on its congregation and community. Because research often selects who is readily available or who is preferred, this study focused on identifying the Black church’s diverse, underresearched perspectives. Lastly, the goal was to not summon the church to the table of research but for research to take a seat at the table of the Black church. It is enlightening, in recalling the traditions of the Black church, that qualitative study allows for the tradition of the testimony to be a vehicle for scientific research. It will be interesting if the use in a secular purpose will revive the practice in the religious context.

An Examination of Participative Leadership Theory in the Advice Given to Moses by Jethro: A Socio-Rhetorical Analysis of Exodus 18:13-27 and Deuteronomy 1:9-18

Shomari L. White, Sr. | 2023


This study examines participative leadership theory and the leadership adjustments made by Moses in Exodus 18:13–27 and Deuteronomy 1:9–18. Socio-rhetorical interpretation was utilized as the tool of exegetical investigation. Participative leadership creates an avenue for leaders to share power and delegate decision-making to subordinates. When organizations share leadership opportunities, it enhances job satisfaction, organizational buy-in, and proper citizenship and behavior. As Moses led the children of Israel, their administrative, judicial, and organizational structure was unsustainable. Moses acted as the sole authority and judge for all things. At Sinai, Jethro advised Moses concerning his poor administrative, judicial, and organizational systems and alerted him that leadership burnout and follower fatigue would soon follow. The Deuteronomy section of the pericope provides Moses’ reflection and transparency concerning his burdensome leadership duties. The research analyzes the pericope to look at how Moses adjusted his leadership. Jethro gave Moses specific instructions detailing how to choose participants to assist in leadership properly.

Cultivation of Instantaneous Leaders: A Phenomenological Study of Military Leaders’ Cultural Acceptance in Civilian Organizations

Timothy Michael White | 2023


This study contributed to the betterment of the organizational leadership development process by examining the military leader transitionary process and the experiences of separated military leaders within their follow-on civilian positions. The results shed light on the critical elements of successful integration practices. These realizations can alleviate veterans’ challenges and offer civilian organizations a leadership development alternative that can decrease the cost of leadership recapitalization, increase the quality of their organizational workforce, and realize a more robust, effective, and efficient organizational structure. This phenomenological examination revealed and established veteran leaders’ experiences in their transition. The purposefully selected sample included eight retired military leaders from the U.S. Department of Defense, each with 20 years or more of military experience, who completed comprehensive interview. The findings generated a satisfactory saturation level through the use of in vivo, concept, and comparative coding, resulting in 20 codes arranged into the six themes of culture challenge, culturally disenfranchised, culturally stable, develop cohesive organization, develop cross-cultural education, and learned understanding. The responses indicated that even though cultural acceptance exists, a greater bias exists at the civilian organization’s supervisor, peer, subordinate, and overall cultural levels. Further, the responses indicated a bias by the veterans toward civilian organizations, which exacerbated the veterans’ civilian organizational disenfranchisement. The responses also indicated that the cultural acceptance occurred due to a learned understanding of the differing cultures and that civilian organizations could benefit from adopting a few military traditions to generate veteran understanding and organizational esprit de corps. This study represents a significant contribution to the body of knowledge by addressing and partially filling a research gap, providing civilian organizations with the information to address glaring inadequacies in their cultural biases toward veteran leaders in order to render solutions to the challenge. In doing so, a civilian organization could provide a vast supply of readily trained and operationally tested leaders to augment its leadership departments and prepare for future organizational changes.

Relationship Between Followership and Psychological Empowerment Among Church Employees

Zachary Whitt | 2023


There is much leadership research focusing on the leader, but not as much centering on the follower. An understanding of followership is a critical component of successful leadership and will contribute to an organization’s success; however, there has been a lack of focused study in the field of implicit followship theories (IFTs), particularly among nonsecular organizations and populations. Furthermore, IFTs remain primarily an academic concept that is rarely considered for nonacademic use. A broader understanding of IFTs could lead to an improved understanding of the interconnection of leadership and followership. Therefore, the purpose of the current quantitative study was to examine whether a correlation exists between followership types and psychological empowerment among evangelical church employees. The sample included 69 evangelical church employees in North Carolina who completed an online survey. The findings revealed that critical independent thinking is associated with competence and impact. Church employees who exhibited greater independent critical thinking reported greater competence and impact. Additionally, active participation is associated with meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact. Church employees who reported more active participation reported more meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact. Some of these correlations are weak, however, and should therefore be interpreted with caution. The current study added to the literature through an examination of IFTs for nonacademic use. The findings are consistent with Kelly’s (1992) theory, as well as the conclusions of previous studies. Identifying the distinction between exemplary and alienated followers may be important for understanding the association between individual critical thinking and psychological empowerment.

Narcissistic Leadership and the Pharisees’ Use of Leader-Member Exchange: A Sociorhetorical Study of Matthew 23

Kourtney M. Williams | 2023

Abstract The research examined the role of the narcissistic leadership, leader–member exchange theory, and collective narcissism in the context of the leadership of the Pharisees in Matthew 23. The study utilized sociorhetorical analysis on the content to observe the relationship between the Pharisees’ leadership style and narcissistic leadership theory. The research revealed positive convergence of the constructs. Specifically, the results demonstrated six themes for the Pharisees’ leadership: impression management, recruitment, imposition of societal rules, abusive supervision, impression management, and follower inhibition. These themes produced five principles for biblical leaders to implement in their organizations. Limitations and future research are discussed.

Examining the Role of Courageous Followership in Avoiding or Overcoming the Dark Side of Leadership: A Socio-Rhetorical Analysis of Jeremiah 23

Mark Atterson | 2022


Organizations can naively embrace visionary leadership without understanding the dark side of leadership, which surfaces at the highest levels of government, non-profit organizations, and for-profit organizations. The dark side of leadership can perpetuate toxic, inactive followership and lead to tragic results in organizations and society. In the current study, the researcher explored Jeremiah 23 and sought to better understand the role of courageous followership in avoiding or overcoming the dark side of leadership. The current research fills gaps in the literature concerning more socio-rhetorical studies in the Hebrew Scriptures, especially concerning organizational leadership constructs. Jeremiah 23 is an antecedent passage for many of the shepherd metaphors found in the New Testament. The pericope provides a window into ancient Judah’s fall into toxicity and the divine solution of YHWH. The dark side of leadership and courageous followership are theories that surfaced in the passage. Because of the gaps in the literature regarding these theories, this research provided new and fresh insight into the Jeremiah 23 pericope. The researcher sought to answer three research questions. First, what does a socio-rhetorical analysis of Jeremiah 23 uncover concerning the dark side of leadership and courageous followership? Second, what is the role of courageous followership in avoiding or overcoming the dark side of leadership from Jeremiah 23? Third, how do biblical models of leadership and followership, discovered in Jeremiah 23, compare and contrast with contemporary models of the dark side of leadership and courageous followership? The researcher utilized Robbins’ (1996b) socio-rhetorical textural method for analysis adjusted for the time and place of Judah, pending the fall to Babylon. The analysis included an inner, inter, social and cultural, ideological, and sacred textural analysis of Jeremiah 23. The results of the analyzed data are recorded in Chapter 4. The researcher concludes Chapter 5 with a discussion of the data, answering why this study is relevant and valuable along with practical implications for secular and ecclesial organizations.

The Effect of Moral Development and Moral Identity on Integrity

Tom Clark | 2022


This study assessed two personal level concepts—moral development and moral identity—to provide greater insight into how they influence moral integrity, with the ultimate goal of illuminating organizational effectiveness in teaching integrity and developing honesty and integrity in emerging leaders. In the end, the study addressed one of the most pressing leadership issues today: individual character development. The study followed a cross-sectional, quantitative, survey-based approach using a combined, three-part instrument to gather data from college-level participants enrolled in an established leader development program. This approach provided relative ease and efficiency in collecting data from numerous participants to test the hypotheses expeditiously and avoid biases. The combined instrument included the Defining Issues Test-2, which measures moral development; the Moral Identity Measure, which measures moral identity; and the Integrity Scale, which measures integrity. The findings supported the research hypotheses, indicating that a leader’s moral development and moral identity have a positive effect on the moral integrity that the leader exhibits. The paper concludes by recommending practical steps to enhance moral development and internalized moral identity—the strongest predictor of integrity based on the findings—and how integrity is taught and developed as a character virtue in leadership development programs.

Leadership Standards of Excellence: A Qualitative Case Study of One High-Performing, High-Poverty Philadelphia High School

Priscilla J. DuBose | 2022


Julia R. Masterman has been one of the best-performing public secondary schools in Philadelphia and across the nation. Its high performance has exceeded expectations despite the challenges faced by the school, especially the location. The school is in a high-poverty neighborhood. This research, therefore, examined the impact of leadership on the school’s performance. The literature review section shows the direct correlation between leadership and achieving the set goals and objectives. Some of the most used leadership theories in high schools and the education sector, in general, include authentic leadership theory and the theory of academic performance. The qualitative study collected data using semi structured interview questions. Twelve participants answered six questions each. These participants were from the leader and nonleader levels: six from each group. After analyzing the data using NVivo software and the thematic data analysis method, 25 codes were identified, which were incorporated within 14 themes. These 14 themes concentrated on various issues, including the importance of prioritizing the process, supporting the teachers, collaborating and communicating effectively with the community and parents, and optimizing the school’s resources. All these were made possible by the leadership of Julia R. Masterman. The research is, however, not foolproof, as exhibited by the identified limitations. These limitations are a guiding factor to the recommendations given for future research.

When the Goal is Perfection: Exploring Leadership Styles and Perfectionism

Kristen Marie Estorge | 2022


This study was designed to examine the relationship between leadership styles and perfectionism among coaches, gym owners, and judging officials at public and private gymnastics clubs throughout the Southeast region of the United States. The participants were considered leaders according to standards implied by Gandolfi and Stone (2016). The Multi-Factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5XShort (Bass & Avolio, 1995) and the Multi-Dimensional Perfectionism Scale (Hewitt & Flett, 1991) were administered to 31 male and female individuals active in the gymnastics community in the southeastern United States. Gender, organizational tenure, organizational type (public or private), organizational profit orientation, for-profit and nonprofit organizational status, and organizational status/role were also obtained. Positive significant relationships (p < .05) were found between transactional leaders and other-oriented perfectionism and the transactional leadership subscales of contingent reward and management by exception (active). Moreover, negative significant relationships (p < .05) were also found between the leader’s identification with self-oriented perfectionism and one of the subscales of passive–avoidant leadership, namely laissez-faire. In conclusion, transactional leaders (Bass & Avolio, 1995) are more likely to possess other-oriented perfectionism (Hewitt & Flett, 1991), whereas self-oriented perfectionists are less likely to perform as transactional (laissez-faire) leaders in their gymnastics role.

The Amplification of Organizational Virtuousness Through Community at Work: Impact on Energy and Identity

Perry E. Geue | 2022


The intent of this study was to investigate how virtuousness in the workplace is amplified to characterize the organization as a whole as evidenced by its effect on the energy and identity of employees. Cameron, Mora, Leutscher, and Calarco’s (2011) positive practices, comprised of six dimensions (respect, care, support, inspiration, meaning, and forgiveness), were used to measure organizational virtuousness, while energy and identity were measured, respectively, by work engagement and organizational identification. The mechanism for amplification explored in the study was a form of social capital comprised of high-quality connections between employees or the formation of a community at work. Thus, in this nonexperimental, cross-sectional, quantitative study, the mediation by community at work of the positive relationship between organizational virtuousness and the outcomes of work engagement and organizational identification was investigated by administering a questionnaire survey at Memorial Hospital in Jacksonville, Florida. Controlled for in the study were gender, age, job tenure, autonomy, and positive work-related identity. Baron and Kenny’s (1986) method was used to test for mediation. Results showed no mediation by community at work of the relationship between organizational virtuousness (or its subdimensions) and work engagement, while the relationship between organizational virtuousness (and its subdimensions) and organizational identification, though not significant, showed inconsistent (Kenny, 2018; MacKinnon, Fairchild, & Fritz, 2007) or indirect (Hair et al., 2021; Zhao, Lynch, & Chen, 2010) mediation by community at work (except for meaning). Interestingly, both the meaning dimension of organizational virtuousness, and the control variables of autonomy and positive work-related identity, were positively related to both of the outcomes—work engagement and organizational identification. The findings suggest that the formation of high-quality connections in the workplace facilitate the amplification of organizational virtuousness and its effect on employee identity within the organization, while employees’ experience of autonomy and meaning at work have a positive effect on both their energy and identity, but though related to positive relationships in the workplace, these relationships are not instrumental for this effect.

Examining Agape and its Leadership Implications: A Sociorhetorical Analysis of 1 Corinthians 13 and Philemon

Trevon Gross | 2022


This study examined the agape construct explained in 1 Corinthians 13 and demonstrated in the Book of Philemon. The project reviewed the research history of love across various disciplines and how the concept of love, altruism, and charity function within the ethical, spiritual, servant, and responsible leadership theories. The research used the exegetical tools of the historical–critical method and sociorhetorical analysis. The data were interpreted to identify traits of agape found in 1 Corinthians 13 and exemplified in the Book of Philemon. Further, the biblical concept of agape critiqued the use of love within the emerging leadership theories. The study results yielded eight themes and 15 traits of agape. When applied to the Letter to Philemon, Paul’s interaction with Onesimus and Philemon aligns with many of the traits and themes elucidated in 1 Corinthians 13, which suggests Paul lived the agape lifestyle that he taught to others. Agape overrode the societal titles and hierarchy to create a new familial relationship and a new social structure—the beloved community. The four research questions were answered by this study and future possibilities for research are proposed.

Unexpected Virtual Leadership: U.S. Federal Government Internet Technology and Cybersecurity Leaders’ Perspectives of Trust, Communication, and Productivity During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Amy S. Hamilton | 2022


In March 2020, a significant portion of the workforce in the United States transitioned from physical to virtual work environments practically overnight. Leaders were forced to change how they communicated with their teams as meeting around conference room tables was no longer an option. No longer able to account for a member physically being present in the office as working, leaders had to reassess their trust in staff to carry out work. Despite the change in the work environment, work deliverables that were defined in physical space still needed to be delivered in virtual space and performance still needed to be measured. This phenomenological study explored how leaders adapted their communication, maintained and developed trust, and drove performance during the pandemic in a virtual environment. This research found four main themes: pandemic, geography/time, mission, and leadership/management. This study provides insight into the stress and chaotic experience of information technology and cybersecurity leaders in the U.S. Government during the pandemic.

Follower Experience During Toxic Reorganization

Dwayn Hanford | 2022


This phenomenological qualitative research study centered on the lived experiences of followers during a toxic reorganization with the aim of determining follower importance, emotions, and overall potential damage to the organization a toxic leader can bring. The understanding of these lived experiences highlights new variables in the leader-follower phenomenon. This research also adds to the understanding of the impact of a toxic leader’s influence on the organizational restructure from the follower’s perspective. The researcher sought to answer three research questions: (a) In a toxic leader environment, what relevance and value do followers perceive their input contributes to the organizational restructure, creation of new processes, and organizational focus? (b) What impact or difference do long-term legacy followers and short-term temporary followers have on follower satisfaction with the redesigned organizational effectiveness? (c) How do toxic leadership actions during a reorganization, perceived by followers, contribute to follower assessment of the final organizational structure and effectiveness? The theoretical concepts of situational leadership theory, transactional and transformational leadership theory, toxic leadership, and followership, reorganization and change, groupthink, the Abilene Paradox, and organizational climate and culture were used as a baseline for this study. The participants’ responses to open-ended interview questions indicated that a leader identified as toxic conducted reorganizational practices in a manner that would serve his own purpose with little regard to follower concerns. The responses of temporary and legacy employees regarding their leader noted similar observations similar regardless of employee status. In addition, the reorganization degraded the final organizational structure and effectiveness. The findings have value for any leader who seeks to understand follower concerns during a reorganization under a toxic leader. The results of this study are also intended to provide additional insights into the followership phenomenon: if leaders can only lead because followers give them authority, why do followers provide power to a toxic leader?

Solidarity as an Antecedent of Consensus Decision-Making: A Mixed-Mode Study

Susan K. Hares | 2022


Research by Koster and Sanders (2006) into alternatives to Organizational Citizen Behavior (OCB) found solidarity was a possible alternate concept to OCB. This longitudinal mixed-mode study examined whether solidarity and conflict were antecedents to effective team consensus decision-making in the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG), a virtual top management team (TMT) of the IETF. The IETF is a standards development organization (SDO) that has developed Internet technology standards since 1987. This research examined the IESG consensus decision-making in the 28 years of consensus decision-making from 1989 to 2016 from five different viewpoints (three different types of historical data and two surveys). Historiometric best practices guided the collection and IPA analysis of the historical data and the open-ended questions from the surveys. IPA analysis examined 3,458 group consensus decisions for group behaviors, with over 39.186 individual behavioral patterns consisting of 1 or more of the behaviors studied. The researcher surveyed all IESG members in 2013 and 2017. Every step of the five-strand methodology used triangulation (data triangulation, data collection, method triangulation in the analysis process [within-method and between-method], and theory triangulation). This web of triangulation used a majority strategy to resolve differences. This research concluded that solidarity was an antecedent to effective team consensus decision-making. Increases in solidarity behaviors in the TMT might increase the effectiveness of consensus decisions in team consensus decision-making. This research examined conflict based on the Jehn’s (1999) Intragroup Conflict Scale, concluding that conflict (task and relationship) correlated to effective consensus decision-making. However, the exact nature between conflict and effective consensus decision-making was complex. Relationship conflict was minimized in the publicly available IETF historical records, slightly dampened in the survey, and expressed in-depth in a set of open-ended questions on conflict. Future researchers may continue to examine the interplay of solidarity and conflict in the IESG and other TMTs in other organizations.

Examining the Relationship Between Strengths Development and Implicit Leadership

Shelley Renee Harrell | 2022


This study expanded on the current theoretical understanding of implicit leadership theories and the theory of strengths development. This study combined the implicit leadership theory of Offermann and Coats (2018), which includes nine factors associated with good leaders (dedication, creativity, charisma, well-groomed, sensitivity, tyranny, masculinity, strength, and intelligence), with the theory of employee strengths development, which groups 34 talent themes grouped into four domains (executing, influencing, relationship-building, and strategic thinking; Rath, 2008). Four major hypotheses were tested to assess the nature of the relationship between the two theories. In addition, employees’ gender, educational level, and length of tenure at university were used as control variables. The relationship of the four StrengthsFinder domains with the nine implicit leadership theory factors were investigated in a sample of employees of a West Coast university in the United States. There were 159 (n = 159) valid responses. The results revealed that dedication was significantly larger for employees in the executing strengths domain compared to the other three domains. Creativity was not found to be significantly different when compared across the four strengths domain. Charisma was negatively related to the strategic and executing domains.

Generation Z is the Boss Baby: What Are Generation Z’s Thoughts on Entrepreneurship?

Laquita Joyner-McGraw | 2022


The researcher of this qualitative phenomenological study aimed to gain a comprehensive understanding of the essence of the meanings derived from the experiences of a group of Generation Z adult business students enrolled in a public college located in Connecticut. The conduct of this research focused on how these Gen Z business students perceive success in relation to entrepreneurial leadership. The study was conducted to gather information about innovative and emerging technologies, strategies, programs, and training this generational cohort has used in order to become successful with their entrepreneurial endeavors. Drawing on previous studies, the researcher’s intent was to provide deeper knowledge and understanding to the literature-specific concerning educational programs, entrepreneurial training, and innovative resources of the era, which could enhance Generation Z entrepreneurs’ toolkit with the knowledge, experience, and motivation they need to be successful. The findings of the study suggest that it is valuable to understand the phenomenon of leadership and entrepreneurship when Generation Z, as new entrepreneurs, becomes the “Boss Baby” and creates novel entrepreneurship education opportunities with a mentor component. This phenomenological study concluded that a Generation Z entrepreneur (a) possesses an entrepreneurial mindset, (b) utilizes technology innovation for financial freedom to drive change, and (c) leads and inspires people to take the right course of action. Generation Z members’ definition of successful entrepreneurship demonstrated this entrepreneurial mindset and skills, as they described the importance of using innovative educational platforms to generate new ideas, reflect upon these ideas, and take a course of action on them in the future with the assistance of mentors. Future research can further help develop the Boss Baby principle by integrating social entrepreneurial leadership theory, experiential learning theory, and generation theory, which were the three major theoretical frameworks that guided the conduct of this phenomenological study.

Leading in Times of Crisis and Complexity: A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences of Leaders at Small Historically Black Colleges and Universities During COVID-19

David Mahatha | 2022


Historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) in the United States, particularly small HBCUs, are no strangers to crises and unforeseen challenges. Through various challenges, including financial instability, low student enrollment, and accreditation challenges and crises—many beyond leadership’s control—most HBCUs have been able to weather the storm and endure. However, the global COVID-19 pandemic created a significantly unique and organizational-changing experience for these institutions and extraordinary lived experiences for those who served in leadership roles at the institutions during the pandemic. They were dealing with a completely novel, complex, and uncertain situation for which they lacked direct experience, knowledge, and prepared documentation and guidelines. This qualitative phenomenological study examines these leadership experiences and uses complexity leadership, crisis leadership, and HBCU identity as the components of the conceptual framework to guide the research and the critical incident technique as the data collection method. Research findings indicate that HBCU administrators employed leadership styles and behaviors that empowered and fostered autonomy, enabled creativity and innovation at all levels within the organization, and focused on meeting the needs of others.

Why Leaders Stay Instead of Quitting: A Qualitative Exploration of Organizational Citizenship Behavior Amid Crises

Cherie McKinnon | 2022


Bolino, Hsiung, Harvey, and LePine (2014) provided profound conceptual contributions to the existing literature regarding organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) burnout and fatigue. After the study, the researchers noted that further research into other threats to OCB should be conducted to build upon its findings. The current research study explored OCB fatigue among leaders of varying tenure during a pandemic using qualitative research methods. OCB theory (Organ, 1988, 1997), OCB burnout (fatigue), perceived organizational support, culture (individualistic), and faith and faith practices as related to coping and leading consistently in a crisis among leaders were cornerstone concepts of the study. Sources of inquiry were utilized to better understand potential challenges that may cause OCB burnout in extenuating circumstances. In-depth interviews were conducted to attain the lived experiences of six participants who were identified as OCB leaders from various job industries such as education, film, retail, and ministry. Analysis of the data resulted in the emergence of the following themes concerning OCB in crisis: care for others, diligence, resilience, commitment, team, self-motivation, empowerment, and faith. Research reflections, limitations, and recommendations for further research are presented.

Sent by the Father: Jesus as Follower in the Gospel of John

Andrew Oates | 2022


A follower-centered perspective on the followership of Jesus is missing in leadership literature. This gap is unfortunate because, by understanding only the leadership of Jesus, researchers and practitioners cannot fully address the leader–follower relationship between God the Father and Jesus Christ. The purpose in this study was to link the Trinitarian relationship of Jesus Christ with the Father to clear followership characteristics between leaders and followers. The emphasis on the follower of Jesus provided clear handles of what an empowered follower with the same goal and purpose represents to other followers. This addressed, from a content analysis, what it meant to be a sent follower with a clear purpose from the Gospel of John and how an exegetical analysis from John 6 followed a spiral of representative, submissive, servant, and revelatory followership and what that communicated about the follower and the leader. Followership is forever linked to the field of leadership through an interdependent relationship. The relationship between God the Father and Jesus completed the followership concept of Jesus when Jesus sent out the disciples, His own followers. This study offered a unique perspective of followership through portraying the relationship of Jesus with God the Father, the characteristics that He lived out, and how Jesus empowered His disciples when He sent them, in the same manner that He was empowered by God.

Leadership in Transition: A Quantitative Study of Leadership Dimension Preferences Across Generational Cohorts

Neftali Charles Olmeda | 2022


Generations come in cycles, and just as history produces generations, so too do generations produce history (Strauss & Howe, 1991). Within those cycles and historical structures, and so too from a leadership point of view, a sense of leadership status and influence arises that varies considerably because of generational differences and cultural forces (House et al., 2004; Lisbon, 2010; Sotelo, 2015). Similarly, at a more individual level, people—followers, employees, and subordinates—perceive the world and those around them differently because of their background, individual characteristics, and needs (Konopaske et al., 2018). Responding to the call to extend the field of study and fill a gap in research to include Generation Z in similar studies, this research used a quantitative, nonexperimental, cross-correlational approach to examine Baby Boomers, Generation X, Generation Y/Millennials, and Generation Z leadership dimension preferences. Leadership dimensions consisted of the six culturally endorsed implicit leadership theory dimensions using the GLOBE Phase 2 Alpha Questionnaire. The sample population derived via nonprobability, purposive sampling efforts. Efforts for recruiting potential participants included emails and social media. Potential participants were asked to complete the GLOBE Phase 2 Alpha Questionnaire distributed online via SurveyMonkey through Facebook, Instagram, and bulk emails where the researcher has a point of contact. Potential participants were also asked to forward the emailed or social media posted survey to anyone who may be interested in participating. Further, the statistical analyses were performed using multivariate analysis of variance via input data within the IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software.

The Practice of Servant Leadership: A Qualitative Case Study of Watoto Church

Jacky Franco Onaga | 2022


Servant leadership has the capacity to bring about a paradigm shift in organizations, communities, and churches. Although it is older than most leadership theories, its acceptance as a theory and practice has been slow. Perceptions among researchers, academicians, practitioners, and leaders differ as to how the theory can be conceptualized and practiced. Much research has gone into defining the servant leadership theory and analyzing its difference from other leadership theories, but few have examined the practice of servant leadership. The purpose of this study was to seek to understand the practice of servant leadership in Watoto Church. The findings of this study are significant because they provided a critical understanding of servant leadership in a place where it works. The findings highlighted how servant leadership could impact communities and organizations and provide insights and guidelines to leaders of similar organizations. The study employed a qualitative case study design. This study method provided an opportunity to obtain the participants’ experiences, emotions, and feelings. A total of 10 pastors from different levels of leadership were selected using purposeful sampling. These were pastors who grew up in the ministry of Watoto Church’s servant leadership and therefore deemed to have relevant information. Data were collected through in- depth interviews. The in-depth interviews provided an open-ended approach that allowed the researcher to explore and probe to get rich information. The findings confirmed that Watoto Church is a servant leadership practicing church. The servant leadership practices included serving and caring for the community, empathy, leadership development, leadership accountability, character-based leadership, teamwork, and visionary leadership. The results further revealed that servant leadership had benefited and impacted Watoto Church by creating a smooth leadership succession, ownership and loyalty to the ministry, exponential church growth, and community care. Therefore, servant leadership is a good leadership style for social, community, and organizational transformation.

Keywords: Servant leadership, leadership theory, practice, communities, organizations, transformation

Leadership of Human-Machine Teams in Military Environments: An Exploratory Framework

Anna Pierre | 2022


This is an exploratory study in response to two calls (Do et al., 2017; L. Larson & DeChurch, 2020) for more study on how artificial intelligence (AI) could influence leadership skills and behaviors in the future. This study, one of the first of its kind, is specifically focused on how the future use of human-machine teaming by the U.S. Department of Defense could change required military leadership skills. While the use of AI is at the beginning stages of ubiquity in organizations, there is still little understanding of how this technology could influence leadership behaviors and required skills. A Delphi study was utilized to garner expert opinion on the topic. It was discovered that the use of human-centric skills, such as creativity, empathy, and critical thinking, will be vital in the future. Additionally, it was found that there is still uncertainty on if there will be differences in leadership for civilian or military leaders of human-machine teams or how leadership development training will need to change to meet future requirements.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, military leadership, information age, human-machine teaming, shared leadership, machine learning, U.S. Department of Defense, digital age, leadership skills, Delphi study, algorithmic leadership

A Quantitative Study of Authentic Leadership, Authentic Followership, and Organizational Commitment, With Tenure as Moderator

Daniel Sharma | 2022


Literature has presented that authentic leadership was positively related to organizational commitment. The first problem was validating this positive relationship in another setting. There was no quantitative evidence on authentic followership and its ties to organizational commitment, which formed the second problem. The third problem was limited research on tenure as a moderating variable in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. The final problem was the gap on tenure as a moderating variable in the relationship between authentic followership and organizational commitment. These formed the fourfold purpose of the current research. The significance of the present study was to bridge these gaps and add to existing literature. Theoretical framework and literature review established that the authentic leadership variables of self-awareness, relational transparency, internalized moral perspective, and balanced processing were positively related to organizational commitment and that tenure provided a moderating effect to these relationships. Authentic followership variables of self-awareness, relational transparency, internalized moral perspective, and psychological ownership were theoretically positively related to organizational commitment, again with tenure providing moderation. Age and education were the control variables. The current research quantitatively tested these relationships with post hoc, convenience, and snowball sampling to a geographically dispersed target sample size of 100 participants spread between North America and parts of Oceania. A single, anonymous, voluntary, and noncompensable Google Forms survey reached the target audience, combining questions from the Authentic Leadership Inventory, the Authentic Followership Profile, and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire, each reporting their Cronbach’s alpha in the range of .7 to .9. Data analysis was completed using IBM’S SPSS hierarchical multiple regression analysis, where positive relationships between authentic leadership and organizational commitment and between authentic followership and organizational commitment were statistically significant (p < .001). However, tenure’s moderation effects were disproved in this setting. Limitations of this research included nonprobabilistic sampling, uncontrolled variables such as gender, and response bias. Future research could focus on applying the authentic leadership and authentic followership to other contexts, conducting more tests of tenure as a moderating variable, and considering the possibility of how culture or migration might affect how individuals process these concepts.

Keywords: authentic followership, authentic leadership, organizational commitment

Burnout Among Pastors in Guatemala and the United States: A Quantitative Study

Benjamin Louis Stoffel | 2022


Pastors experience burnout, and there are still unexplored factors that could impact pastoral burnout. Upon examining the literature, no research was discovered that tested burnout between pastors in two countries. I conducted this quantitative study to advance the extant literature by testing for differences in burnout scores between pastors in two different countries—Guatemala and the United States. I tested for burnout as defined by the three factors in the Maslach Burnout Inventory: (a) personal exhaustion, (b) depersonalization, and (c) personal achievement. I implemented a cross-sectional design using a t-test to determine if there were differences in the pastor’s self-scoring of the three variables from the MBI across the two national groupings of pastors. I successfully collected data through an online survey of the MBI from 180 respondents: 89 Protestant pastors from Guatemala and 91 Protestant pastors from the United States. The results showed that personal accomplishment scores varied significantly by country, even though there was no significant difference in emotional exhaustion or depersonalization scores.

Organizational Culture Influence on the Dimensions of Organizational Learning at the University of The Bahamas

Jason Keith Nathaniel Styles | 2022


Globally, higher education institutions (HEIs) face increasing pressure to learn, change, and adapt to survive and thrive in an increasingly complex and turbulent in today’s environment (Alsabbagh & Khalil, 2017; Coman & Bonciu, 2016; Tierney, 1988, 2008). Furthermore, HEIs are the catalyst to create new knowledge that contributes to economic and social growth by setting the framework for technology transfer, shifting demographics, globalization, and the recruitment of diverse students (Habtoor et al., 2019, 2020; Sayed & Edgar, 2019; Voolaid & Ehrlich, 2017). To effectively reduce the stress and strain produced in colleges and universities by the changing environment, HEIs must better understand the internal organizational culture (OC) to facilitate the progression of organizational learning. Important to realize, HEIs have been linked with economic prosperity and development of developing countries; the Bahamas needs to focus on the University of The Bahamas’ OC to determine the present and desired state of OC to bring about continuous improvements strategic redirection for organizational success. As a result, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact OC types—clan, adhocracy, market, and hierarchy—can have on the dimensions of learning at the University of The Bahamas, the oldest HEI in the Bahamas. This cross-sectional quantitative study used the Organizational Culture Assessment Inventory and the Dimension of Learning Questionnaire. The surveys were completed by 154 participants in this study: 15.0% (n = 70) were staff, 13.1% (n = 61) were faculty members, and 17.9% (n = 10) were administration. Additionally, the study examined the control variable of gender. This research indicates that hierarchy and market partially significantly predict individual learning, and adhocracy, clan, hierarchy, and market significantly predict organizational learning.

Authentic Leadership of Program Managers

Beth L. Wilson | 2022


In today’s global, fast-paced markets, many organizations are shifting away from traditional departmental or functional structures to implement a complex yet more agile project-based, cross-functional matrix structure. A program manager typically leads these project teams with little to no positional authority over the team yet has significant responsibility for the project’s outcome. Despite this shift in organizational and leadership structures, there is a limited theoretical and practical understanding of the leadership skills necessary for program managers to lead their cross-functional teams and successfully achieve their projects’ objectives. This descriptive phenomenological study sought to fill that gap and bridge the theoretical concepts of authentic leadership, program managers, and the factors that define the success of modern organizational projects. It broadens the current literature using a multimethod approach, investigating the perceptions and experiences of program managers and their project stakeholders. This study used a qualitative method of collecting and analyzing data from leaders and members of cross-functional project teams of a multinational product development and manufacturing organization. This study shows that the perceptions of the program managers and project stakeholders align and bridge the authentic leadership constructs to the broader context-dependent, case-specific, and shared-values framework that accounts for a project’s success. It proved that program managers require a unique balance of developed skills and techniques with foundational moral and ethical leadership attributes. It also expands on the nomological framework of authentic leadership. It investigates a deeper essence of how and why program managers’ authentic leadership attributes influence their projects’ success. This understanding is crucial in helping today’s organizational leaders identify and embrace the breadth and depth of project success factors and the program managers’ leadership characteristics needed to lead the cross-functional team to achieve them.

Follower Satisfaction With Leader Communication on Institutional Action of Student Retention in Higher Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Debra A. Baker | 2021


This research explored the effects of internal organizational communication on institutional actions with student retention from top leaders in colleges and universities. This study looked at the perceptions of Christian university deans, chairpersons, and faculty on the United States’ west coast regarding the communication practices of their university president on student retention efforts, particularly during the COVID-19 global pandemic. Using a quantitative approach, this research used the Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire and found no significant difference between academic position, gender, or longevity with the institution and their satisfaction of the university president’s communication practices on student retention efforts. Significant findings did emerge identifying the importance of trust between university presidents and deans with the specific need to build trust with department chairs and faculty. Another significant finding included the value of university presidents adapting to emergencies by communicating to all levels of academic employees. A third significant finding was the importance of the president’s longevity at their current institution and the academic staff’s high level of satisfaction with their president’s communication practices. This study presents recommendations for university presidents as they navigate their communication practices when enhancing their leadership role within the organizational culture as supported through the leader–member exchange theory and student success theory. Given the reality of the COVID-19 pandemic’s effect on student enrollment and retention on higher education institutions, leaders must take notice of the importance of retaining students by paying attention to their actions of communication practices regarding student retention efforts with academic deans, chairpersons, and faculty.

Understanding the Self-Efficacy and Call of Jarena Lee: A Narrative Case Study

Ammie L. Davis | 2021


The purpose of this narrative case study was to explore the relationship of self-efficacy as evident in the life and ministry of Jarena Lee with her willingness to respond to her ministerial call as a predictor of her performance even though she was denied the opportunity to preach. In such a case, strong self-efficacy belief and determination informed the response to ministerial leadership and achievements among some women and how they perceived and responded to their call. I explored how self-efficacy informs the response to the call of female ecclesial leaders and their strong belief in their ability to excel in ministry. African American females have struggled in the past to maneuver their ways to better leadership positions amid the stained-glass ceiling’s impairments gelded in the church leadership. In this study, Jarena Lee’s account of her call to preach the gospel is the point of reference for understanding how self-efficacy is developed to inform the response to answering the call for women in ministry. My research unearthed Jarena Lee’s self-efficacy in her religious experience determined by her desire to continue battling against societal obstacles in the church regarding women’s leadership positions despite being rejected. Jarena Lee’s strong conviction in her ability to achieve demonstrates how self-efficacy influenced how she recognized and responded to her call to preach. Therefore, a greater level of self-efficacy, based on a person’s attitudes, abilities, and cognitive skills, may indicate a greater level of performance, allowing the person to effectively handle hard circumstances, strengthening one’s self-efficacy and well-being. I discovered that African American women have the capacity to react to their call with confidence as they understand how self-efficacy informs their recognition and response to the call to ministry as ecclesial leaders. Jarena Lee’s autobiography and the other sources used justified the themes related to the four major factors derived from the self-efficacy research. I discovered the social factors such as gender and racial bias did not hinder her ability to exercise self-efficacy beliefs. Therefore, self-efficacy influenced and positioned Jarena Lee to carry out the call; however, it was the inspiration of the Holy Spirit that guided her to fulfill her call with a message of hope to a broader community.

Entrepreneurship and Emotional Intelligence: A Quantitative Evaluation of the Moderating Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Resilience and Entrepreneurial Orientation

Myron Evans | 2021


Entrepreneurship is a phenomenon that has been considerably researched in the academic fields of leadership and management. In particular, the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) construct has gained much attention with scholars when examining this concept at the firm level. However, limited research has been conducted on EO at the individual level and the antecedents that influence EO. Literature has also highlighted the importance of resilience (R) and emotional intelligence (EI) for entrepreneurial success. However, the lack of empirical evidence to support whether these constructs influence individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO) have yet to be explored. The current study examined IEO with entrepreneurs who have engaged in entrepreneurial activity outside of the firm- level perspective with the intention of providing quantifiable answers to the following research questions: To what extent does R positively influence IEO? To what extent does EI effectively moderate the relationship between R and EO at the individual level? I drew on the self-efficacy theory to support the connection of this relationship. I used the IEO instrument developed by Bolton and Lane (2011) to measure the dimensions of IEO. Ciarrochi, Chan, and Bajgar’s (2001) four factors and subscales were used for Schutte, Malouff, and Bhullar’s (2009) Assessing Emotions Scale to measure the dimensions of EI. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) 25 was used to measure R based on the scales Ayala and Manzano (2014) proposed. I collected data from 156 self-identified entrepreneurs who had 3 or more years of experience and who were either self-employed or operated a small- to medium-sized enterprise of 500 employees or less. The nine main hypotheses and the 36 subhypotheses of this study were tested using moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The findings of the research indicate that R does positively influence IEO and that EI was shown to strengthen this relationship. However, gender, as the control variable, did not have a statistically significant impact on the findings. I discuss the scholarly and practical implication of this study and recommend future areas for research.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, individual entrepreneurial orientation, resilience, self-efficacy

A Study of Junior Naval Officer Development From Their Perceptions of Authentic Leadership Behavior

Jason Arthur Grant | 2021


This qualitative study explored the relationship between follower development and the components associated with authentic leadership behaviors based on a research question that inquired how junior naval officers perceived the behaviors of their leaders. The study adopted the phenomenological approach, using in-depth interviews and the guided interview method, to explore the constructs. Leadership styles within an organization are influenced by the behavior of the leader, group dynamics, and organizational culture. The leadership style found in the military can vary in nature for followers as personnel routinely transfer. A purposeful sampling method allowed for the utilization of 11 junior naval officers across ranking, age, gender, warfare community, and location. The data collection was done through virtual teleconference interviews. Data saturation was determined to have been reached with eight interviews; three more interviews validated the saturation. The analysis section discusses how the results were examined. The conclusion summarizes the purpose of the study and how authentic leadership behaviors play a role in the leadership development process for junior naval officers.

Keyword: qualitative method, phenomenological, authentic leadership behavior, development, retention

How Post-Millennial Soldiers Desire to be Led: Implications for Current and Future Army Noncommissioned Officer Leadership Training

Roland David Hanks | 2021


This qualitative study explored the leadership preferences of post-Millennial U.S. Army soldiers born between 1996 and 2002 and stationed at Fort Rucker, Alabama. This study used structured in-depth interviews to discover firsthand what this generational cohort desired from noncommissioned officers (NCOs). A purposeful sampling system of 20 soldiers enabled a sample that was reflective of the current demographics of the Army in race, gender, and ethnicity. The interview responses provided the data, which the researcher analyzed using a variety of coding methods such as topic, thematic, NVivo, and analytic coding, which provided 34 codes. Secondary coding produced 6 themes, including Army values, confidence, fairness, and empathy. The responses illustrated that post-Millennial soldiers want NCOs who are honest above all else. Post-Millennial soldiers stated they wanted reciprocal relationships with their NCOs characterized by mutual respect, transparency, and constructive feedback. They desire professional, competent NCOs who are role models, coaches, and mentors. Post-Millennial soldiers want organized, stable NCOs who provide a rhythm and routine. They want selfless and empathetic NCOs who put their soldiers’ needs above their own and who understand that life is more than just work. An important insight for NCOs is that they can incorporate what post-Millennial soldiers stated as leadership preferences to become more successful. This study provides insights for senior Army leadership on the outdated condition of its NCO training and professional development education systems. The implications provide recommendations to Army training and doctrine leaders on areas of improvement. This paper concludes with suggestions for further research on this and similar topics.

Multilevel Transitions Aided by Literary Analysis: An Exploration of the Organizing-Historical Framework in the Gospel of Matthew

Dipa Halder Hart | 2021


This research explored influence processes and intermediary elements during multilevel transitions to aid traditional organizations to simultaneously transition the leadership and the organization. Although members are not often evaluated in leadership research, the findings of this research suggest members’ responses contribute to multilevel transitions. Specifically, members’ acceptance of new leadership’s authority and willingness to receive their care were found to be influenced by organizational actions that remained clear and intentional, built trust, connected the past and the present, valued their designated future roles, and exhibited a hermeneutic of generosity that did not punish new members who once acted against the leader. The analysis separating the influence processes and the outcome revealed an organization’s activities during transition should exemplify a new leader’s character consistently, strategically be developed to interact with members, and provide abundant opportunity for group reflection and decision making. This was accomplished through multilevel literary analysis on a historical document utilizing literary narrative research, specifically sociorhetorical interpretation’s inner texture methodology on the Gospel of Matthew 11:1–12:45.

The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Christian Virtues in Organizational Leadership: An Analysis of Nonprofit Leaders

Rupert Alexander Hayles, Jr. | 2021


The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of a correlational linkage between emotional intelligence (EI) and virtue specifically regarding leadership development. The research study was based on foundational work by Culham and Bai (2011) and Palser (2005). While Palser focused on EI correlative effect and burnout, which is an emotional outcome, Culham and Bai (2011) focused on a conceptual model emphasizing linkages between EI and virtue based on ethics. These seminal research studies formed the foundation of this study to expand and provide quantitative grounded research on the linkage between EI and virtue through morality and ethics. This study included an investigation into the linkage between virtue espoused within a spiritual context and the increase in EI as a basis of organizational and leadership expansion. The overarching direction of the study was to address whether there is a relationship between EI and virtue, specifically Christian virtues. The researcher further assessed whether people with high virtue attributes and EI subscale attributes are more likely to demonstrate effective leadership, and whether people with low virtue attributes and EI subscale attributes are less likely to demonstrate effective leadership. The researcher addressed the various components and crystalized a belief, yet unproven, that factors within EI impact virtue and vice versa. The results of this study revealed a statistically significant relationship between EI and virtue. Relationship with God—consisting of love, joy, and peace—was the strongest predictor of EI (self-perception, self-expression, interpersonal, and stress management), with the exception of decision-making. This study serves as a foundation with significant implications for further research in identifying other relational factors that could espouse causality and that are descriptive, predictive, or explanatory in relation to leaders’ growth.

The Moderating Effect of Accountability on the Relationship Between Authentic Leadership and Job Satisfaction in a U.S. Naval Unit

Charles Edward Hulse | 2021


This study used quantitative research to explore the moderating effects of the accountability constructs of responsibility, openness, and answerability on the relationship between the authentic leadership behaviors of self-awareness, internal moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency and the single aspect of job satisfaction. A hierarchical multiple regression model was designed to measure the proposed variables within the relationship being explored. Research found that limited investigation exists regarding the hierarchical regression model study of accountability as a moderating effect on authentic leadership and job satisfaction. The quantitative model consisted of 16 separate hypotheses. The sample population consisted of 104 usable responses out of 106 total respondents (N = 104) among three separate naval units who had the same mission objectives. Permission was received by the three Commanding Officers to conduct the study on the various sites. Initial results, Hypotheses 1 through 4, continue to significantly support the theoretical assumption that self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency enhance the construct of job satisfaction. However, adding the moderating effect of responsibility, openness, and answerability hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed partial support. The study found that there were mixed results among the 12 hypotheses that looked at accountability as a moderating effect to the relationship between the behaviors of authentic leadership and job satisfaction. The research concluded with a focus on significance of the findings, theoretical implications resulting, and recommendations for future research.

An Empirical Investigation of the Relationships Among Authentic Leadership, Mindfulness, and Job Involvement

Rikki Charlene Hummel | 2021


Organizational spending on mindfulness training programs for leaders and followers continues to abound, while empirical research on employee mindfulness remains dearth. The current study sought to make a positive contribution to both mindfulness and authentic leadership research in organizations by identifying how mindfulness and authentic leadership are related to positive organizational outcomes like job involvement. A cross-sectional study was completed using a snowball method of sampling controlling for age, gender, supervisor versus nonsupervisor, and industry type (education, health care, manufacturing, and service). The study examined both the relationship between the individual characteristic of employee mindfulness and the workplace outcome of employee job involvement together with the complementary influence of authentic leadership, as perceived by employees. The intent of this study was to determine the presence of mindfulness, without intervention, and the relationship between both authentic leadership and mindfulness on the workplace outcome of job involvement. The study found a significant positive multivariate relationship between authentic leadership and mindfulness and between authentic leadership and job involvement. However, surprisingly, the results showed a significant negative relationship between employee mindfulness and job involvement. Since previous research on mindfulness in workplace literature is quite limited, the current study presents an opportunity to better understand the impact of mindfulness in the work context.

Developing Transforming Steward Leadership Scientifically Validated Measurement Instrument

Farai Katsande | 2021


This dissertation focused on developing a scientifically validated instrument to measure the transforming steward leadership, using DeVellis’ (2017) eight steps in developing a measurement instrument. The concept was operationalized from transforming leadership (Burns, 1978) and steward leadership (Donaldson & Davis, 1991). The literature explored in this study led to the extraction of 334 items covering the following aspects of transforming leadership and stewardship: (1) Personal transformation (Bennis, 2009; Singleton, 2018; Blanchard & Hodges, 2003). (2) Serving leadership (Patterson, 2003; Sendjaya & Pekerti, 2009; Wong & Davey, 2007). (3) Emotional intelligence (Goleman, 2018). (4) Self-leadership (Cristofaro & Giardino, 2020). (5) Self-development (Alorda, 2020). (6) Calling and purpose (Fry, 2003; Guiness, 2003). (7) Character (Winston, 2005; Hannah & Avolio, 2011; Singh et al., 2019). (8) Integrity (Bauman, 2013; Cloud, 2006; Moorman & Grover, 2009; Palanski & Yammarino, 1999). (9) Morals (Kim & Kim, 2012; Marques, 2017; Skubinn & Herzog, 2016). (10) Ethical leadership (Brown & Trevino, 2006; Gemechu, 2019; Johnson, 2018). (11) Authentic behavior (Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999; Avolio & Gardner, 2005). (12) Sacrificial leadership (De Cremer et al., 2004). (13) Humility (Morris et al., 2005; Stith-Flood, 2018). (14) Competencies (Alban-Metcalfe & Alimo-Metcalfe, 2009; Hewitt et al., 2014; Boyatzis, 2008; Costin, 2008). DeVellis’ (2017). Three experts reviewed the 334 and reduced it to 64 items to forms the transforming steward leadership questionnaire (TSLQ). An online survey was developed using a seven-point semantic differential scale and administered to 341 participants from the USA, Asia, and Africa, covering ten organizations. The survey assessed participants’ perceptions of their team leaders. Factor analysis using principal component analysis was conducted on the 64 items through oblimin rotation further reduced to a three-factor instrument with 24 items. After conducting scale optimization, the three-factor instrument was reduced to 15 items assessing the three factors. The final 15-item transforming steward leadership questionnaire (TSLQ) had a Cronbach alpha of .94. The TSLQ has high validity and is therefore useful for further research to expand the transforming steward leadership.

Follower-Centered Leadership: The Relationship Between Followers’ Perception of the Leaders’ Implicit Followership Theory and Authentic Followership

Sunghee Kim | 2021


Follower-centered leadership focuses on followers’ roles and the behavior that influences leaders. The purpose of this dissertation was to understand the relationship between the followers’ perception of the leaders’ implicit followership theory (LIFT) and the followers’ self-report of their own authentic followership (AF). Based on Shamir’s call to “reverse the lens,” I examined two follower-centered approaches using LIFT (e.g., role-based views) and AF (e.g., constructionist views). I designed this study as a quantitative correlational study to test 24 hypotheses under a central research question. Data were collected via survey from a convenience sample of 151 South Korean participants through Facebook, email, and the KakaoTalk mobile messaging app. The participants and completed the full questionnaire online anonymously using Google Forms. The sample size estimated using G*Power was 134 individuals; thus, 150 individuals were recruited, accounting for a 10% loss rate due to unusable response. Sy’s six-factor Implicit Followership Theory (IFT) and VanWhy’s four-factor Authentic Followership Profile (AFP) Questionnaires were used as the survey instruments. Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to analyze the data using the SPSS statistics. The results showed that the variables in most hypotheses were significantly correlated, ranging from -.25 to .55 at the p < .01 level. The findings indicated that followers’ perception of leaders’ positive and negative assumptions was associated with their authentic behaviors, except Conformity of LIFT (from r = -.04 to r = .15). This study contributed to leadership and followership scholarship by extending follower-centered approaches and the GLOBE project, answering scholars’ calls, and filling the identified data gap.

Keywords: follower-centered, implicit followership theory, authentic followership

Exploring the Dichotomy of Women in Ecclesial Leadership During the Pauline Mission: A Sociorhetorical Analysis of Romans 16:1-16 and 1 Corinthians 11:1-16 and 14:26-40

Ca-Asia Ann Lane | 2021


This study examined the roles of women in leadership during the first-century church through a sociorhetorical analysis of 1 Corinthians 11:1-16 and 14:26-40 and Romans 16:1-16. The sociorhetorical analysis identified connections to the women leaders referenced in 1 Corinthians and the women mentioned in Romans. Paul addressed the early churches in an effort to create a pattern of leadership behavior and moral efficacy within the Christian communities. This study identified roles that Paul ascribed to and or affirmed about the women serving in leading roles within the two communities. Specific attention was given to the aforementioned Scriptures with a focus on the complexity in roles taken upon the women of Corinth and Romans 16:1-16 where Paul presented leaders—both men and women serving the church throughout the Roman providence. The scope of the research included (a) a biblical exposition of 1 Corinthians 11:1-16 and 14:26-40 that highlights the conflicting roles that are associated with the women within the Scriptures, (b) a biblical exposition of Romans 16:1-16 that highlighted the women referenced and the roles that were associated with them within the Scriptures, and (c) an examination of feminist and womanist viewpoints as it pertains to the Scriptures and the limitations of each in order to bring a wholistic perspective from the two as it relates to women in ecclesial leadership during the Pauline mission. For women who identify with ecclesial leadership, interpreting Paul’s injunctions to silence, contrasting to his expectations for worship and his affirmation towards women serving in leading roles, juxtapose with church patriarchal culture. This sociorhetorical analysis approached the text by examining the evidence concerning the roles women played in the social and worship organization of the Pauline churches. In keeping with that aim, leaving aside the complexity raised by the apostle’s position, this study sought to understand the roles and expectation of the women within the ecclesial leadership context. The analysis yielded nine themes developed into six principles that provide a strong framework model for women serving within contemporary ecclesial leadership roles.

Generational Leadership Preference in the Insurance Industry

Darcy Munton | 2021


This study was inspired by Larson (2017) and followed the scholar’s recommendations to continue researching and expanding on literature in regard to ideal leadership preferences across generations. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to determine if any significant differences in ideal leadership preference from Baby Boomer followers, Generation X followers, and Generation Y followers existed in the insurance industry. The leadership behaviors included in this study were transformational and the components of transformational leadership, transactional and the components of transactional leadership, and laissez-faire leadership. Data were collected using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The results showed that no significant difference existed in leadership preference for transformational, idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, transactional, contingent reward, passive management by exception, active management by exception, and laissez-faire leadership across Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y in the insurance industry. There was, however, a statistically significant difference in individualized consideration leadership preference. This study expands upon the literature regarding leadership preferences across generations and provides practitioners and companies with a leadership development and training focus. Finally, it provides leaders with a better understanding of the leadership behaviors that their multigenerational workforce desire while shedding light on the difference of preference for individualized consideration between Generation X and Generation Y.

Toxic Leadership, Toxic Followership, and the Role of Social Identity in Toxic Followership Behavior

Danica Myers | 2021


Knowing how followers define themselves and the complex ways in which these self-definitions are shaped by experiences between leaders and followers can bring insights into follower behavior (Baker, 2007). This bounded case study provides insight into the drivers of followership behavior and develops greater insight into the role of followers in the toxic leadership process through the frameworks of (a) followership, (b) the toxic triangle, (c) social identity, and (d) follower compliance.

To gain insight into toxic follower behavior, the following research questions guided this study: (a) Why do followers comply with perceived toxic leadership directives? (b) How does perceived self-concept external source of motivation motivate followers to comply with perceived toxic leadership directives? and (c) How does social identification influence follower’s compliance with perceived toxic leadership directives? The literature review contributed to developing open-ended questions for in-depth interviews. Data analysis included in vivo coding and pattern coding. The findings revealed social identity and self-concept external motivation played a role in influencing followers’ compliance to toxic leadership. Self-concept external motivation influenced followers’ compliance through a desire

for affirmation from leaders and other group members, while social identity influenced followers’ compliance through organizational identity and shared cultural identities. Overall, this study revealed multiple factors influence individuals to operate as toxic followers.

An Examination of the Role of Eschatology as Motivation for Ethical Behavior through a Socio-Rhetorical Analysis of the Eschatological Pericopae in the Apostle Paul’s First Letter to the Thessalonians

Clinton Parker | 2021


This study examined the role of eschatological motivation in relation to ethical leadership through a socio-rhetorical analysis of the eight eschatological pericopae in 1 Thessalonians 1:3, 10; 2:12, 19; 3:13; 4:13-18; and 5:1-11, 23, as found in biblical literature. The research of ethical leadership was drawn from the literature addressing contemporary leadership theories focused on specifically ethical leadership and its motivational factors. The researcher followed the exegetical methodologies outlined in the appropriate textural gradations of socio-rhetorical analysis. The data were interpreted for principles linking to ethical leadership and eschatological motivation for ethical leadership based on the Pauline writings of 1 Thessalonians. The study results yielded four aspects of eschatological motivation that expanded three levels (low, middle, and high) of motivation for ethical leadership to four, with the addition a highest level as found in the eschatological pericopae in the Epistle of 1 Thessalonians. The results of the research demonstrate a linkage between the ethical leadership and eschatological motivation. The four aspects of eschatological motivation summarize the findings of the socio-rhetorical analysis and serve as a practical guideline for future leadership practice and research.

Overcoming the “Dark Side” of Leadership: An Appreciative Inquiry

Jimmy A. Payne | 2021


If asked to identify a list of leaders, most people could, almost immediately, provide a list of several more popular, successful, and great leaders. It appears that when we think about leadership, we are conditioned to think about only the positive, popular, and prominent leaders. However, with the increasing number of corporate scandals, ethical breaches, and failed organizations, this might suggest that we have neglected a very important aspect of leadership research—the dark side of personality and its effects on leadership and organizational performance with an emphasis on ineffective leadership. This qualitative study was an exploratory, multicase study addressing the knowledge that the dark or negative side of leadership has led to the failure of many organizations. But why do leaders succumb to the negative forces of this type of leadership? Is there a catalyst that leads them down this negative path, or is it something else? Leadership actions, behaviors, models, and examples have been researched for over 75 years (Jago, 1982; Yukl, 2012). Most of this leadership research has focused on the positive side of leadership—48% more in the databases reviewed for this research and the benefits of how good leaders are valuable to the organizations they serve. However, this appears to ignore the opposite side of leadership—the dark or the negative one. This research worked to aid in continued identification of the many issues and reasons relating to why leaders succumb to the dark or negative side of leadership. Therefore, it will provide leaders with another method of looking at these leadership issues and possibly uncovering a new way of avoiding the problems associated with the dark side of leadership.

The Impact of Ethical Leadership on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Psychological Safety

Rodney Platt | 2021


This study examined the impact of ethical leadership on follower organizational citizenship behaviors and the mediating role of psychological safety in this relationship. A number of studies have researched the effect ethical leadership has on organizational citizenship behaviors with some studies also having investigated possible mediating variables in this relationship. However, no work had existed that

examined the mediating effect of psychological safety in the relationship between ethical leadership and organizational citizenship behaviors. The study aimed to answer the research questions: to what extent, if at all, is ethical leadership related to organizational citizenship behavior dimensions of altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy, and civic duty and to what extent, if at all, does

psychological safety mediate the relationship between ethical leadership and the organizational citizenship behavior dimensions of altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy, and civic duty? A total of 15 hypotheses were presented to test the research questions. The study used a sample size of 78 full-time adult employees located in the United States from various industries. A quantitative methodology using multiple regression was employed to test the hypotheses. Results from the study confirmed the assertion that ethical leadership would have a positive and significant relationship with the organizational citizenship behavior dimensions of conscientiousness, courtesy, and civic virtue. However, the following assertions for the study were found false: that ethical leadership would have a positive and significant relationship with the organizational citizenship behavior dimensions of altruism and sportsmanship, ethical leadership would have a positive and significant relationship with psychological safety, and psychological safety would partially mediate the relationship between ethical leadership and the organizational citizenship behavior dimensions of altruism, conscientiousness, courtesy, sportsmanship, and civic virtue. The study findings contributed to the scholarly domains of leadership and management as the first study to include psychological safety as a mediating variable in the relationship between ethical leadership and follower organizational citizenship. Moreover, it contributes more empirical research on the theoretical concepts of ethical leadership, organizational

citizenship behaviors, and psychological safety.

City of God: A dialogue with society about the social role of the Church in community transformation

Guillermo Gustavo Puppo | 2021


Jesus’ teachings and actions enacted shalom-making principles and denounced shalom-breaking systems that sustain the city’s economic, social, and cultural structures of power and oppression. He showed how Shalom works –he favored the poor, the weak, the oppressed, the outcast, and the foreigner. The study produced an exegetical survey of four pericopes in the Lukan Travel Narrative (Lu. 9:51- 19:47) in which Jesus showed how shalom should inform sociocultural norms: (1) the parable of the Good Samaritan, (2) the healing of the crippled woman, (3) the rich man and Lazarus, and (4) the cleansing of the temple. The analysis is twofold. In the first part, through Social Rhetorical Analysis (SRA), the exegesis produced ten social themes addressed by Luke: (1) crime and violence, (2) racial segregation, (3) disadvantaged groups, (4) class-based privilege, (5) profit-driven healthcare, (6) elite policy-making, (7) socially responsible wealth management, (8) unhoused residents, (9) protesting, and (10) social capital formation. The second part employed in-depth interviews based on the ten questions created from the social themes about the Church’s role in such issues. Sampling utilized Mintzberg’s (2015) three-sector society model –public, private, and social to interview twenty-six participants, including the Chief of Police, the city Mayor, CEOs from private companies, pastors, and community organizers, among others. Utilizing Qualitative Content analysis Software Atlas.ti, the answers rendered six themes: (1) challenges, (2) values, character traits, (4) organizations, (5) people, and (6) actionable items. The findings show commonalities with Jesus’ actions and teaching on bringing biblical community transformation to the city. The shalom-making process starts with the Church assessing and repenting from its internal challenges, intentionally creating relationships of trust with people and organizations, and collaborating with them to transform the city into a more biblically just environment in which the Church adds value to the life of the community. Recommendations for future research include a broader exegetical analysis of the Gospels, a more extensive and diverse pool of participants, a more comprehensive taxonomy of the social sectors, and the creation of a quantitative instrument that allows faith-based organizations to measure their shalom-making effectiveness.

Alignment of Leaders’ Espoused and Practiced Values on Employees’ Organizational Identification

Olukayode Solola | 2021


The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to understand the impact that the alignment of a leader’s espoused and practiced value has on an employee’s organizational identification. Leaders have a significant influence on their followers’ actions and views on issues, and the value that a leader espouses resonates with employees and inspires them to identify with the organization. Followers have an increasingly pivotal role in ensuring that organizations function both ethically and professionally. The theoretical construct that undergirded this study is the social identity approach (SIA), which is made up of the social identity theory (SIT) and the self-categorization theory (SCT). This researcher employed a qualitative phenomenological inquiry to explore the lived experience of followers and revealed how they responded to the alignment/misalignment of their leaders’ espoused and practiced values in identifying organizationally. Purposeful sampling was used to identify 10 participants from a multinational bank, with participants split equally between the Ghana and Nigeria staff. These two West African countries have a diversified population with international exposure, and therefore provided a varied view. The findings of this study provided evidence of the impact that the alignment or misalignment of leaders’ values has on the organizational identification of followers. 

Emotional Intelligence and its Effect on Police Officer Burnout

Mike Thomas | 2021


The policing profession is known to have a high amount of stress and fatigue as a result of responding to and handling critical incidents often involving the threat of physical violence or even death. This stress can lead to extreme fatigue and the possibility of mental health deterioration that can lead to burnout. The purpose of this study is to provide literature on the correlation between emotional intelligence and burnout in police officers. Participants were administered the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Survey (WLEIS) along with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The WLEIS provided scores of the four different components of emotional intelligence that include self-awareness (EI1), recognition of emotions in others (EI2), use of emotions to facilitate performance (EI3), and emotional regulation (EI4). The MBI provided scores of the three components of burnout that include emotional exhaustion (BO1), reduced accomplishments (BO2), and depersonalization (BO3). The data were collected through the dispersion of surveys by an online program and analyzed using IBM SPSS Version 27 software. The analysis of the data was examined using hierarchical regressions, and it was determined that there is a significant relationship between police officers’ emotional intelligence and their burnout.

Gauging the Validation of an Instrument to Measure the Impact of Hope in Strategic Plan Implementation

Sarah Walters | 2021


In 2008, Winston et al. published “An Instrument to Measure the Impact of Hope in Strategic Plan Implementation.” Snyder (2000) suggested that hope is the only factor that influences positive outcomes related to employee expectations. Other theories, such as expectancy theory, value chain theory, and faith, were thought to influence outcomes. In contrast, research by Winston et al. (2008) suggested that faith be removed from the list of factors that define hope. Thus, the purpose of this dissertation was to determine to what extent the instrument was concurrently and discriminantly valid and reliable. The sample population included higher education institutions because, as documented by Degn (2015), higher education institutions implement strategic plans to remain competitive in the marketplace. Employees of higher education institutions tasked to implement a strategic plan within the past 5 years completed an initial electronic survey. This survey comprised of “An Instrument to Measure the Impact of Hope in Strategic Plan Implementation” by Winston et al., “Hope Theory” by Snyder et al., and “Organizational Citizenship Behaviors” by de Jong et al. Two weeks later, the participants completing the initial survey were asked to complete the Winston et al. instrument again. Results showed no relationship with the Snyder et al. “Hope Scale” and a positive relationship with the de Jong et al. “Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale – Adapted.” The Winston et al. instrument did show strong statistical test-retest reliability. This finding suggested that more research is needed to examine the value chain and expectancy theory portions of the scale by Winston et al. to establish concurrent validity. Such research is crucial because organizations cannot effectively utilize the Winston et al. tool to determine the relationship between hope and strategic plan implementation. Understanding this relationship is valuable to organizations because Snyder et al. (1991b) suggested that those with high hope also have a high likelihood of high performance.

Organizational Support for Followership Skills Development in Nigeria

Seth Osehahumen Akhilele | 2020


The phenomenological research examined organizational support for followership skills development in Nigeria. The study was to reveal the impact of organizational support for followership skills development in Nigeria. The study sought to determine how organizational efforts or behavior assisted in followership skills development. The study’s significance resides in the organization’s ability to develop competencies that will help them function as followers. Organizational support is perceived to have a negative impact on followership skills development in some selected federal agencies in Nigeria. Nguyen and Seung-Wan’s (2018) findings of organizational support for followership behavior were the theoretical foundation for the study. Their study revealed that perceived organizational support’s is crucial to influence followers’ behaviors in organizations. There was also a review of related materials on organizational support, followership skills development, the design method, the data collection method, and coding for the data analysis method for the study. The study involved the use of an in-depth interview method for data collection. The purposeful sampling research required 12 HR heads who worked in the 12 selected federal agencies. The experiences obtained from this research conformed to theories of in-depth phenomenological studies (Patton, 2015). The study results indicated that followers do not receive the necessary support for followership skills development from the selected federal agencies in Nigeria. The study also revealed 20 new followership skills. Some of the followership skills include (a) analytical skills, (b) teachability skills, (c) listening skills, (d) humility skills, and 16 others. Also presented are research and practitioner reflections, recommendations for future research, and limitations.

Keywords: organizational support, followership skills

Follow the Leader: Middle Management and Supervisors’ Impacts on Work-Life Balance Practices

Demita LaGail Alexander-Wright | 2020


The current organizational landscape, with its calls for flexibility, innovation, and rapid response to change, has resulted in increased work demands and longer working hours for many employees (Brett & Stroh, 2003; Lewis & Cooper, 2005).

Also, access to technology, such as smartphones, widespread internet, social media, and video chatting, has increased the amount of time people spend working (Voydanoff, 1988), thus making work-life balance (WLB) an important social and organizational issue (Kanwar et al., 2009). Many organizations have implemented family-friendly workplaces for their employees (Kossek & Van Dyne, 2008; Lobel & Kossek, 1996). Research has suggested that supportive supervisor behaviors might influence employees’ perceptions of family-friendly programs (Batt & Valcour, 2003; Thomas & Ganster, 1995; Thompson & Prottas, 2005). However, few studies have examined the effects of leadership as it relates to promoting the success of family-friendly programs and WLB. The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to examine the extent to which managers and supervisors practiced and expressed value for work-life balance impacts on their organization’s commitment to implementing family-friendly workplace policies. The ultimate goal of this study is to answer the question: “Do middle managers and supervisors practice work-life balance within their own lives?” Both Kahn et al.’s (1981) role theory and Grandey and Cropanzano’s (1999) conservation of resources (COR) model were used as theoretical frameworks for this study. This study utilized seven standardized open-ended questions to explore strategies used by 13 managers and supervisors to achieve work-life balance. The findings in this study support the literature surrounding those in the modern-day workforce working long hours and not being able to complete daily tasks by the end of each workday. Also, the managers and supervisors in this study with children at home experienced more challenges in the family domain. Furthermore, the new normal of COVID-19 and its effect on the external environment has created different types of challenges for both the managers and supervisors and the organizations where they are employed.

Generative Leadership: A Case Study on Senior Leaders in the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities

Neal Anderson | 2020


The purpose of this research was to bring greater insight to the concept of generative leadership. The value of this study is both practical and academic. Leaders aspiring to increase their generative leadership and researchers wishing to better understand the nuances of generative leadership will benefit from the results. The conceptual background that forms the basis for generative leadership stems from Erikson’s (1950, 1968) work on generativity as a core construct in social and personal development theory. According to Ghislieri and Gatti (2012), Erikson’s focus on generativity is ultimately “a concern for establishing and guiding the next generation, a call for care and oriented towards making others grow” (p. 263). According to Surie and Hazy (2006), generative leadership is ultimately a management process orientation, a way of viewing relationships, organizational processes, and the management structure itself. This study takes Hazy and Uhl-Bien’s (2015) suggestion for further research in understanding generative leadership by asking the research question, What are the key behaviors and decisions of effective generative leaders? In order to better understand the behaviors and decisions of effective generative leaders, I used a case study methodology. Participants included five senior leaders from the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU). The participants were selected using a purposive sample that resulted from the recommendations of industry professionals. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with each senior leader individually. Data was analyzed using a two-phase coding approaching through descriptive coding (Phase 1) and patterning coding (Phase 2). Thirteen themes emerged from the coding analysis that helped answer the research question. The 13 emergent themes included intentional relationships, leadership confidence, development orientation, authentic leadership, spirituality, informed decision making, resourcing staff, anchored leadership, leading self, focused leadership, optimism, honesty, and humility. As a result, researchers and practitioners now have a greater knowledge base of generative leadership, helping to inform future research and provide practical application for generative leaders.

Leading from a Transformed Heart: A Content Analysis of Biblical Pivotal Moments in the Life of the Apostle Peter

Christa Maria Bonnet | 2020


In this research I examined the significance of leading from a transformed heart by exploring the spiritual formation process of the Apostle Peter. The focus of the study was on the leadership lessons that could be learned through a qualitative content analysis of 11 biblical pivotal moments purposefully selected from Peter’s life. I also examined what happened to transform the Apostle Peter by moving him from cowardice to unshakable courage as well as what mandates existed regarding the lessons learned from Peter’s spiritual formation through the lens of a heart transformation perspective. It was important to determine whether these lessons and mandates could be replicated in organizational leadership, and if so, in what manner. The purpose of the study was to bring potential insights on how to develop an obedience like Peter as faith in action. As part of the study I shared recommendations on the why and how for shaping the heart of Christian leaders as a part of their spiritual formation journey. Through the study of the Apostle Peter, as biblical role model and exemplar, my research contributed to scientific literature on contemporary leadership through leadership lessons and leadership principles that could be replicated in organizational leadership. An updated Petrine Empowerment Model, a Petrine Spiritual Formation Stage Model with nine characteristics, and the heart order from an untransformed heart towards a transformed heart in the spiritual formation process were key outcomes of this study. Each narrative of the 11 pivotal moments was summarized in an analytical memo and consolidated for a reflective overview, analysis, and discussion of results. The findings were coded and condensed into categories and themes that derived conceptual leadership lessons and leadership principles for modern-day organizational leadership. The goal of this research was to contribute to the body of knowledge regarding spiritual formation and leading from a transformed heart, to provide a Petrine Empowerment Model and an updated Petrine Spiritual Formation Stage Model based on the results of the 11 pivotal moments in Peter’s life, which acts as a catalyst for developing and enriching the capacity of Christian leaders globally.

The Transformational Leadership of the Apostle Paul: A Socio-Rhetorical Analysis of Philippians 1

Abraham Shinchieh Chen | 2020


This study examined the Apostle Paul’s transformational leadership in the first chapter of the Epistle to the Philippians. Socio-rhetorical analysis was used in this exegetical study. Seven leadership practices were identified: (a) leadership characteristics relating to leadership process, (b) modeling the way, (c) coaching and training followers, (d) challenging the process, (e) elevating values, (f) challenging followers’ own beliefs, and (g) appealing emotionally and wholeheartedly. The exegetical process showed that the leadership practices Paul demonstrated in Philippians 1:1-30 support the components of transformational leadership: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. Regarding transformational leadership from a Christian perspective, as an example of a transformational leader, Paul equipped the Philippians for continually proclaiming the good news of Christ, with the goal of developing spiritual maturity and a deeper relationship with Christ. In addition to identifying the lessons that can be learned about transformational leadership from a Christian perspective, findings showed several ways of combating pseudo- transformational leadership. Paul demonstrated and modeled the way to combat pseudo-transformational leadership from a Christian perspective by (a) calling servant leadership; (b) showing individual consideration, especially encouraging followers to grow agape love with knowledge; (c) not seeking one’s own interests, but seeking others’ interests; and (d) raising the level of moral values of suffering for the sake of Christ. Based on the nature of this study, several books are recommended for future research projects: (a) the book of Colossians; (b) the book of 1 Corinthians; and (c) the book of Philippians as a whole.

Curiously Connected: A Holistic Case Study of Identity and Leadership Within Multiethnic, Faith-Based, Small Groups

Daniel Mark Collins | 2020


The complex dynamics between ethnicity and religion have resulted in a segregated American religious landscape. The majority of churches are ethnically divided. As leaders have begun to address this issue and build multiethnic faith communities, little multiethnic research has existed on a small group level of analysis. This study filled this research gap by examining leadership and identity within multiethnic, faith-based small groups. Using a qualitative, multiple-case study framework, the study looked at three different multiethnic groups. The theoretical framework included social identity theory, optimal distinctiveness theory, the small group movement, church growth theory, and the homogenous unit principle. Data collection included group visits, online questionnaires, and in-depth interviews. The purpose of this study was to understand how multiethnicity impacted identity and leadership in small group settings. The study proposed a model for multiethnic leadership and identity that integrated the research results with the graduated inclusion model and optimal distinctiveness theory. Multiethnic leadership cultivated a culture of curiosity and caring hospitality, focused on similarities, and integrated uniqueness with cultural bridges and teamwork. Multiethnic identity normalized multiethnicity and denormalized ethnic homogeneity, resulting in group curiosity, trust, belonging, and satisfaction. The results of this study expand previous theoretical understandings and can be applied to multiethnic, faith-based small group leadership networks.

Generativity Among Hispanic and White Evangelicals in the United States: A Quantitative Study of Ecclesial Values and Practices

Robert C. Crosby | 2020


This research attempted to answer the challenge from various scholars (Hart, McAdams, Hirsch, & Bauer, 2001) to study trends of generativity further among Hispanic American and European American evangelical church leaders and church attendees. Increasing ethnic diversity and immigration has brought new complexities to the process of intergenerational faith experience and relational connection in ecclesial and familial settings that warrants further investigation and consideration. A dilemma exists today in that the current generation behaves more selfishly than previous generations. As a result, this behavior compromises generativity and societal sustainability and will incur costs for the current and next generation—the generativity crisis (Fisher, Irlenbusch, & Sadrieh, 2004). One of the most troublesome trends facing evangelical churches in the United States today is intergenerational division in the form of relational disconnect and the lack of intentional generative practices (Powell, Mulder, & Griffin, 2016). This trend has contributed to a decline in older denominations being able to enlist younger pastors and attendees, as well as many older leaders failing to develop healthy succession plans and strategies. Are Hispanic Christians in the United States more likely than White Christians to engage in generative practices? The study is the first to examine this question. The method of research was a quantitative study utilizing the Loyola Generativity Scale as a primary tool of measurement. A sample drew from among Hispanic American and European American church leaders and attendees from several evangelical churches in the United States. A t-test process determined the analysis of data.

Succession Planning in Organizations: Understanding Organizational Survival Patterns in Nonprofit Organizations

Antony Elisha Daley | 2020


Organizational succession planning plays a critical role in the survival of nonprofit and faith-based nonprofit organizations. Seventy-three percent of nonprofit organizations report having no documented succession plan in place (Succession Planning for Nonprofits – Managing Leadership Transition, 2019). This finding is alarming as 60% to 75% of the nonprofit executives plan to leave their organization in the next five years (Moyers, 2011). Within faith-based nonprofit organizations, the baby boomer generation is facing a crisis where its founding leaders are now retiring and having difficulties transitioning responsibilities to the next generation (Dingman, Gyertson, & Kidd, 2014). If nonprofit organizations are to survive beyond the current generation, an understanding of the survival patterns that helps to enhance the succession planning process needs development and deployment in these organizations. This study explores the survival patterns that help nonprofit organizations achieve a successful succession process. The results of this study indicate foundational elements of talent management, strategic planning, and a culture of knowledge sharing help to enhance the succession process. Organizational assessments, board involvement, and the use of consultants were also found to aid in positively affecting the succession process.

Entrepreneurial Passion and Perceived Startup Performance: The Moderating Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation

Bryan Daniels | 2020


There is a dearth of systematic empirical evidence regarding passion in entrepreneurship. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the dimensions of entrepreneurial passion (inventing, founding, and developing), the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation (risk, innovativeness, and proactiveness), and the dimensions of perceived performance (profit and growth). Few entrepreneurial passion-related studies have examined inventing, founding, and developing, together. This research was inspired by theories focusing on identity/role identity, entrepreneurial orientation, and organizational performance; all of which, combined, raises interesting and fascinating questions about the behavior and decision-making aspects of entrepreneurs, organizational strategies and practices, and organizational outcomes related to performance. Two questions were addressed: What is the relationship between entrepreneurial passion and perceived startup performance? Does entrepreneurial orientation moderate the relationship between entrepreneurial passion and perceived startup performance? An examination of relevant literature about the three constructs preceded the answers. I collected data from 91 leaders/CEOs of early-stage startups (ranging from one to five years of age) – located in a St. Louis, Missouri-based incubator. I used multiple linear regression and hierarchical multiple regression analyses to test the study’s 24 hypotheses. Overall, I rejected each of the hypotheses – as well as the 24 models that were found to be statistically insignificant. In four particular models, findings suggested that passion for inventing and the entrepreneurial orientation dimension of risk are partial contributors to enhancing perceived performance – specific to profit; passion for founding and the entrepreneurial orientation dimension of risk are partial contributors to enhancing perceived performance – specific to profit; passion for founding and the entrepreneurial orientation dimension of innovativeness are partial contributors to attenuating perceived performance – specific to growth; and passion for developing and the entrepreneurial orientation dimension of proactiveness are partial contributors to attenuating perceived performance – specific to profit. These findings fill an empirical void pertaining the emerging study of entrepreneurs, passion, and startups operating in an incubator environment. I present directions for future research.

Impact of Agripreneurial Competency on the Performance of Agro-Based SMEs In Nigeria and the Moderating Influence of the Business Environment

Ali Michael David | 2020


A robust body of knowledge has grown around entrepreneurs’ need for superior skills and personality characteristics, the ones that enable them to compete and survive effectively. This study, controlled for gender, owner-manager or manager, firm size, and firm age, investigated the impact of agripreneurial competency on the financial and non-financial performance of agro-based SMEs in Nigeria and the moderating influence of the business environment. This study examined two research questions. The first was what impact do entrepreneurial competencies have on the performance of agro-based SMEs in Nigeria? The second was: to what extent will dynamism and competitiveness from the business environment moderate the relationship between agripreneurial competencies and the performance of agro-based SMEs in Nigeria? The study adopted the mix-method empirical study to survey 312, randomly selected respondents. The following three survey instruments were deployed to collect field data: AGRIPRECOM scale by Man, Lau, and Chan (2002) to measure agripreneurial competence, PERF scale as developed by Venkatraman and Ramanujam (1989) to measure performance, and BUSENV scale by Jansen, Van den Bosch and Volberda (2006) to measure the business environment.  A hierarchical regression combined with a thematic analysis was adopted to examine the impact of agripreneurial competency (independent variable) on the performance of agro-based SMEs in Nigeria (dependent variable) and the influence of the moderating variable of the business environment. The results revealed that agripreneurial competency dimensions of relationships, innovativeness, analytical, opportunity, strategic, human, operational, commitment, personal strength, and learning competencies had a significant impact on SMEs’ financial and non-financial performance. The study also revealed a partial moderating influence of the business environment dimension of dynamism on the non-financial performance of agro-based SMEs.

Leading Air Force Cyber Warriors: Cyber Wing Commander Competencies

Allan E. Day | 2020


This study of essential leader competencies and critical leader development needs for Air Force cyber wing commanders was vital for understanding how to recruit, select, and develop future cyber wing commanders. As the executive-level strategic leaders who are on the front lines of the hotly contested cyber warfare domain, Air Force cyber wing commanders must have the relevant competencies to be successful in carrying out this most critical mission for the security of the United States and support of its allies. With no empirical studies in the literature focused on the leader competencies or developmental needs of Air Force cyber wing commanders, this study purposely began to fill that void. The participants (N = 22) in this study were selected from a pool of experts (N = 23) who were currently serving or had served previously as Air Force cyber wing (or equivalent) commanders. The online Delphi facilitated by Codigital Limited’s crowdsourcing platform allowed the anonymous interaction and engagement of dispersed participants who engaged in an online forum to submit ideas, suggest revisions to other participants’ contributions, and vote ideas up or down using a pairwise methodology. The results of this study showed a broad correlation to the Air Force foundational competencies with the following competencies showing strongest correlation: information seeking, communication, strategic thinking (planning), influence, creative thinking, resource management, leadership, initiative, fostering innovation, teamwork, and decision-making. The Delphi panel of experts consistently highlighted a critical competency and developmental need for expertise, literacy, and currency in cyber law and legal and ethical boundaries for future cyber wing commanders. This competency was not part of the most current cyberspace officer development guidance. The researcher recommended the Air Force consider developing cyber law curricula and providing refresher courses on legal and ethical boundaries for future cyber wing commanders.

Keywords: online Delphi, leadership, leader competencies, leader development, cyber warfare, cyber warrior, cyber law, wing commander

Organizational Commitment: The Contribution of Follower Implicit Followership Theories

John Estorge | 2020


Organizational leaders seek to develop organizational commitment among their employees. Employees who display organizational commitment typically have higher job performance, lower absenteeism, and lower turnover, which enhances organizational objectives. The organizational commitment of followers can be measured from the perspective of their leaders or it can be measured from the perspective of the followers. Moreover, leaders have their own implicit followership theories, and followers, in turn, also possess implicit followership theories. The current study analyzes the relationship between the implicit followership theories of followers (FIFTs), comprised of the individual assumptions about the traits, behaviors, and characteristics of followers, and the affective organizational commitment of those same followers. Additionally, the study examines the influence of a follower’s identification with prototypical and antiprototypical followership on the relationships between affective organizational commitment, leader–member exchange (LMX), and in-role and extrarole performance behaviors. This study effectively demonstrates the influence of FIFTs on follower affective organizational commitment. The research samples 207 respondents across various industries, with varied tenures, and different organizational levels within U.S. businesses and nonprofit organizations. Several measurement instruments are utilized from Eisenberger, Karagonlar, et al.’s (2010) study; additionally, the Sy (2010) implicit follower theory scale is used. This research satisfies the call from Sy for future exploration of IFTs on leader–follower interpersonal outcomes and other theories positing the leader’s role in shaping follower performance outcomes. Additionally, Eisenberger, Karagonlar, et al. demonstrated that previously unexplained variations in the strength of the relationship between LMX and affective organizational commitment could be explained by SOE but suggested that future research could extend the concept of organizational embodiment to other organizational entities besides supervisors. While Eisenberger, Karagonlar, et al. determined that SOE was a key moderator of the degree to which the quality of LMX relationships impacted employee commitment and performance, this study proposes to examine follower IFTs as a potential moderator.

Keywords: affective organizational commitment, extrarole performance, followership, implicit followership theory, in-role performance, leader–member exchange

Women and Leadership: Leadership Characteristics of the Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWE) and their Impact on the Education of the Girl Child in Sierra Leone

Anthonia Ogochukwu Ezeibekwe | 2020


This phenomenological study explored the leadership characteristics of the women leaders of the Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWE) as advocates and their impact on the education of the girl child in Sierra Leone. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were utilized to capture the lived experiences of ten women leaders of the FAWE, to answer the two research questions: what shared leadership characteristics exist among women leaders-as-advocates, and what is their traceable impact upon the education of the girl child in Sierra Leone? The findings from the first part of the research question indicated that women leaders in this context demonstrated the following leadership characteristics: internal, action-oriented, and circumstantial leadership characteristics. The findings for the second part of the question indicated that the women leaders utilized their unique leadership characteristics and made the following direct impact on the girls: educational and holistic impact. This study contributed to a deeper understanding of the unique transformative qualities that women leaders, particularly African women, bring in effective advocacy leadership. This study also contributed to the scholarly literature in filling a research gap about the characteristics of women leaders as advocates, and their impact on the education of the girl child in Africa, particularly in Sierra Leone. Research limitations and recommendations for future research were presented.

Towards a Model of Transformational Pastoral Leadership: A Socio-Rhetorical Analysis of Paul’s Letter to the Philippians

William Timothy Gregory | 2020


It is local pastors’ responsibility and the privilege of helping their congregational members to step into the transformation that God has called each of His followers to experience. God brings the transformation, but the local pastor helps to facilitate it, and must lead in a manner that brings their congregational members to a place where they can grow and mature, being continually transformed into the new creation to which God has called them. Therefore, pastoral leadership must be transformational in nature, ushering in the transformational change that comes with spiritual maturity and growth. I sought to examine the Book of Philippians through a social rhetorical analysis to answer three questions. Firstly, what are the implications of transformational leadership from a biblical perspective? Secondly, what are the implications of pastoral leadership from a biblical perspective? Thirdly, does the Book of Philippians offer a biblical framework for transformational pastoral leadership? If so, what are the constructs? Through analysis, I identified twelve themes regarding transformational leadership and pastoral leadership. I identified three themes surrounding transformational leadership: (a) needed transformation; (b) distinctively transformed behavior; and (c) ongoing transformation. I identified nine themes surrounding pastoral leadership: (a) godly examples; (b) personal attention; (c) authentic behavior; (d) gospel infusion; (e) corrective (f) teaching; (g) clarity of vision; (h) humility, (i) sacrifice; and (j) looking to Christ. Through the social rhetorical analysis, I identified a clear and strong framework for a model of transformational pastoral leadership, containing six constructs: (a) eternal perspective; (b) Great Commission driven; (c) humbly sacrificial; (d) personal involvement; (e) Scriptural evaluation; and (f) Christ dependency.

The Moderating Role of Subordinate Political Skill in the Relationship Between Abusive Supervision and Affective Organizational Commitment

Daniel Holmquist | 2020


This study responded to the need for additional research into abusive supervision (a) from a subordinate perspective, (b) on effective coping strategies, and (c) using broad leadership concepts. The dissertation examined the moderating role of subordinate political skill in the negative relationship between abusive supervision and the outcome of affective organizational commitment. This quantitative study surveyed employees’ perceptions of their experiences of abusive supervision, their political skill, and their affective organizational commitment. Participants consisted of adult full-time employees in the United States who have worked at their present place of employment for at least 5 years and who interact with their abusive supervisor at least weekly. Multiple regression analysis revealed that social astuteness moderated the negative relationship between abusive supervision and affective organizational commitment; however, interpersonal influence, networking ability, and apparent sincerity did not moderate this relationship. This study provides a more intricate explanation of the impact of abusive supervision on affective organizational commitment. Social astuteness, as carried out by subordinates, functions as an effective coping strategy. This investigation opens up many opportunities for future research on the role of social astuteness in moderating the negative outcomes of abusive supervision, which will continue to contribute to the growing understanding of, and solutions to abusive supervision.

The Last Discourse: Jesus and Sensegiving in the Gospel of John

Elizabeth Kathrina Hunt | 2020


The purpose of the study rested in seeking the sensegiving practices Jesus used and expressed in the last discourse to the disciples in John 14-16 and how those practices inform what scholars have proposed about sensegiving in organizational change. John 14-16 includes Jesus’s last words directed toward the disciples before his death and resurrection. As the most extended section of dialogue attributed to Jesus in the New Testament, the text focuses on Jesus‘s verbal attempts to help the disciples make sense of his impending departure. As such, the text provides a significant data set to analyze in terms of rhetorical sensegiving practices by a leader preceeding a substantial change. The analysis supported previous research that has highlighted the role of the leader as a meaning maker and sensemaker, the need to address both cognitive and emotional aspects in sensegiving, and the use of persuasive methods in sensegiving. The sociorhetorical inner-texture analysis of John 14-16 produced two principles, several methods, and several functions related to sensegiving. First, the study provided the principles of attending to relationship and role ambiguity as important components the sensegiving process. Second, the analysis provided a clear picture of the use of persuasive and cognitive methods in managing and guiding affective states during sensegiving. Finally, the analysis provided support for the functions of the last discourse as empowering, advising, consoling, teaching, and critiquing and also provided a link to and expression of these functions as part of the sensegiving process.

Development of an Instrument to Measure Leadership Excellence

Annette Twahirwa Kirabira | 2020


The study focused on developing an instrument to measure leadership excellence. There is a need to see leadership excellence globally, but in Uganda or East Africa particularly, there are no assessment tools to measure this construct (Cooper, 2001; Dorfman, Javidan, Hanges, Dastmalchian, & House, 2012; Gutterman, 2009; Kiggundu, 1989, 1991). Leadership excellence is defined as being a result of exceptional performance in four dimensions—personal qualities of a leader, managerial behaviors of a leader, organizational demands, and environmental influences (Kanji & Moura E Sá, 2001; Selvarajah, Meyer, Nathan, & Donovan, 2013). DeVellis’ (2003, 2017) eight steps for scale development were followed in developing the instrument. A literature review was conducted, out of which 111 items were generated. The items were reviewed by a panel of experts and reduced to 87 items. An online survey with a 5-point scale was created and administered to 530 participants who scored the items based on the extent to which they described leadership excellence based on their leadership experiences/encounters. The sample size was in alignment with DeVellis’ (2003) recommendation of a minimum of 300 participants for scale development. Factor analysis was conducted on 406 participant results after cleaning the data; a two-factor model emerged, accounting for 66% of the variance. Factor optimization resulted in a two-scale instrument; the two scales were labelled leader qualities and leadership behavior. The process generated six items per scale of The Leadership Excellence Instrument with Cronbach’s alpha of .947 and .949 for each scale, respectively. The Leadership Excellence Instrument can be used in hiring, organizational development, and future research to inform how leadership excellence may be assessed in various settings and cultures.

Emotional Intelligence as a Moderator of the Relationship Between Followership Behavior and Influence Ability

Lavoy Love | 2020


The study of organizational leadership focused on a leader’s ability to influence followers (Humphrey, 2002). Goleman (1998) asserted leadership used emotional intelligence ability to affect influence as part of the leadership process. With the emergence of followership research, Kelley (1992) contended effective followers possessed attributes similar to those of effective leadership. This study extended research informing the similarities between leadership and followership behavior founded on literature supporting the congruence between effective leadership and exemplary followership behaviors (Kelley, 1992), the existence of a relationship between followership and emotional intelligence (Nicolet, 2014), and the existence of a relationship between leader emotional intelligence and influence ability (Hong, 2016). This study investigated the moderating effect of emotional intelligence on the relationship between followership behavior and influence ability. Followership behaviors consisted of the courage to assume responsibility, the courage to serve, the courage to challenge, the courage to participate in transformation, and the courage to take moral action (Chaleff, 1995). This study included the use of online surveys to collect data from 116 members of an online community of leaders and aspiring leaders. The survey instrument informed follower behavior, as measured by the Followership Profile (E. N. Dixon, 2003); an emotional intelligence score, as measured by the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (Schutte, Malouff, & Bhullar, 2009); and participant influence sophistication, as measured by the Cialdini Influence Quiz (Cialdini & Goldstein, 2004). Bivariate correlational analyses provided support for positive relationships between followership and emotional intelligence along with followership and influence. Furthermore, a multiple regression procedure supported the statistical significance of the moderating effects of emotional intelligence. This research resulted in findings supportive of the similar nature of leadership and effective followership. However, an opportunity emerged from the findings as leadership informed a relational process, while followership manifested itself as a behavioral relationship linked to the leadership process through a complementary and supportive interactive role.

The Relationship between Professional Identity and the State of Flow in Adjunct Faculty Leaders

Kristan M. Price Mason | 2020


A phenomenological bounded case study was performed, which involved interviewing seven adjunct leaders to address two research questions, in order to understand the relationship between professional identity and the capacity to achieve the state of flow among adjunct faculty leaders in higher education. After answering questions to indicate; (a) professional affiliation identifying with their role as an adjunct, and (b) achieving flow in their position, participants answered 10 open-ended questions during an individual interview. The findings of this study suggest that adjunct leaders serve as leaders in academia as; (a) lifelong learners, (b) knowledge workers, and most often (c) serve in multiple work roles along with their peers. The shared characteristics amongst adjunct leaders who achieve flow per the findings of this study include but are not limited to; (a) an authentic leadership style, (b) a high standard for self, (c) a desire/passion for teaching, and (d) an investment in students. This research contributes to the existing literature on the role of adjunct instructors in higher education. In this study two existing gaps in the literature on adjunct instructors are also addressed which includes, (a) the leadership role undertaken by the academic adjuncts along with their faculty peers, and (b) the relationship between professional identity and achievement of flow among adjunct leaders. The intent of this study is to contribute to the existing literature by identifying self-motivated, engaged adjunct professors, and discerning common traits in their professional identity, and its relationship to their capacity to experience a state of flow as leaders.

The Organizational Impact of Fair Process on Perceptions of Integrity and Trust Within the Salvation Army in Canada

Andrew John Morgan | 2020


The organizational communication concept of fair process offers organizational members a voice in decision making, improves the sharing of information around decision making, and facilitates clarification of decisions made within the organization. Kim and Mauborgne’s (1997, 2003, 2005) three-part fair process model features engagement, explanation, and expectation clarity. Kim and Mauborgne’s model aligns with the three categories of Daly and Geyer’s (1994) Procedural Fairness, Employee Voice, and Justification scale. This research investigated a correlation model proposing relationships between the fair process communication dimensions of procedural fairness, employee voice, and justification (independent variables) and perceived leader integrity and perceived leader trust (dependent variables). The study employed a nonexperimental, cross-sectional quantitative approach to investigate the research hypotheses. The data collection methodology and sample were designed to focus on Salvation Army officer leaders in Canada and yielded a data sample of 162 participants. The results indicate that fair process expectation clarity (procedural fairness) is a predictor of both perceived leader integrity and perceived leader trust and that engagement (employee voice) is a predictor of perceived leader trust. Explanation (justification) was not found to be a predictor of perceived leader integrity or perceived leader trust. Discussion of theoretical and practical implications and operational relevance and insight for The Salvation Army is offered from the results of the study. The conclusion reviews limitations to this study and recommendations for future research. This study marks an important contribution to the body of knowledge by offering a never before researched organizational impact of fair process on perceptions of leader integrity and perceptions of leader trust.

Keywords: fair process, organizational communication, integrity, trust, engagement, explanation, expectation clarity, procedural fairness, employee voice, justification

Building an Ethical Backbone: Leadership and Virtue as Antecedents of Moral Courage and the Moderating Effects of Ethical Disengagement

Tom Morris | 2020


Because of the current ethical and moral pressures facing contemporary organizations and leaders (ECI, 2018), this dissertation was designed to add to the empirical research surrounding the area of moral courage. According to Detert and Bruno (2017), little is understood by both practitioners and researchers about the antecedents of moral courage. However, because of the potential professional and personal threats that may come with making individual ethical decisions, training opportunities remain a challenging target for Human Resource and Development (HRD) professionals. In order for individuals to make the best moral decisions in their daily work environment, they will need to possess a moral backbone developed through authentic leaders and virtuous organizations. Using Detert and Bruno’s (2017) classification of antecedents, the following research argues for the antecedents of authentic leadership and virtuous organizations, along with the moderator of the propensity to morally disengage as predictors of moral courage. Participants consisted of 213 adults who have enrolled in a leadership development seminar through a U.S. non-profit training organization. A cross-sectional, quantitative, nonexperimental research design was used to perform hierarchical multiple regression analysis on the hypotheses while controlling for age and gender. Findings indicated partial support for authentic leadership and organizational virtue as antecedents of moral courage with the propensity to morally disengage behaving as a moderator. Implications for HRD professionals, along with suggestions for future research, are included.

The Role of Leadership in the Social Resilience of Alabama Churches Impacted by Natural Disaster

Elizabeth Ashley Newcomb | 2020


The success of an organization depends on many factors, including relationships. Organizational success is impacted by such relationships as those between leaders and followers within the organization, the relationships between the organization and other organizations, the relationship between the organization and the environment, and the relationships between the organization and the community. In addition to the overall success, these relationships also impact the social resilience of the organization. The social resilience of an organization is determined by how the organization processes a threat presented by the environment, such as a natural disaster, and how the organization survives, evolves, and even thrives after the event. This dissertation examined the behavior of leaders within socially resilient organizations to determine which leadership behaviors were associated with organizational social resilience. By using a phenomenological approach in which six participants were interviewed using qualitative methodology, a picture was formed of leadership behavior from two mainstream evangelical Christian churches. Both of these mainstream evangelical churches were located in Wetumpka, Alabama, and experienced catastrophic destruction through a tornadic event occurring on January 19, 2019. Through interviewing three participants from each organization, fifteen meta-themes emerged as related to the behavior of senior pastors leading socially resilience organizations. These meta-themes included: (a) acts of faith, (b) acts of service, (c) charity, (d) acceptance/inclusion, (e) consistency/continuity, (f) openness, (g) shared identity, (h) community involvement, (i) rapid response, (j) communication, (k) interpersonal connection, (l) encouragement, (m) corporate worship, (n) decision-making, and (o) empowering followers. Although additional research is needed to confirm the findings and examine further generalizability, this study serves to fill a gap in the literature regarding the role of organizational leadership in organizational social resilience.

Women in Ecclesial Leadership: An Exegetical Study of Galatians 3:26-29

Edna M. Perkins | 2020


Galatians 3:26-29 proclaims that all who have received Christ as Lord and Savior are sons of God, suggesting that women have equal authority in the church. Galatians 3:28 has received substantial scholarly attention in recent years as part of the modern-day Christian debate of the role of women in the church. Galatians 3:26-29 proclaims that all in Christ, men as well as women, are sons of God, clothed with Christ, and heirs of the promise given to Abraham. However, there are still those in the modern church who limit this spiritual empowerment by asserting that women are not authorized to have teaching and authority roles over men. This study purports that the canonical established essential qualities of Galatian 3:26-29 in the New Testament demands that this passage is an authoritative instruction to all the church for every generation and all dwellings. The actual meaning of this passage is critical for our times, and we ought to discover how the Galatians understood the text. Hence, in light of the present confusion for many Christians, Galatians 3:26-29 was investigated by setting this verse in its historical and cultural context before examining the biblical exegetical intricacies involved. My methodology was social–scientific criticism and sociohistorical criticism, having the fundamental postulation that taking into consideration the historical conditions under which literature was created leads to a closer comprehension of the original meaning of the texts to their writers and first hearers. This is a textual study, exploring the history of the interpretation of Galatians 3:26-29 that may or may not have influenced the lives of women in various communities throughout the early church. The study concludes how the verses were understood and how they may or may not affect leadership roles for women in the modern church. When Galatians 3:26-29 and the implication of what it means to be a son of God are fully understood, it will be noted that a woman can be empowered and anointed to minister in the Spirit with full leadership roles with no limitations.

Followership and Personality

Sarah Rolle | 2020


The purpose of this paper was to describe the predictive relationships between the personality dimensions of HEXACO on followers’ Critical Thinking and Engagement. Based on the literature review, the researcher developed 12 hypotheses to guide the data collection and analysis. The researcher administered the HEXACO Scale and Kelley’s Followership Scale through an online survey tool and performed regression analysis on the resulting 111 follower responses. The results revealed that certain personality dimensions significantly predicted follower Critical Thinking and Engagement. Specifically, Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience positively predicted follower Critical Thinking, and Emotionality negatively predicted follower Critical Thinking. Honesty-Humility and Conscientiousness positively predicted follower Engagement, and Emotionality negatively predicted follower Engagement. These results have corresponding implications for organizations, leaders, and followers. Organizations can use these findings to improve hiring and promoting by placing followers with the desired attributes in select positions. Leaders could employ their knowledge of the follower’s personality, Critical Thinking, and Engagement to build teams and develop followers. This knowledge assists followers through self-awareness, self-improvement, and peer-mentorship. This is the first study to investigate the HEXACO dimensions of personality on followership using multiple regression. Future researchers should expand the field of followership through follower-centric studies.

The Co-Shepherd Metaphor: An Examination of the Ecclesial Leader’s Identity Formation Using a Sociorhetorical Analysis of Acts 20:17-38 and 1 Peter 5:1-11

Adam Schwenk | 2020


The research examined the role of the shepherd metaphor in the context of an ecclesial leadership team. The study utilized sociorhetorical analysis on the content in Acts 20:17-38 and 1 Peter 5:1-11 in order to observe the relationship between shared leadership theory and the ecclesial team’s identity formation of shepherding. The research revealed positive convergence of the constructs. Specifically, the results demonstrated five themes: teamwork, shepherding techniques, humility, mentorship, and perseverance. Also, these themes produced 10 principles for ecclesial leaders to implement in their organizations. For instance, the first principle is that teamwork shares the workload. Further, the results revealed the potential for a new shared ecclesial leadership theory to be tested.

The Nature of Leadership in Artificial Intelligence Environments: Reconceptualizing Human and Machine Collaboration

Shawn Gilbert Sejera | 2020


An exploration regarding the nature of leadership in organizations that have implemented artificial intelligence technologies in an effort to improve organizational performance is presented with specific discussions about the role, process of development, identification of desired and undesired organizational attributes, and resulting leadership changes necessary for the effective application of artificial intelligence technology. This qualitative phenomenological study uses organizational leadership and artificial intelligence as the conceptual frameworks for guiding research. The critical incident technique (CIT) serves as the method for collecting observations of behavior and discovering practical solutions to complex organizational problems. Research findings may offer leaders information they can use to more effectively lead their organization’s efforts in artificial intelligence environments. Implications for further research regarding the dynamic of leadership, artificial intelligence technology, and the future of organizational leadership development are noted.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, business, organizational leadership

Enhancing Performance: A Model for Collective Efficacy

Suzana Dobric Veiss | 2020


Collective efficacy serves as an important determinant of performance. This study, a sociorhetorical criticism inner texture analysis of Joshua 3 and 4, attempted to determine the significance and implications of the Israelites’ crossing of the Jordan River. Given the importance of collective efficacy beliefs to effective organizational performance, the current study asked, Does the collective efficacy evident in the Israelites crossing the Jordan support or negate the contemporary understanding of the concept of collective efficacy? By examining the collective efficacy of the Israelites, this study contributed to the contemporary understanding of the concept of collective efficacy. The study identified important principles that help increase the understanding of collective efficacy construct at the group, organizational, and national level. Based on these principles, a model of collective efficacy was presented.

Make Me Stay: A Multiple Case Study on Church Engagement Among Young Adults in the United States

LaKeisha Williams | 2020


A growing concern in American churches is the attrition of young adults. Included in this concern is the lack of engagement of those who continue to attend. Previous research on Seventh-day Adventist youth revealed a number of themes on factors that contribute to the retention of youth in the denomination. Related peer-reviewed, research-based studies are dated over a decade ago; new information is needed to continue the conversation. This study explored the current factors influencing church engagement among young adults in the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Phenomenological methods were employed in this multiple case study involving three Seventh-day Adventist Churches in the eastern, southern, and southwestern United States. Twenty-three in-depth, open-ended interviews of young adults age 22-35 were coded to ascertain specific factors influencing church engagement. The findings indicated that factors influencing church engagement are multidimensional. The results were combined into four larger themes, and a new definition of engagement, namely church engagement was introduced. Given the findings, engagement is the personal investment of a person’s preferred self into a desirable task. In the case of desirability for young adults engaged in church, it is influenced by relationships, affirmation, opportunities for service, and a sense of spiritual responsibility. Based on the findings and to examine factors in varying contexts, further study is recommended to address three areas: cross-religious, cross-cultural, and countercultural study. Findings will contribute to a greater understanding of young adults and their participation in religious-based and other nonprofit organizations.

The Values Communicated by Crisis Leaders After Crises: Coding American Presidential Crisis Documents for Values to Refine the Discourse of Renewal Theory

Jimmie Winters | 2020

Abstract The purpose of this study was to refine the discourse of renewal (DOR) theory as described by Ulmer, Sellnow, and Seeger (2015) by identifying the specific values 10 top-rated presidents in crisis leadership communicated after national crises to make the theory more value-focused and helpful as a guideline for future presidents and crisis leaders. The DOR theory’s ethical communication component emphasizes the importance of using values in crisis communications, but it does not adequately specify specific values crisis leaders should communicate after crises begin. Furthermore, scholars have not sufficiently studied the specific values communicated by the top-rated presidents in crisis leadership in the wake of crises. With this in mind, this study sought answers to two research questions. First, what values did the 10 top-rated American presidents in crisis leadership communicate after national crises occurred? Second, did practical themes emerge from an examination of the crisis communications of the 10 top-rated American presidents in crisis leadership that might assist future presidents or organizational leaders more effectively communicate their values in the wake of crises to help foster renewal? This study used a qualitative research design and methods to address the research questions by collecting and analyzing data from a purposeful sample of presidential crisis documents from 10 top-rated American presidents in crisis leadership, according to C-SPAN’s (2017) Presidential Historians Survey. Saldaña’s (2013) coding methods (i.e., values coding) and Dedoose, a qualitative data analysis program, were used in the first cycle of coding to analyze the presidential crisis documents for values as described by Rokeach (1973), Schwartz (1994), and other scholars (DiMaggio, 2015; Durant, 2006; Erisen & Villalobos, 2014; Kinnier, Dannenbaum, Lee, Aasen, & Kernes, 2004; Steele & Redding, 1962; Ulmer & Sellnow, 2002). In the second cycle, focused coding helped refine and further categorize the identified values for themes. As a result of the coding process, 15 primary values communicated by the 10 top-rated American presidents after crises appeared, and five practical themes that may help future crisis leaders foster renewal emerged.

Dyadic Influence Processes in Cultural Context: An Examination of Emotional Contagion Susceptibility in American and Indian IT Workers

Meagan Marie Zajac | 2020


Few trends have received as much publicity or attention in managerial circles as the topic of managing diversity (Prasad & Mills, 1997). As the modern workplace becomes increasingly culturally dimensional, managers are faced with “innumerable tensions, conflicts, and contradictions” that management literature “tends to ignore or gloss over” (Prasad & Mills, 1997, p. 5). As previous research has demonstrated, these cultural contradictions and tensions can have significant work outcomes, impacting decision making, productivity, morale, and group cohesion (Barsade, 2001). As such, this research effort is intended to help address what Prasad and Mills (1997) referred to as a “significantly under researched and undertheorized phenomenon” by examining one of the many complexities that underlie workplace diversity—the relationship between dyadic influence and cultural disparity (p. 5). Using a previously validated psychometric instrument, this study quantitatively examined emotional contagion susceptibility across individualist and collectivist cultures, specifically Indian and American IT and software industry professionals. Testing the hypothesis that Indian IT workers will report statistically higher levels of emotional contagion susceptibility than American IT workers, this study administered the Emotional Contagion Scale (ECS) to 82 Indian IT workers and 88 American IT workers. Bivariate profiling methods, to include an independent samples t test were conducted. Research results indicated the test was highly significant thereby rejecting the null hypothesis and supporting the premise that Indian IT workers on average reported higher levels of emotional contagion susceptibility than American IT workers as measured by the ECS. These findings present a range of implications for both the theory and praxis of cross-cultural management and contemporary organizational behavior, not only addressing critical gaps in the literature but offering empirical evidence to inform management approaches and globally literate managers as well as contributing to constructive influence dynamics and organizational function in a culturally evolving workplace.

Management Best Practices for Business as Mission Organizations: A Case Study of GAJ Marketing in the Philippines

Thepiolus Herrera Aspiras | 2019


The purpose of this qualitative study is to evaluate the operations of a Business as Mission, or BAM, organization to develop a list of best management practices promoting employee engagement for BAM practitioners. The study that was conducted centered on GAJ Marketing, a BAM organization in the Philippines, whose leaders are known to display great care and concern for their employees and staff. Interviews were conducted with the leadership, employees, and subcontractors of GAJ Marketing. A focus group session was also held with a group of subcontractors. A Tagalog/English interpreter was hired to facilitate the interviews, during which suggestions for interpreter-facilitated interviews provided by Williamson et al. (2011) were utilized. The process of epoche, phenomenological reduction and imaginative variation as discussed by Moustakas (1994), was used during the data-gathering portion of the study. During data analysis, the first coding cycle and second coding cycle involved identification of common themes within the dataset; Atlas.ti was then used to facilitate the remainder of the data analysis process. The result of the analysis process is a list of best management practices promoting employee engagement for BAM organizations.

Authentic Leaders, Employee Innovation, and Employee Creativity in Telecommunication Cooperatives

Esther Bobo | 2019


This study examined authentic leadership and its relationships with employee innovation and employee creativity within nonprofit telecommunication cooperatives. The goal of the study was to determine if authentic leadership positively influenced follower innovation and creativity. The participants included 80 nonmanagerial employees within two telecommunication cooperatives. A correlational research design was used to test for a positive relationship between authentic leadership, employee innovation, and employee creativity. The results showed that there was not a positive relationship between authentic leaders and employee innovation within nonprofit telecommunication cooperatives. Similarly, the results showed that there was not a positive relationship between authentic leaders and employee creativity within nonprofit telecommunication cooperatives. Implications of these findings are discussed, as well as strengths and weaknesses of the study. Future directions for studying authentic leadership, employee innovation, and employee creativity are suggested.

Servant Leadership: The Effects on Work-Family Conflict and Work-Family Positive Spillover

Daniel Cancino | 2019


The research study examined the effect of servant leadership on work-family conflict and work-family positive spillover in the United States. The research study utilized previously tested scales including the Essential Servant Leadership Behaviors (ESLB) (Winston & Fields, 2015), Work-Family Conflict subscales:Time-Based Conflict (TBC), Strain-Based Conflict (SBC), Behavior-Based Conflict (BBC), (Carlson, Kacmar, & Williams, 2000), and Work-Family Positive Spillover Scale subcategories: Affective Positive Spillover (APS), Behavior-Based Positive Spillover (BBPS), and Value-Based Positive Spillover (VBPS) (Hanson, Hammer, & Colton, 2006) to examine the effect of servant leadership on conflict and positive spillover from the work to the family domain while controlling for age, gender, number of dependents, and years of work experience. The population sample was randomly selected and queried via Facebook and emails and included 121 male and female participants from a cross-sectional sample of the general population. The research results concluded that essential servant leadership behaviors demonstrated a significant effect on strain and behavior-based conflict as well as behavior-based positive spillover (BBPS), and value-based positive spillover (VBPS). Conversely, the research results failed to find significant correlation between essential servant leadership behaviors and time-based conflict or affective positive spillover.

The Moderating Effect of Emotional Intelligence on the Relationship between Servant Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in the Medical Device Industry

Charles Conrad | 2019


The quantitative research tested the moderating effects of the emotional intelligence constructs of intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, stress management, and general mood on the relationship between the single construct servant leadership and the constructs of organizational citizenship behavior, including interpersonal helping, individual initiative, personal industry, and loyal boosterism, resulting in the creation of 20 separate hypotheses. The sample population included 104 usable responses out of the 112 total respondents (N = 104) within the U.S. medical device industry. Multiple hierarchal regression analysis validated that 8 of the hypotheses indicated a moderating effect on the servant leadership and organizational citizenship behavior relationship. The construct of stress management did not moderate any of the servant leader and organizational citizenship behavior relationship constructs, while the personal industry construct of organizational citizenship behavior indicated a statistical significant relationship with the other four emotional intelligence constructs. The research concluded with a focus on the significance of the findings and the theoretical implications resulting from the research leading to recommendations for future research. This research provided supporting evidence for the importance of emotional intelligence within organizational leadership theory by demonstrating the moderating effect on organizational production, thereby providing further support on the importance of including emotional intelligence training within medical device organizational sales and marketing training programs.

Individual, Team, and Organization Antecedents of Shared Leadership in Knowledge Organizations: A Case Study Analysis of a Neuroscience Clinic in the United States

Theresa M. Creel | 2019


The purpose of this study was to identify individual, team, and organization antecedents of shared leadership in knowledge organizations. This study showed leadership as a shared, dynamic, interactive, and multidimensional process involving formalized and nonformalized leaders (Pearce & Conger, 2003). Researchers first focused on shared leadership theory in the 1990s (Pearce & Conger, 2003); given the theory’s newness, there is a substantial need for an additional empirical study on the antecedents of shared leadership (Bligh, Pearce, & Kohles, 2006). Research questions in this study included the following: What individual, team, and organization antecedents support the development of shared leadership in complex knowledge organizations? How do individuals evolve from mature self-leadership to shared leadership within teams (Bligh et al., 2006)? Why do organizations implement shared leadership, and how do organizations facilitate shared leadership (Bligh et al., 2006; Pearce & Conger, 2003)? The research method for this work was a qualitative single case study, given its applicability for researchers in addressing complex how and why questions. This case study included the purposeful selection of 1 neuroscience clinic as a knowledge organization. Data were triangulated to include individual interviews with leaders, a focus group interview, field observation, and review of organizational documents and videos. The analysis of this case study used deductive and inductive approaches. Researcher analysis included using ATLAS.ti 8 to analyze extensive data in the iterative process of coding, pattern development, and themes. Primary themes indicated individual antecedents of job fit, self-leadership, and faith. Team antecedents indicated team culture, relational, interactive, and empowerment. Organization antecedents indicated knowledge workers, organizational commitment, and development. Organization leaders and others may find value in this study and gain insight into using shared leadership at full integrated levels or as a combined approach with vertical leadership. This study further contributes to the extant literature on shared leadership.

Authentic Followership and Psychological Ownership

Roderick D. Dailey | 2019


The study explored the relationship between authentic followership and psychological ownership. Although research about authentic followership has developed, psychological ownership research has expanded. This quantitative research study used the Authentic Followership Profile Instrument developed and validated by VanWhy (2015) and the Psychological Ownership developed by Avey and Avolio (2007). The relationship between authentic followership and psychological ownership was analyzed utilizing Pearson correlation analysis from a sample size of 175 participants from 9 regions in the United States. Twenty hypotheses were presented to assess the research question: What is the relationship between authentic followership and psychological ownership? The results showed a positive, moderate, and significant relationship between the dimensions of authentic followership, including internalized moral perspective, relational transparency, self-awareness, and psychological ownership, and the dimensions of psychological ownership, including territoriality, self-efficacy, accountability, sense of belongingness, and self-identify. The findings of the research contributed to the developing body of knowledge about authentic followership and expanding this knowledge relating to psychological ownership in the field of research.

An Exploration of the Relationship Between Collegiate Coaches’ Transformational Leadership Perceived by Student-Athletes and Impact on Winning Percentages and Graduation Rates

J. Lin Dawson | 2019


The purpose of this correlational designed study was to determine the relationship (positive or negative) between collegiate coaches’ transformational leadership styles as perceived by student-athletes and the impact on winning percentages and graduation rates. The participants included football student-athletes of the Power 5 Football Conferences who competed for the national football championship as members of the Football Bowl Subdivision. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Rater Forms measured student-athletes’ perceptions of their head coaches’ transformational leadership behaviors. Additional data were collected from institutions’ archives (winning percentages) and the National Collegiate Athletic Association database (graduation rates) for each football programs. This study found evidence to support adding a scientific approach to interviewing potential head coaches for the 20 plus openings that occurred each year in Power 5 Conference institutions. Further, the study surmised that as the transformational leadership attributes and behaviors of the head coach rose, so would the winning percentage.

Leader–Member Exchange in Matthew 17: 1-23 and Jesus Developing High-Exchange Relationships (In-Groups And Out-Groups) and Leadership Development

Geoffrey Dudley | 2019


This study examined the leadership of Jesus Christ through the lens of Matthew 17:1-23 in order to compare his leadership with the constructs of leader–member exchange (LMX). Moreover, to discover if there are pastoral leadership implications of LMX on developing leaders for the local church, the study used social rhetorical analysis as its research methodology. Eight themes and seven leadership principles for the local church and leadership development emerged from the study. Jesus’ leadership and management of in-groups and out-groups before, during, and after his transfiguration on the Mount of Transfiguration ultimately answered the question that Jesus was the Son of God and, consistent with that answer, Jesus’ leadership reflected LMX theocratical principles as he developed high-exchange relationships with his disciples. He did this while maintaining an egalitarian atmosphere amongst the disciples and fending off the outside influence of the Pharisees. This study created a framework for future studies of small-group development and maintenance within the local church as well as showed how to grow a church through developing believers into disciple leaders.

The Trauma in Organizational Change: Correlation Study of Change Fatigue and PTSD in the Workplace

Blair Rhodes Ellis | 2019


This quantitative research study explored the concept of organizational change, specifically change fatigue and its impact on the psychological well-being and indicators of trauma among employees. Employees from an American regional community college participated within the study and responded to prompts from two questionnaires, Change Fatigue Instrumentation and the PTSD Civilian Checklist (PCL-C). These instruments compiled non-parametric quantitative data and were analyzed utilizing the Spearman Rho correlation analysis. Results from this study determined whether there was a correlation between change fatigue and PTSD within the work environment of non-military and non-first responders. Results gathered from this study support the further research of work-related trauma in relatively traditional work environments. Additionally, this research introduces the need to explore leadership characteristics that influence employees’ wellness and health.

Case Study: Multiple Intelligences in Leadership

Irini Fambro | 2019


Multiple intelligence theory presents an overlap of trait and behavioral theory in the discussion of leadership. Gardner pioneered the multiple intelligence theory, including linguistic intelligence, musical intelligence, logic-mathematical intelligence, spatial intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, and intrapersonal intelligence. Although scholars have focused on the differing categories of intelligence, little work has been conducted on using the categories of intelligence in leadership. To address this gap in the literature, a qualitative instrumental case study was conducted to answer the following research question: How and why are leaders using multiple intelligences in leadership? Based on the literature, the categories of intelligence for the study included linguistic intelligence, logic-mathematical intelligence, emotional intelligence, knowledge intelligence, temporal intelligence, cultural intelligence, and spiritual intelligence. The sample included 3 highly influential leaders of megachurch and para-church ministries who influenced over 2,000 individuals utilizing purposeful sampling. Interviews included 1 for the leader, 1 for the follower, and 1 for the leader and follower. The literature determined the in-depth questions and follow-up questions, which explored the “how” and “why” behind respondent answers. To ensure validation and credibility, the analysis employed data saturation through triangulation. The study resulted in all 3 leaders using all 7 intelligences. Multiple coding in data analysis revealed 3 themes under “how” and 3 themes under “why” leaders utilized multiple intelligences in their leadership.

A Socio-Rhetorical Study of Romans 12:1-21: An Exploration of Chaleff’s Courageous Followership Dynamic of Responsibility in Relationship to Theistic Personalism

Phillip Demond Fletcher | 2019


This dissertation involves expanding the limited literature of personalism within organizational leadership, specifically theistic personalism and its relationship to the organizational leadership theory of followership. Researchers of theistic personalism have proposed human beings possess personhood because of the existence of the Supreme Personal being, God. Ira Chaleff (2009) proposed the existence of courageous followers possessing five dynamics that included responsibility, service, challenge, participative transformation, and moral action. I investigated the relationship theistic personalism had with followers who practiced the dynamics of personal responsibility. As those of theistic personalism and followership have expressed human ontology and experiences respectively, this dissertation conducted a sociorhetorical analysis of a New Testament sample of Romans 12:1-21 to understand ways self-perceptions influenced responsibility. Analysis indicated followers actualized behaviors of reciprocity for in-group members and actualized behaviors based on interrelatedness for hostile persons. The practices of personhood and responsibility included dedication, mental renewal, humility, truth, and love influenced individual follower responsibility. The followership styles of partner and implementer influenced follower responsibility in presence of challenge. The themes of acceptance, compassion, and participation entailed themes of personhood and a Supreme Personal God. I recommend organizational leaders communicated value and dignity of followers with consistency to develop space for followers to conduct the reported follower practices.

Creating an Instrument to Measure Holistic Ethical Leadership

Tariku Fufa Gemechu | 2019


This dissertation aimed to develop a scientifically validated instrument to measure the holistic ethical leadership. There is a lack of a statistically validated instrument to measure the concept of holistic ethical leadership as a single construct (Johnson, 2018; Scouller, 2014). This study operationalized the concept of holistic ethical leadership and provided an accurate and valid instrument for measuring the construct. The holistic ethical leadership model in the current study comprises the holistic leadership (Best, 2011; Dhiman, 2017; Kiruhi, 2013; Winston & Patterson, 2006) and the ethical leadership concepts (M. E. Brown, Treviño, & Harrison, 2005; Ciulla, 1999, 2004, 2009, 2014; Johnson, 2018; Treviño, Hartman, & Brown, 2000). The steps that were taken to develop the holistic ethical leadership instrument follows DeVellis’ (2017) eight steps for scale development. During the literature review, 224 items characterizing the holistic ethical leadership traits emerged. After a panel of subject matter experts reviews, the items were reduced to 81, and an online survey with a 7-point semantic differential scale testing employees’ perception of leader’s holistic ethical leadership traits was created and administered through SurveyMonkey™ to a wide variety of 628 participants from 13 regions of the world who work in 10 organizations under the umbrella of Campus Crusade for Christ International across the globe. DeVellis suggested a minimum of 300 samples for scale development works, and the 628 sample size is far greater than the requirement. Factor analysis (principal component analysis) was performed, and a seven-factor model was observed, accounting for almost 69% of the variance. However, factor optimization resulted in a final five-factor instrument that accounted for 70% of the variance. The five factors were labeled holistic service, ethical influence, integrated competence, financial stewardship, and healthy life. The five factors had high reliability. The final 23-item, five-factor instrument is labelled the Holistic Ethical Leadership Questionnaire (HELQ) with an average Cronbach’s alpha of .87 for each factor. The HELQ provides scholars and practitioners with a brand new, valid, and reliable instrument for future research and application related to the holistic ethical leadership.

Considering the Impact of Leadership Succession in Hebrews 13:7-19: A Study of Global Christian Leaders

Marcel Hattingh | 2019


Reflecting on the characteristics of leadership, the Bible becomes a rich source that accounts for both the positive and the negative. Keeping this in mind, one area in which most biblical leaders seem to have failed is that of raising effective successors—a challenge that continues up until the present day in both the ecclesial domain and the greater organizational environment. Few scholars have engaged this challenge from a scriptural point of view. Of these, none have addressed the reference to succession found in Hebrews 13:7-19. The narrative setting is that of second-generation church leaders, who are encouraged to follow in the footsteps of the first. What were the key considerations conveyed to them, and what validity does it hold for modern day society? Consequently, the methodological approach to the study is twofold. First, a firm and credible understanding of the textual reference is gained through sociorhetorical analysis—more specifically, the methods of intertextual criticism and social and cultural criticism. The outcome of the exegetical study is the articulation of six interview questions. Following on the exegetical component, an in-depth qualitative approach has been employed, incorporating elements from both phenomenology and case study, to gain insight into modern-day relationships between Christian leader predecessors and successors. Triangulation is also utilized that explores the biblical interpretation of the text, correlating and contrasting views of the interviewed participants, and various perspectives amongst the church and other Christian organizational leaders. The results presented not only contribute to the foundation of a Bible-based succession planning model but also open the way for further quantitative research into the phenomenon of leadership succession.

The Impact of Entrepreneurial Leadership on Authentic Followership in Nigeria and  the United States  

Oiseomokhai Imoukhuede | 2019


This study examined the impact of entrepreneurial leadership on authentic followership due to calls for more research on both constructs. The control variables for the relationship were gender, the position of the follower, and whether the evaluated leader was a founder or not to investigate the impact of entrepreneurial leadership on authentic followership in Nigeria and the United States. The research question was: Does the perceived entrepreneurial leadership of a leader have any impact on the internalized moral perspective, relational transparency, self-awareness, and psychological ownership components of the authentic followership of employees in Nigeria and United States? This study measured the perceived entrepreneurial leadership behaviors exhibited by founders and leaders of an organization utilizing the ENTRELEAD scale developed by Renko, El Tarabishy, Carsrud, and Brännback (2015), while the authentic followership scale by VanWhy (2015) measured the authentic followership of the employee. The impact of entrepreneurial leadership on authentic followership was analyzed using multiple regression analysis from a sample size of 257 participants (119 Nigeria, 138 United States) from a random list of startups, nonprofit, corporate, and educational organizations. Four hypotheses were presented to test the research question to determine the impact of perceived entrepreneurial leadership on authentic followership in Nigeria and the United States. The findings indicated that entrepreneurial leadership impacted authentic followership in both countries in the areas of relational transparency and self-awareness dimensions; however, the relationship was partially accepted in Nigeria when it came to psychological ownership and internalized moral perspective due to differences inposition of the participants.

Servant Leadership Theory: A Comparative Study Between University Students from Nigeria and the United States

Joseph Iwuala | 2019


This exploratory study examined the theoretical servant leadership variables of agapao love, humility, altruism, trust, empowerment, and service (Patterson, 2003) between university students from Nigeria and the United States who evaluated their teachers as servant leaders. Simple and multiple regression analyses were used to test the correlations between these seven variables in teachers as servant leaders in both Nigeria and the United States to determine their servant leadership perceptions. A t-test analysis was used to answer the research questions relating to the servant leadership cultures of both Nigeria and the United States. The results of this study provided a new leadership model for Nigeria and perhaps for other sub-Sahara African countries that have not adopted servant leadership praxis in their organizational leadership. Participants (n = 458) were university students from Year 1 to Year 4 who evaluated the perceptions of their teachers as servant leaders in both countries utilizing a data collection questionnaire developed by Dennis and Bocarnea (2005) on the servant leadership model of Patterson (2003). Six research hypotheses were developed for each of these countries’ leadership cultures. Seven research questions guided this study to answer the organizational leadership cultural differences relative to gender in both Nigeria and the United States. This study highlighted the differences in servant leadership cultures that exit between Nigeria and the United States in the context of Patterson servant leadership theory.

Exploring the Experiences of Women Leaders in the Nuclear Power Industry

Tamara Kenney | 2019


This qualitative study explored the experiences of women leaders and nonleaders working in the nuclear power industry. This study used a phenomenological approach, using in-depth interviews with an interview guide to explore the experiences of participants. A purposeful sampling technique was used to recruit four women leaders and four women nonleaders to participate in the study. Data was collected through conducting in-depth interviews using an interview guide. Interview responses were analyzed using the first cycle coding methods of structural, descriptive, In Vivo, and values coding to generate 44 codes. The second cycle coding methods of focused and pattern coding were then used to arrange the codes into 12 themes including: culture, education, environment, glass ceiling, motivation, networks, nuclear power, self-efficacy, support, technical skills, women in nuclear, and work-life balance. Responses painted a picture of a changing industry where women are still in the minority, particularly in leadership positions. The early culture was dominated by a ‘good old boys’ mentality with limited opportunities for women but the culture is changing to be more inclusive with opportunities for women. Networks and support were highlighted as key elements for women to be successful in this industry. Insights into opportunities for nuclear power companies to recruit more women include supporting STEM programs and internships for women. An important insight for nuclear power companies is the need to address work-life balance challenges to encourage more women to work in this industry and to pursue management and leadership positions. This study provides insights for nuclear power companies to address existing challenges and encourage more women to work in this industry and pursue leadership positions.

Identification and Measurement of Servant Leadership in Early Childhood: Parent Perspectives

Aderonke Kujore Adelekan | 2019


Considering the notion posited by the grandfather of servant leadership that leadership traits were found in children as early as preschool, this study set out to identify and measure servant leadership scientifically in early childhood, as defined by the Division for Early Childhood and the National Association for the Education of Young Children, using parent perspectives. The study was based on an adaptation of the Servant Leadership Behavioral Scale because of its reliability above other servant leadership instruments. As part of the study, parents had a chance to rate their children using a 32-item Likert like scale. The results were analyzed, which resulted in a 10-item, two-factor scale that identified and measured ethical transforming influence and a call to service in children ages 4 through 8. This study was particularly significant because although leaders spent billions of dollars on leadership development, there continued to be a lack of ethical, caring, and effective leaders globally. The study was the first to consider the identification and measurement of servant leadership in early childhood for developing leadership during the most developmentally active stage of an individual’s life. The study had some shortcomings that limited its reliability and generalizability. Some of the shortcomings included the sample size and sample demographics, which although minimally enough, carried opportunities to strengthen the research. The study suggested additional research for validation and generalization, and it proposed leveraging this work for the development of more ethical, caring, and effective leadership.

An Examination of the Role of the Ethical and Moral Aspects of Servant Leadership in the Development of Restorative Justice in Organizations through a Socio-Rhetorical Analysis of Isaiah 42:1-9 and Matthew 12:15-21

Kamerin Lauren | 2019


Ethical and moral leadership act as the cornerstones to effective organizational dynamics. Servant leaders are endowed with these characteristics, as well as the call to place others’ needs before their own. The purpose of this study was to consider the utilization of restorative justice as written in Isaiah 42:1-9 and Matthew 12:15-21. Isaiah prophesied of the coming Servant that would bring justice to the nations, and Matthew 12:15-21 echoed Isaiah’s words, indicating the prophecy had been fulfilled. In the Servant’s proper interpretation of God’s law, Jesus taught of the merciful and restorative nature of God. I uncovered 5 fundamental principles regarding morals, ethics, servant leadership, and restorative justice: (a) The Servant’s call to restorative justice is inclusive, (b) the servant leader is morally and ethically driven, (c) the servant leader considers social and cultural ideologies while creating organizational norms reflecting servant characteristics, (d) the servant leader champions restorative justice in organizations, and (e) servant leaders extol and exercise righteousness. Jesus, the foretold and fulfilled Servant, provides a model for modern day servant leaders to not only empower but also to restore people to right relationships with one another, as well as with the communal organization of which they operate.

The Impact of Entrepreneurial Leadership Competencies on Business Success for SME Start-up and Growing Business Ventures in Namibia

Shirley Tuwilika Ndapandula Magazi | 2019


The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of entrepreneurial leadership competencies on business success for small and medium enterprise (SME) business ventures in Namibia by examining the relationship between entrepreneurial leadership competencies, business life-cycle, and business success. A nonexperimental cross-sectional quantitative research study design was employed to study the relationship between entrepreneurial competencies, business success, and business life cycle. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the different entrepreneurial competencies required at the different stages of SME business ventures, the effect of entrepreneurial competencies on business success, and how entrepreneurial competencies influence business success for business ventures at the different stages. The intent of this study was to establish the relationship between entrepreneurial competencies, business life cycle, and business success. The nexus of this study was entrepreneurial competencies as predictors of business success for SME business ventures. Both financial and nonfinancial measures were incorporated to reflect business success. The study findings revealed that there was no relationship between entrepreneurial leadership competencies and business stages, between entrepreneurial leadership competencies and business success, and entrepreneurial leadership competencies and business success at the four stages of the business life cycle. The significance of this study was the advancement of entrepreneurial leadership and entrepreneurship research in a developing country. The implications of the findings require training programs and mentoring programs to device measures of equipping SMEs with skills to translate entrepreneurial competencies into meaningful contributions for the business by developing practical ways to apply entrepreneurial competencies to business operations and management. This will translate entrepreneurial competencies into application within the business context. Future research could explore the moderating effect of the business environment and entrepreneurial orientation on the relationship between entrepreneurial competencies, business success, and business stages of the business life cycle.

Attributes of Successful Leaders: A Phenomenological Study on the Making of Successful African American Information Technology Leaders Through the Lens of Social Identity

John Kojo Odoom | 2019


Through a phenomenological study of 10 Black female leaders in the IT sector, the study answered two questions: To what do successful female leaders in senior IT positions attribute their success, and what recommendations would these leaders make to other African American females who aspire to senior positions in IT? The findings from this study were not completely consistent with the literature. The findings indicated that these Black women were successful leaders because they demonstrated nurture, care, and consideration. Their ability to become the prototypical leader was not due to embodying the behavior and attitude of the group but in demonstrating nurture, care, and consideration; the exercise of their own high personal standards, according to the ranking of the themes, was the most significant in their lives. The answers to the questions showed that the leaders were prototypical because they could demonstrate nurture, care, and consideration. These qualities gave the leaders the abilities to enter the social landscape of their subordinates and meet the needs and concerns of those subordinates. The study contributed to the scholarly and practitioner literature in filling a research gap about how Black women leaders could become the prototypical leader in the IT sector, which was dominated by White males at the time of this study.

The Impact of Colonization and Authentic Leadership on Africa: Nigeria, A Case Study

Jonathan Chibuzo Okeke | 2019


Chaleff (2003) inferred that when all factors of success are combined, the principles of stability and prosperity can mutually reinforce one another and ensure continued development. Bjugstad, Thach, Thompson, and Morris (2006) added that a sound and good governance is considered one of the most crucial components of economic development. To produce political stability and enhance economic growth, productivity, and the development of infrastructure, appropriate metrics and reformative leadership must be identified. Authenticity, integrity, and effective management of human and material resources, in addition to a clear and practical vision for Nigeria’s future, form the patterns for peace, stability, and coexistence among the geopolitical regions of the nation. The patterns for peace will impact on all stakeholders—internal and external organizations—to promote an interest that would directly influence the progress of state institutions and enhance the socioeconomic situation in Nigeria. By this measure, the state functions and the possibility of development in the short and long term can greatly be improved with the effort of authentic leadership to learn how to effectively manage the affairs of the nation of Nigeria and position it for global competitiveness. The current research study explored and investigated from a leadership perspective the impact of colonization on Africa and the effect of authentic leadership on the political, social, and economic development in the Nigerian context. By the method of open-ended interviews, a phenomenological approach was utilized to capture the understanding of how authentic leadership positively impacted Nigeria in an effort to overcome some of the negative effects of colonization. In-depth interviews were utilized to examine questions relating to leadership trust and morality, the negative effect of colonialism, and leadership accountability. Data were explicated and results showed that corruption and poor management are the root causes of crises, fighting, and killings in Nigeria as well as the lack of social, economic, and political stability. This study will significantly enhance the understanding of scholars, researchers, and authors, as it relates to organizational leadership in the context of Nigeria in this 21st century.

Missionary Teams as Complex Adaptive Systems: Understanding the Impact of Multiple Embedding Contexts on Team Coherence

Jeffrey James Singfiel | 2019


This dissertation applied one model of complex adaptive systems (CAS) theory to missionary teams to determine the impact of their multiple embedded contexts on team coherence. The literature on missionary teams falls into two broad approaches: scholars contributing to member care literature with few contributions to the leadership of missionary teams, and professional and trade writers addressing practitioners. None of these approaches examine missionary teams as a group phenomenon. This study explored a missionary team as a group phenomenon using CAS theory, thus addressing a gap in the missionary literature and utilizing the recent applications of CAS theory in groups. The CAS literature indicated a group’s contextual environments impact the coherence of the team. This study asked the research question, to what degree do a missionary group’s various environments or multiple embedded contexts impact the coherence of the group? To answer the research question, a single case study methodology was used to examine 1 missionary team operating in Europe. The embedded contexts included its sending organization, U.S. partner churches, and local partners in the host country. The research confirmed these embedded contexts do impact team coherence through the flow of their resources and attempts to address their own fitness needs. Implications for researchers and practitioners, the significance of the study, and its limitations conclude the study. Recommendations for future research include further exploration into the local and global CAS dynamics of missionary groups, particularly the impact of the team’s local resource network.

Examining the Roles of Sacrifice, Spirituality, and Stewardship in Ethical Leadership Theory from a Socio-rhetorical Analysis of 1 Corinthians 9

Karen Marie Smith | 2019


This study examined the roles of spirituality, sacrifice, and stewardship in ethical leadership theory by comparing the leadership principles found in Paul’s letter of 1 Corinthians 9. This study assessed ethical leadership theory from the standpoint of values and virtues that proceed from the inner life of the leader in the form of sacrifice and stewardship while setting the premise in a context of spirituality. This study offered a multidimensional view of ethical leadership by pairing the social scientific aspect of the theory with that of a Christian worldview and the exegetical analysis of the biblical text, bridging the gaps of the lack of cohesion of the leadership concept. This exegetical process was developed in the purview of socio-rhetorical analysis was applied particularly to 1 Corinthians 9, which yielded three themes from which seven principles for leadership studies were discovered from Paul’s letter to the Corinthians. It was found that the principles in 1 Corinthians 9 generally support the literature on the principle of leadership as mimetic, the principle of leadership core values/virtues framework, and the principle of morality in leadership. In the case when there were differences, it was found that the principles of 1 Corinthians 9 expand and elevate the standards found in the literature. The study concluded that there is a close connection between Christian Scripture and secular contexts such that the ethical and moral ideals of the Christian faith can engage and influence the ethical values of a secular cultural context and reconstruct them through the revelation of Jesus Christ. The study discovered the values of spirituality, sacrifice, and stewardship as new and interesting domains for further study of ethical leadership.

Leading Racial Reconciliation: Understanding the Role of Africans in the Bible

Siobhan Danielle Spruill | 2019


This study examined if there were any biblical justifications for the lack of diversity in Christian organizations in America. Moreover, this study reviewed the type of jobs, functions, duties, and roles people of African descent held in the Holy Bible. This study of racial reconciliation in Christian organizations in the United States of America draws from the literature on racially and culturally based organizational theories like microaggression, critical race theory, cultural deficiency theory, and upper echelon theory. Research contained in this study followed the exegetical methodologies outlined in social–cultural texture analysis and ideological texture analysis. The data from this study were interpreted for principles connected to reconciliation around culture and race in America and organizations. This study revealed five themes to help understand the role, job, duties, and functions of people with African heritage throughout the Old and New Testament. The results of this study demonstrate that current-day believers of the Bible may have a misunderstanding of the presence of Africa and Africans in the Bible, which may be a contributing reason to why there is an absence of people of African descent in leadership roles in Christian, for-profit organizations. The five themes summarize the findings of the sociorhetorical analysis and function as the guideline for future research about other cultures documented in the Holy Bible.

Authentic Leadership Effect on Workplace Spirituality: A Quantitative Evaluation

Shirley Ann Suarez | 2019


Organization leaders must contribute to the whole person. Therefore, this dissertation researched the impact of authentic leadership on workplace spirituality from the perspective of the employees by asking the following question: Does authentic leadership positively affect workplace spirituality? Based on Ashmos and Duchon’s (2000) Spirituality at Work Scale and Neider and Schriesheim’s (2011) Authentic Leadership Inventory, this researcher proposed that the constructs of an employee’s perception of authentic leadership (relational transparency, internal moral perspective, self-awareness, and balanced processing) were positively related to the constructs of an employee’s self-report of workplace spirituality (inner self, meaningful work, and sense of community and connectedness). SurveyMonkey was used to survey a random sampling of employees from the Augusta, GA area. A multiple regression analysis was conducted using a survey constructed from the Authentic Leadership Inventory and Workplace Spirituality scales. The questionnaires received 156 respondents with 118 completed results, meeting the reliability amount established by Hair, Black, Babin, and Anderson (2010), where they recommended studies should include 15 to 20 participants per variable for multiple regression. They stated that regression analysis was useful to most areas of business strategy and planning. The independent variables were relational transparency, internal moral perspective, self-awareness, and balanced processing, and the dependent variables used included inner self, meaningful work, and sense of community and connectedness with control variables of gender, age, and tenure. Gender was significant for all variables, and age for some. Although most of the hypotheses were rejected, these findings opened opportunities for more research and study into the subject. Two hypotheses showed a significance in an authentic leader’s self-awareness and internal moral perspective impact on the employee’s meaningful work factor in workplace spirituality. This dissertation adds to the literature and research to assist organizations in reflecting on the type of leadership that lends to an employee’s workplace spirituality.

Identifying Leadership Development Needs of Dental Hygienists Using an Online Delphi Technique

Kelly Gale Tanner | 2019


Leadership is necessary for many aspects of the dental hygiene profession, including research, patient care, education, public health, and in regulatory and governmental affairs. Although dental hygiene research consistently demands the “need to develop leadership” within the dental hygiene profession, the amount of planned and intentional leadership education/training for dental hygienists is limited. The purpose of this online Delphi was to investigate the opinions of dental hygienists to understand leadership needs of dental hygienist and preferences of how the leadership skills should be developed. The study included dental hygienists with expertise in 7 areas of dental hygiene, clinical dental hygiene, administration, education, public health, entrepreneur, corporate, and research. Through the evolution of the online Delphi using a crowdsourcing platform, the most critical leadership skills and leadership skills development preferences were identified. The most critical leadership skill identified for dental hygienists was the ability to work with others at all levels, including speaking, writing, listening, and compromising when necessary for the overall good. The study showed that dental hygienists preferred leadership development delivered using a multi-prong approach that included effective training modules, seminars, books/videos and collaboration with mentors, coaches, and role models, while catering to an individual’s learning style. As dental hygienists develop leadership frameworks, sustainable leadership strategies should be interwoven into the methods by which leadership is imparted. By strengthening leadership, the profession of dental hygiene will have an influence on health systems to improve and influence oral and overall health.

Unearthing the Definition and Attributes of Peace Leadership: An Exploratory Holistic Bounded Case Study

Gia R. Tatone | 2019


This dissertation is an exploratory holistic bounded case study that used empirical research methods to construct the definition of peace leadership and unearth its attributes. The need for evidence-based research in the field of peace leadership is great (Alomair, 2016; McIntyre Miller & Green, 2015; Ricke-Kiely, 2016; Van Zyl & Campbell, 2018). While the concept of peace leadership exists, it has been a neglected field of inquiry and, therefore, has not been thoroughly developed or empirically examined. This study used a triple tier process by utilizing three different data collection approaches to create the holistic research design to unearth the definition of peace leadership and its attributes, which involved conducting and analyzing in-depth interviews and a focus group discussion of individuals who have worked for or with a peace leader, as well as an autobiographical selection of a peace leader identified through literature. Additionally, multiple coding methods and coding cycles were utilized in the qualitative data analytic (QDA) process. These included: Descriptive, Initial, In Vivo, Holistic, and Middle Order Coding for the first cycle of coding, followed by Axial and Focused Coding for the second cycle. The results were then triangulated to test for consistency and cross verification from all three methods, which provided stronger validity and reliability (Creswell, 2014; Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2011; Patton, 2015). As this study provides raw data from real-world context, it serves as a resource for scholars and practitioners, who are interested in peace leadership, and can be used for future research in addition to leader development. By studying peace leadership through specific research methodology, evidence-based findings are now provided for scholars and practitioners to gain a better understanding of peace leadership upon which they will be able to build.

Relationship Between Followers’ Perceptions of Authentic Leadership Regarding Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment

Todd Lowell Terry | 2019


Having a better understanding of how to comprehend a follower’s perceptions of a leader’s authentic leadership ability is advantageous as organizational success is often dependent upon the leader’s actions or behaviors being understood (Kirshman, 2005). This study explored how authentic leadership behaviors are perceived by a leader’s followers regarding job involvement and organizational commitment. Using entrepreneurial organizations located in western Michigan as respondents to the research questions results indicated there is a connection between the followers’ perception of authentic leadership behaviors as these perceptions relate to an increase in a followers’ job involvement and to the followers’ organizational commitment. The intent of this study was to determine if a followers’ perception of a leader’s authentic leadership behaviors will positively affect a followers’ level of job involvement and organizational commitment. This study provides insight to the need to better understand how when an entrepreneurial leader displaying authentic leadership practices may have an opportunity to enhance their business.

Key words: Authentic Leadership, Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment

Authentic Leadership: A Study of the Relationship Between Authentic Leadership and Moral Values

Jose Villarreal | 2019


The study in this research expounded on the current need in Authentic Leadership (AL) research to better understand the moral aspect of the theory. The approach in this research study design included the comparing the variables of authentic leadership with the variables of Moral Values. An empirical, quantitative correlation field-study was conducted on a random sample of 100 participants in the United States. The Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) was used to measure the four variables of authentic leadership, and the Measure of Moral Values (MMV) was used to measure the four variables of moral values. The four ALQ variables were matched with the four MMV variables resulting in 16 hypotheses. The data collection process consisted of using SurveyMonkey® through LinkedIn and Facebook. In addition, printed questionnaires were administered in person to ensure the target sample size of participants. The data were uploaded to IBM® SPSS®, and a Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was conducted. The correlation analysis showed that 14 of the 16 hypotheses were positively correlated ranging from .28 to .55 at the p < .01 level. In addition, the Cronbach alpha coefficient was .95 for the ALQ and .73 for the MMV. The results indicated that an authentic leader’s morals encompassed the four MMV variables or descriptions, including making judgments based on the spirit of the law rather than just the letter of the law, expressing concern for the welfare of society as a whole, having the capacity to see both sides of an issue, and having concern for the sanctity of the individual. Future research should entail testing other moral variables to authentic leadership variables, as well as research in other countries and cultures.

Gossiping About the Supervisor: The Mediating Role of Follower Self-Esteem on the Relationship Between the Dark Triad Traits and Workplace Gossip

Fred Settuba-Male Wantaate | 2019


Although the dark triad traits and their work outcomes are of great importance to scholars and practitioners, there is a relative lack of research examining the possible mediating effect of follower self-esteem on the relationship between dark leadership and gossip in the workplace. The present study aimed to fill this research gap by empirically exploring the perceived relationship between leader dark triad traits and workplace gossip and examining the mediating role of follower self-esteem. The hypotheses were analyzed with data from a sample of 228 employees working for three Christian internationally based nongovernmental organizations located in Uganda. The results of the study failed to find support for the mediating effect of follower self-esteem on the relationship between perceived leader dark triad traits and workplace gossip. However, the results of the study revealed the existence of other possible mediating variables in the circumstances that impact the relationship between abusive leadership and gossip at work such as occupational tenure, workplace spirituality, getting along and getting ahead behavior strategies, and the national culture. The results opened possible gaps for future research, and they provide critical insight into the leader and follower personality interaction and the resultant workplace outcomes.

Content Analysis: Women of the Bible as a Leadership Model for Modern-Day Women

Jean Millicent Williams | 2019


This research examined the significance of the lives of women in the Bible and the leadership lessons and models that their life examples could offer modern-day women in leadership. The research also examined the details and nuances of success for women in leadership in modern-day society. The precedent of the phenomenon of the narratives of ancient women of the Bible as well as those of the

modern day both hold value and meaning. Women are in greater, more influential leadership positions today in every field in society than ever before in history. This research analyzed timeless, applicable leadership lessons from the lives of 12 women of the Bible utilizing the narratives of six women from the Old Testament and six women from the New Testament of the Bible to extract from their

experiences connotations of insightful leadership behaviors. The purpose of this study was to bring perspicuity to the leadership behaviors of modern-day women and provide applicable leadership lessons and models for successful leadership outcomes through a content analysis of multiple women of the Bible. A qualitative design approach was implemented. The participants were selected from 12 purposeful samples of women of the Bible—from various roles and entities from the Old and New Testament. The literature of the Bible concerning the life of each woman was interpreted through the research method of content analysis. Each narrative was summarized in an analytical memo. The findings were coded and condensed into categories and themes that derived conceptual leadership lessons for modern-day women in leadership. I compared the results of the content analysis

through the lenses of effective leadership concepts presented in the literature to demonstrate relevance. The goal of this research is to contribute to the body of knowledge regarding women in leadership and provide a substantial model of leadership for women, which acts as a catalyst for developing and enriching the capacity of women in leadership globally.

Keywords: gender, success, women empowerment, women in leadership, women of the Bible

The American Women in Leadership from the Suffrage Movement through the Present: National Culture, Values, and Behaviors Perspective

Alina Wreczycki | 2019


The purpose of this qualitatively study was to analyze extracts of texts written by 6 American female leaders: Carrie Chapman Catt, Eleanor Roosevelt, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Nancy Reagan, Oprah Winfrey, and Michelle Obama. The goal was to find themes that were translated into value representations to answer the research questions. This work involved Heider’s (1958) attribution theory, Hogg’s (2001) social identity theory, and Hofstede’s (1983) masculinity dimension with elements of assertiveness, ego, materialism, and rationalism. The examination of values/moral character traits of the 6 female leaders was taken from the perspectives of their exhibited behaviors and engagement with U.S. culture. Robbins’s (1996) socio rhetorical interpretation, specifically ideological and sociocultural textures, were used to create context of the eras in which incidents of interests involving female leaders had occurred. Findings were expected to inform and deepen insights into the leadership traits based on these women’s responses to perceived social injustice.

The Impact of Followers’ Expectations on Leaders’ Behavior: A Case Study of Church Leadership in Jordan

Emil Abujaber | 2018


Leadership is in the eye of the beholder was one of the foundational and revolutionary concepts of implicit leadership theory (ILT) that transformed the way leadership observers and scholars viewed the process and development of leaders in social settings. The focus of the literature moved to the cognitive structure and sense making processes of followers and their role in the system. Little attention was given to leaders and the influence of their information-processing mechanisms and ILT structure on their behavior. To that end, this study explored the influence of followers’ expectation on leaders’ behavior. Through a qualitative bounded case study design of six Christian leaders in local churches in Amman, Jordan, the study sought to answer three questions: How would leaders act and behave if their ILTs were in direct conflict with those of their followers? Would pastors conform to followers’ expectations if they clash with their own expectations, specifically if they conflict with the biblical core values? How do leaders develop the content of their ILT? The answers to the questions found that leaders’ behavior and adaptation under pressure depend on two factors: mature character and motivation. The study also found a number of pressure sources and confirmed that parents and other contextual variables influence the leader’s ILT structure. The study contributes to the scholarly and practitioner literature in filling a research gap of leaders’ ILT in a specific culture and provides several recommendations for future studies and applications.

The Relationship Between Employees’ Perception of Spiritual Leadership in Their Organizational Leaders and Employees’ Commitment to Stay with the Organization

Alexander Averin | 2018


Recent interest in the effects of spiritual leadership on organizational outcomes focused mainly on the impact of spiritual practices on the leader, as well as the relationship between spiritual leadership and group-level outcomes, thus leaving the link between spiritual leadership and individual followers’ behavior chiefly unexplored (Reave, 2005). The purpose of this research was to add to the understanding of the connection between spiritual leadership and followers’ behavior by addressing the research question of whether there is a relationship between employees’ perception of spiritual leadership of their organizations’ leaders and the employees’ commitment to remain with their organizations. This study proposed to explore this relationship by focusing on the vision, hope/faith, and altruistic love dimensions of spiritual leadership proposed by L. W. Fry (2003) and continuance commitment dimension of employee commitment as proposed by Meyer and Allen (1991). To answer the research question and test stated hypotheses, this study utilized a nonexperimental, cross-sectional, correlational research design and employed the Spiritual Leadership Theory Survey as well as the Continuous Commitment–High Sacrifice scale to collect necessary data (Allen & Meyer, 1990; L. W. Fry, Vitucci, & Cedillo, 2005; Powell & Meyer, 2004). The data were collected from 88 participants who were employed in nonprofit religious organizations in the United States. The results of the data analysis revealed a significant relationship between employees’ perception of their leaders’ vision and altruistic love and their continuance commitment. The relationship between employees’ perception of their leaders’ faith/hope and their continuance commitment was found to be not significant. The potential confounding influence of age, gender, and social desirability bias was also explored and found to be not significant. Implications and limitations of this study as well as recommendations for future research were also discussed.

Exploration of Followership Behaviors in the Workplace: A Phenomenological Study

Vicki S Bonner | 2018


Kelley (1998) acknowledged that the success of an organization depends on both the leadership and the degree of follower engagement. Baker (2007) noted that the scholarly research on followership is limited when compared to research on leadership. This phenomenological study presents the lived experience of followers in their work environments. This study addressed the following questions: How do employees view their followership role within their workplace and how does an employee’s perception of their followership behaviors influence their job satisfaction and job commitment in the workplace? The theoretical framework guiding this study includes self-concept, identity theory, followership behaviors, and job attitudes. The review of the literature contributed to the development of 11 open-ended questions to conduct in-depth interviews of 16 higher education employees representing various institution structures within the United States. This study used in vivo and pattern coding strategies to identify themes. The research questions were addressed from interpretations drawn from the data.

Creative Leadership and Innovative Climates in Ecclesial Settings: Comparing Current Church Planting Efforts to the Early Church in Acts

Justin Bowers | 2018


This qualitative study considered the concepts of creative leadership and innovative climates through comparative analysis of both five pivotal moments in the life of the early church in Acts and current church planting resources aimed at equipping church planting leaders in today’s North American context. The sociorhetorical method of interpretation was utilized to consider five narratives in Acts: (a) Pentecost, (b) persecution and scattering, (c) Cornelius and the Gentile mission, (d) the church at Antioch, and (e) the Jerusalem Council. Along with this, a qualitative meta-analysis of the most frequently used resources recommended from 13 church-planting networks and denominations is conducted. The rise of interest in creative leadership and innovative climates within organizations has become an increasingly popular area of interest in today’s organizational leadership literature (Florida, 2002; Puccio, Mance, & Murdock, 2011). However, little research exists pursuing the nature of innovation and creativity in the ecclesial setting; in fact, the research studying evangelistic effectiveness in the North American context only shows a decline of influence toward reaching those outside the church (Dickerson, 2013; Packard & Hope, 2015). This reveals a great need for ecclesial leaders and ecclesial research to begin to pursue and understand innovation and creativity for the sake of effective ecclesial leadership in this current context. This research demonstrates a wide gulf between innovation and creativity in the early church in Acts not as a point of pursuit but rather as a natural and adaptable part of the overflow work of God’s Holy Spirit and current church-planting materials that seem to be emphasizing to planters to create and innovate for the sake of effective contextualization but also to heed a warning that creativity can often be little more than a hazard and distraction from true, pastoral ministry. The current research serves to build a foundation for future research into creative leadership and innovative climates in ecclesial settings.

Exploring the Influence of Leader-Member Exchange(s) on the Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Commitment Among Telecommunications Employees

Bobby Thomas Carmickle | 2018


This study was designed to address the lack of data available regarding the extent of the relationship between leader emotional intelligence (EI) and employee organizational commitment (OC), and the potential influence leader-member exchange (LMX) might have as a moderating variable. I utilized a quantitative research design to test if a relationship existed between leader EI, as perceived by employees and member OC, and if LMX influenced (moderates) the relationship between leader EI and employee OC. The participants for this study were employees from a midsized southwestern telecommunications company in southern California. Three validated surveys were used to measure study variables. The Wong and Long Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS; Wong & Long, 2002) was used to measure EI of leaders, as perceived by employees. The three component model (TCM) Employee Commitment Survey (Meyer & Allen, 1991) was used to measure OC of employees. Additionally, the LMX-7 instrument (Bell, 2017) was used to measure LMX. Study predictor variables included the 4 dimensions of EI (self-emotions appraisal [SEA], others-emotions appraisal [OEA], use of emotion [UOE], and regulation of emotion [ROE]). Criterion variables included the 3 components of OC (affective commitment [AC], normative commitment [NC], and continuance commitment [CC]), and the moderating variable was LMX. Multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis was conducted to determine the relationship among the variables. The research results did not support a predictive relationship between any of the 4 dimensions of EI and any of the 3 components of OC. These were consistent with prior research findings that failed to establish a relationship between EI and OC (Boivin, 2013; Brent, 2017; Willyard, 2017). Conversely, the results did indicate a significant predictive relationship between the moderating variable LMX and each of the 3 criterion variables of OC (AC, NC, and CC). The results also indicated that LMX significantly positively moderated the relationship between leader ROE and employee AC, leader OEA and employee AC, leader OEA and employee NC, and leader UOE and employee NC.

A Phenomenological Study of Different Followership Styles as Perceived or Experienced by Officers and Non-commissioned Officers While Serving on Combat Missions in Afghanistan or Iraq Wars

Nestor Luis Colls-Senaha | 2018


The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the different followership styles, as experienced and perceived by United States Army officers and noncommissioned officers serving in combat situations in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars. Literature is almost nonexistent concerning followership in the military. In particular, what is not evident are the different followership styles exhibited by United State Army officers and noncommissioned officers in different situations. This qualitative study incorporated a hermeneutic phenomenological approach by conducting in-depth, semistructured interviews. The research was reduced to one central overarching question and several subquestions. The open-ended supporting questions further analyzed the phenomenon and divided the central question into supportive parts. Purposeful sampling was used to select 10 personnel from the 3rd Infantry Division, Fort Stewart, Georgia who served in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) or Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). Eighteen candidates were contacted; of these, 12 accepted and three later dropped out, which resulted in nine qualified participants. The research used NVivo, computer-assisted qualitative analysis software, to assist in coding and categorizing responses from the interviews. The sample population was limited to the 3rd Infantry Division, and the convenience sample may have impacted the data because it was chosen for the proximity to the researcher. The study concluded there is no one best followership style that is best for every situation.

A Qualitative Study of the Relationship Between Morality and Authentic Leadership

Probal DasGupta | 2018


This qualitative study explored the relationship between morality and authentic leadership based on a research question that inquired whether a high moral standard was required of an authentic leader in order for him to achieve a good outcome for society. The study adopted the phenomenological approach, using in-depth interviews and the guided interview technique, to explore the constructs. A purposeful sampling technique of the snowball variety was utilized to select 16 business leaders as participants. Data collection was done through in-person and telephone interviews. Data saturation was determined to have been reached with eight interviews; two more interviews validated the saturation. The statements and narratives collected were subjected to a thematic analysis involving coding and reduction procedures, and the patterns that emerged appeared to reflect some common and some divergent views of authentic leadership and morality. The study discovered that authentic leadership and morality appear to be related in various ways: (a) authenticity might be intrinsically moral because benevolence, genuineness, honesty, and goodness are common characteristics of both the authentic person and the moral person; (b) both the authentic person and the moral person appear to demonstrate the quality of integrity; and (c) authenticity and morality appear to share a dyadic relationship that, on the one hand, define the leader, and on the other hand, empower the leader to make good decisions, thereby facilitating a good outcome for society. In presenting its findings, the study also aimed to bridge the researcher–practitioner gap by providing some evidence-based guidelines for the practicing leader and the leadership consultant.

The Moderating Effect of Environmental Empowerment on the Relationship Between Personal Growth Initiative and Motivation to Lead Among African Americans in Corporate Organizations

DeVata Davis | 2018


Empirical research of personal growth initiative (PGI) and motivation to lead (MTL) among various cultural groups is scarce. Additionally, there are no studies relating environmental empowerment to PGI and MTL. Research on PGI has focused primarily on college students and addressed the cognitive and behavioral components that influence individuals to look for opportunities to engage in self-change and to seek opportunities to grow and develop. MTL research has focused on personality traits, sociocultural values, leadership self-efficacy, and past leadership experiences. Studies on environmental empowerment have addressed organizational outcomes such as job satisfaction, job performance, organizational commitment, and turnover. To this researcher’s knowledge, the current study is the first to examine the relationship between PGI and MTL and the influence of environmental empowerment on that relationship, specifically among African Americans in corporate organizations. This study used a nonexperimental, cross-sectional, quantitative approach to examine the moderating effect of environmental empowerment on the relationship between PGI and MTL among African Americans in corporate organizations. Hierarchical multiple regression and Pearson product-moment correlations were used to test the hypotheses. Results of this study did not fully demonstrate a moderating effect; however, dynamic structural framework proved to strengthen the relationship between intentional behavior and affective-identity MTL. Intentional behavior also proved to be the strongest predictor of affective-identity MTL and noncalculative MTL. Leadership experience and intentional behavior were the strongest predictors of social-normative MTL. Theoretical and practical implications as well as limitations of the study are discussed. Recommendations for future research are also provided.

Measuring Clergy Effectiveness: The Development and Validation of the Clergy Effectiveness Scale

Samuel P. Dobrotka | 2018


The purpose of this study is to operationalize the 64 characteristics within the domains of knowledge, skills, abilities, and personal characteristics (KSAPs) that DeShon (2010) identified as enhancing clergy effectiveness. A review of the current literature showed that clergy effectiveness instruments are inadequate due to age (developed in the 1980s), theological orientation (insufficient evangelical representation), and insufficient content validity and/or were based on secondary criteria. The methodology for the study closely followed the widely accepted steps for scale development identified in DeVellis (2017). The sample was comprised of church leaders, both staff and lay, who had a working relationship with the senior pastor for at least 1 year (N = 397). Churches of various sizes from five different denominations were selected using a snowball technique. Data were collected via an online Google Forms application, downloaded to an Excel spreadsheet where it was scrubbed, and then uploaded into SPSS V23.0 for analysis. Tests conducted on the data confirmed suitability for factor analysis—greater than a 5:1 ratio of participants per item, Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy (.965), Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity (significant at .000), and an assessment of the correlation matrix (most correlations greater than .5). Factor analysis was conducted using an orthogonal rotation (varimax). Four analyses were run before all of the cross-load and no-load items were eliminated. Scale optimization resulted in a final three-factor instrument consisting of 14 items. A scree plot substantiated a three-factor model. The three factors for the final clergy effectiveness instrument were socially adept (five items), professional competence (five items), and inclination to lead (four items). Scale reliability was substantiated by Cronbach’s alpha scores of .94 (socially adept), .89 (professional competence), and .73 (inclination to lead). Discussion included significance of the study, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research.

Testing Servant Leader Development in Student Life Workshops at Maranatha Baptist University

Jeffrey Drost | 2018


The purpose of this study was to extend servant leadership theory by exploring the seven virtuous constructs of Patterson’s (2003) theoretical model at Maranatha Baptist University (MBU) and to ascertain if MBU’s Student Life Servant Leadership Workshops (SLW) are effective at bringing about perspective transformation (King, 1998) by focusing specifically on the nurturing and development of Patterson’s seven constructs. Using a pretest/posttest quasi-experimental design with control group (Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, 2002), this study used Dennis and Bocarnea’s (2005) Servant Leadership Assessment Instrument (SLAI) to survey students from two samples: (a) residential students who attend the SLW and (b) online students (i.e., the control group) who receive no training on Patterson’s dimensions of love, altruism, humility, vision, trust, empowerment, and service. Data were collected electronically from students before and after the SLW intervention. Partial support of Patterson’s model was found in the SLAI responses for the residential sample among the relationships between love and humility, love and altruism, and empowerment and service. Similarly, partial support was found for Patterson’s model in the SLAI responses for the online sample among the relationships between love and humility, love and altruism, vision and trust and empowerment, and empowerment and service. The independent-samples t tests conducted using students’ paired pretest/posttest responses indicated that the SLW intervention did not produce a statistically significant effect on residential students’ perceptions of their leaders’ servant leader characteristics as measured by the SLAI. The study concludes with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications of not finding support for relationships among the remaining dimensions of Patterson’s model and for the inability of the SLW to produce a statistically significant effect on students’ perceptions of their leaders’ servant leader characteristics along with suggestions for future research. This study makes important contributions to the study of servant leadership theory and perspective transformation.

Servant Leadership Theory Across Subcultures: A Comparative Study Between Officer and Enlisted Leaders of the U.S. Air Force

Christopher B. Ferris | 2018


This research study investigated the theoretical servant leadership constructs of love, humility, altruism, trust, vision, empowerment, and service, developed by Patterson (2003), within two subcultures (officer-leaders and enlisted-leaders) of the greater culture of the U.S. Air Force. T-tests were used to investigate whether significant statistical differences were apparent between the two subcultures. Additionally, causal relationships between the seven constructs of Patterson’s (2003) servant leadership model were revealed using simple and multiple regression analysis to test these relationships. This study provided empirical cross subculture validation of Patterson’s (2003) theory in a military context. Overall, the evidence indicated both a both a high degree of statistical significance and a high degree of confidence that leaders of both subcultures (officer-leaders and enlisted-leaders) exhibited Patterson’s (2003) constructs of servant leadership. This finding added to the validity of the foundation previously developed by servant leadership experts and provided another platform for future investigation into servant leadership practices.

An Examination of the Relationship Between the Five Dimensions of Courageous Followership and Servant Leadership Within the U.S. Air Force

Bradley Green | 2018


The purpose of this research was to determine if there was a positive and significant relationship between the five dimensions of courageous followership and servant leadership. Based on an extensive review of the literature, it was determined that there had not been an empirical study to date that attempted to determine the correlation between courageous followership and a definition of servant leadership that included the construct of service. This study fills this gap in the literature by surveying participants to indicate their perceptions of their followership behaviors and their perceptions of the servant leadership behaviors of their leaders. The Followership Profile was used to measure followership behaviors, and the Essential Servant Leadership Behaviors Scale was used to measure one-dimensional servant leadership. The data were collected from military members who serve in one of the three components of the U.S. Air Force; data were analyzed with SPSS 24 software. A Pearson product-moment correlation was performed to determine if there was a significant relationship between the five dimensions of courageous followership and servant leadership. The findings from this study substantiated the assertion that there was a positive and significant relationship between the overall model of courageous followership and servant leadership. In addition, two of the five dimensions were positively and significantly correlated to one-dimensional servant leadership. This is the first study to find a correlation between courageous followership and one-dimensional servant leadership. This finding lays the groundwork for future studies. It is likely that the nature of the relationship is reciprocal with servant leaders causing courageous followership behaviors in their followers and courageous followers causing servant leadership behaviors in their leaders.

The Effects of Servant Leadership and Job Stress on Job Satisfaction Among Online University Administrators and Faculty

John Hargadon | 2018


The purpose of this research was to test the direct relationship between the level of servant leadership demonstrated by one’s direct supervisor and the level of job satisfaction reported by an employee, as well as the potential moderating effect of servant leadership on the proposed negative relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. Winston and Fields (2015) stated there is a dearth of research on the impact of servant leadership on individual and organizational outcomes; the current research proposes to help fill that gap in the literature. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Short Form; D. Weiss, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, 1967), Perceived Job Stressors scale (Kanner, Kafry, & Pines, 1978), and Essential Servant Leadership Behaviors (Winston & Fields, 2015) are the three previously developed and validated instruments utilized in this study. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (Cramer, 2007) was utilized to determine the predictive value of the independent variables (job stress and servant leadership) on the dependent variable (job satisfaction) at a significance level of .05. SPSS software was utilized to run all statistical analyses. Potential confounding variables, age and tenure, were controlled for statistically using the analysis software. Results failed to demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between job stress and job satisfaction, but a statistically significant relationship between servant leadership and job satisfaction was supported, as was a significant moderating effect of servant leadership on job stress and job satisfaction. Model and practical implications are discussed, as are study limitations and suggestions for future research.

Senior Pastor Servant Leadership, Leader Likability, and Church Attender Outcomes

Kelli S. Heinz | 2018


The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the relationship between senior pastor servant leadership behavior, senior pastor leader likability, and church attender organizational commitment, attendance, volunteerism, and giving. A sample of 329 active church attenders recruited from Facebook completed the survey. Analyzing the data using hierarchical multiple regression, the findings demonstrated that senior pastor leader likability predicted church attender organizational commitment (H1), church attender attendance (H2), and church attender volunteerism (H3) but did not predict church attender giving (H4). The findings also indicated that senior pastor servant leadership behavior independent of senior pastor leader likability predicted church attender organizational commitment (H5) and church attender giving (H8) but did not predict church attender attendance (H6) or church attender volunteerism (H7). The findings have implications for researchers in that the study expands the theory of servant leadership and leadership theory in general while introducing leader likability as a competing explanation for church attender outcomes. The findings have practical implications for church leaders and practitioners given the strong relationship between servant leadership, leader likability, and church attender outcomes.

Measuring Organizational Arrogance: Development and Validation of a Theory-Based Instrument

C. Victor Herbin III | 2018


This research described the formation of an emerging concept, organizational arrogance, and the development of an instrument designed to measure this organizational behavior phenomenon. This dissertation was completed in response to the established need for empirical evidence examining arrogant behaviors and their negative impact on organizational members and organizations in general. This study defined organizational arrogance as an organizational environment where leaders shaped a culture in which organizational members behaved with a sense of superiority, leading to overconfidence in organizational capabilities, dismissiveness toward internal and external needs, and disparagement of intraorganizational and interorganizational members. Using existing theories, this research developed and validated a 5-item measurement scale for organizational arrogance with a Cronbach alpha of .922, indicating a reliable instrument. Ongoing research reported findings on a variety of factors that played into organizational failure, including level of job satisfaction, employee engagement, morale, workplace stress, organizational culture, and ineffective leadership and followership styles. Findings from this study provided the body of knowledge opportunities for new exploration to gain further understanding of how organizational arrogance and its associated traits contributed to or birth from the dark side of leadership. The practical significance of this study was that it reinforced the idea that organizational culture remained a leader responsibility that required keen attention, astute observations, and immediate action to eliminate any signs of organizational arrogance.

Spirituality and Authentic Leadership Development in Neo-Charismatic Christians of Latin America Working in Nonreligious Organizations: A Phenomenological Study

Carlos Noe Alejandro Hernandez | 2018


Authentic leadership (AL) theory is a field of great interest due to its positive influence in an important number of leader, individual, group, and organizational outcomes. Spirituality can be an important element of AL development in order to facilitate a harmonic relationship between the individual’s identities (Klenke, 2007). This study explored the relationship between the leader’s religious beliefs and practices and the development of AL with an emphasis in theological reflection (TR). The researcher interviewed and analyzed the leadership experiences of five members of the Neo-Charismatic Christian (NCC) tradition who work in nonreligious organizations based in Latin America. The researcher employed phenomenological inquiry to elucidate how leaders incorporate their religious-based spirituality into their leadership development processes. To triangulate the information, the researcher used theory on AL and interviewed two subordinates per leader, except for one case where only one subordinate was interviewed. Findings indicated that the five components more frequently described in AL theory and all the positive-oriented behaviors (POBs) were observed in participants’ experiences, which support the presence and cultural affinity of AL in the Latin American context. Findings also showed that inputs related to spirituality were present among the clusters corresponding to four of the five AL components and within four of the six POBs, highlighting the importance of religious-based spirituality in the enactment of AL. Analysis of the emerging themes, indicated the possible existence of a different subidentity, self-tradition merge, operating within the spiritual identity system. Overall, when the leader has developed a spiritual identity, self-awareness and the other AL components will necessarily be developed partly in connection to elements of the spiritual beliefs and practices. These relationships were explicated in a model of TR for AL development based on Christian values and beliefs.

Broken Faith: A Qualitative Analysis of the Impact of Involuntary Termination of Pastoral Staff on Organizational Trust and Personal Spirituality

Robert B. Huizinga | 2018


Involuntary termination is the removal from employment unilaterally by the employer, where the employee was able and willing to continue providing services. Previous data showed that termination had negative social, psychological, and physical impacts on followers, and these impacts spread through the follower’s family. When funding dictates, pastors must be removed from their position to maintain the financial viability of the church. The purpose of this study was to understand how involuntary termination of a pastor, who was a spiritual leader and follower in the same spiritual organization, influenced their spiritual life and their trust in their local church, or even the ecclesia overall. Using a phenomenology of faith, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 participants with data collected on 13 terminations. The average age was 54.3 ± 11.7 years and an average time in ministry of 16.7 ± 8.5 years. All churches were congregationalist in nature. Analysis showed both denominational and team leadership organizational stressors. A senior pastor as authoritarian leader was associated with a lack of organizational checks and balances, a lack of denominational authority, a non-functional organizational structure, and a lack of overall leadership maturity. A circle of 2 or 3 (a small minority of leaders who change the course of the organization) reflected the highest density in antecedent and consequent events. Participants felt wounded by the church and reported looking to God for justice. Theological interpretation of the termination was not negatively impacted; the event was part of God’s sovereign plan, and God was asking for a change in their life. However, the termination was painful, as participants felt betrayed either by the church or by members, with churches challenging their theology or morality. Participants noted a decrease in organizational trust, either in the local organization or in the denomination. The most frequent PTs involved a change in feelings of trust in the church, a loss of trust in leadership, and a loss of trust in congregational governance. Involuntary terminations may happen, but church leaders should ask how they enact involuntary termination so that it authentically represents the love of Jesus Christ.

“Honestly, I Feel Like a Fake”: Uncovering the Relationship Between Impostor Phenomenon, Personality, and Achievement

Elaina Range Jackson | 2018


The seminal research on impostor phenomenon (IP) by Clance and Imes (1978) described it as an experience of highly successful individuals who are unable to internalize their success. The current research found that a person’s achievements could lead to feelings of self-doubt, a fear of failure, and ultimately feelings of phoniness. Over the past several decades, researchers have explored IP and its relationship to several factors. However, much of the early research on the phenomenon has included samples of undergraduate and graduate students and focused mainly on the understanding that IP is an experience of highly successful individuals. This study adds to the growing body of knowledge on IP and the factors that can predict a person’s experience with the phenomenon. The study specifically sought to understand the predictive relationship between the big five personality traits (Goldberg, 1990) and IP while controlling for level of achievement. Level of achievement was measured using three levels: employee, middle management, and senior or executive management. The sample included 190 working adults ages 18 and older. Through hierarchical regression analysis, it was found that while level of achievement was a significant predictor of IP, neuroticism or emotional stability was the most significant predictor of IP. The study contributes to the literature that seeks to expand the understanding of IP within a workplace context.

An Exploratory Quantitative Comparison of Direct Reports’ Perceptions of Entrepreneurial Leadership of Biotechnology Founders Versus Nonbiotechnology Founders

Lawrence Jones II | 2018


The purpose of this study was to test for empirical evidence to distinguish the entrepreneurial leadership behaviors of the biotech entrepreneur. A review of the literature showed that Shimasaki (2014) proffered that the biotechnology (biotech) entrepreneur is unique from all other entrepreneurs because the biotech entrepreneur not only has entrepreneurial skills but additional characteristics, such as being an accomplished life science business person, scientist, bioengineer, or physician. Unfortunately, no empirical data support exists for whether these additional characteristics would affect entrepreneur leadership behavior. The study methodology closely followed Thornberry (2006) who developed an Entrepreneurial Leadership Questionnaire (ELQ) to assess the various behaviors that each founder must have. The statistical software GPower 3.0 was used to determine that a minimum of 70 survey participants would be needed for each of the groups to achieve the 90% confidence interval. There was complete confidentiality and anonymity for the responses and names of the organizations. Data were collected via an online SurveyMonkey survey and then uploaded and analyzed with SPSS software. T tests were conducted on the data to confirm hypotheses. Four alternative hypotheses showed statistically significant differences at the 90% confidence level. The explorer importance, accelerator importance, miner importance, and miner frequency were identified as variables where the results were higher for biotech founders than nonbiotech founders. The research contributions for this study may initiate and expand the importance of understanding what founders of biotech firms may need to consider in entrepreneurial training and development.

Entrepreneurial Leadership in the Coffee Industry in Africa: A Phenomenological Analysis of the Relationship Between Leadership and Innovation in the African Coffee Value Chain

Frederick S. M. Kawuma | 2018


This doctoral dissertation focuses on the relationship between entrepreneurial leadership and innovation in the African coffee value chain. The argument is that despite its unique status as the birthplace of both commercial varieties of Arabica and Robusta coffee, the innovations and consequently the benefits in the sector have been external to Africa. The study responds to the research question: What are the underlying issues of entrepreneurial leadership that have held back innovativeness in the African coffee value chain and need identification and tackling if Africa is to realize the benefits of its resource? The study investigated the key characteristics of entrepreneurial leaders in the African coffee sector that could strategically position them to take advantage of opportunities and bring out significant innovations. In addressing the research question, a review of relevant literature examined entrepreneurial leadership, organizational culture, knowledge creation, creativity, innovation, and design thinking. A case study based on a purposive sample of 12 firms and drawn from the East African region, which accounts for more than 70% of Africa’s coffee exports, was conducted using a phenomenological design. Most respondents articulated their critical roles as entrepreneurial leaders, though in practice many were preoccupied with operational matters and were noted as giving less attention to issues of strategy. All leaders indicated a high level of exposure through international engagements and various networks, though such knowledge did not seem to lead to significant transformational innovations. There was limited evidence of application of disruptive approaches to the current status quo in the African coffee value chain. From looking at the strengths and deficiencies, unfortunately, only a minority showed evidence of fitting the accurate description of entrepreneurial leaders. The study pointed out areas of significant deficiencies, which if addressed could improve the entrepreneurial leadership in the sector. The study recommended areas of further research.

Facilitating Academic Entrepreneurial Education and Entrepreneurship Through Mentoring: Exploring the Potential Role of Professors at German Universities

Johann Kornelsen | 2018


Under the label of the “third mission,” the new requirement for European and German universities is to contribute actively to the future growth and prosperity of regions through the commercialization of research. Academic spin-offs are the flagship of the commercialization of research with those involved being mainly students. Due to the high failure rates of academic spin-offs, mentoring has been recognized as an effective means of entrepreneurship education and of reducing the failure rate significantly. While external mentors are visibly involved as mentors in the German context, the involvement of the professors that are closest to the new ventures is not researched at all. I explored the mental and structural determinants of professorial mentoring within academic spin-offs in Germany, which was the first study of that kind in Germany. The results of the study indicated entrepreneurial mentoring functions that could be provided by faculty members, at least as effectively as by external business mentors. Data were gathered through explorative qualitative interviews with 18 professors from different types of universities, national states, and faculties and a focus group with 5 higher education representatives. The data were analyzed through content analysis, combining a deductive and inductive approach. The interviewees reported that, while being open to interesting mentoring projects, most professors in Germany prioritized research and teaching instead of commercialization activities and mentoring. Participants stated most German professors were not suited to be ASO mentors. Even suited and motivated professors adopted a passive stance because traditional activities promised more reputation and career opportunities. Most students in Germany decide to become employed; therefore, there is a low demand for mentoring within academic spin-offs because few academic spin-offs are founded. The resistance of German higher education leaders and professors toward the third mission must be solved before mentoring can play out its strengths in entrepreneurial education. The results of the study indicated suggestions for European and German policy makers and university leaders to facilitate commercialization within German academia.

Followership and the Relationship Between Kelley’s Followership Styles and the Big Five Factor Model of Personality

Donald Robert Kudek | 2018


Kelley (1988), considered to be a pioneer in the field of followership, stated, “Followership dominates our lives and organizations, but not our thinking because our preoccupation with leadership keeps us from considering the nature and the importance of the follower” (p. 143). The lack of interest and/or research in followership has caused misunderstandings of the follower. Because many leadership theories incorporate personality traits that can “explain people’s behavior across different situations” (Barrick, Parks, & Mount, 2005, p. 745), the current research determined the relationship between an individual’s personality traits and followership characteristics. An instrument consisting of demographic questions; the 20-item Kelley’s Followership Questionnaire, which measures active engagement and independent thinking; and the 20-item Mini-International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) personality test, which measures a person’s Big Five personality levels of extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience was sent to 238 full-time working adults in the United States through SurveyMonkey®. With the survey data, a Pearson product-moment correlation was done to determine the strength of a linear association between each of the five personality types in relation to the two followership characteristics. A positive relationship was found between the personality characteristics of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience with the followership attributes of active engagement and independent thinking. The correlation strength ranged from .136 to .374 with all but one significant at the p < .01 level. Neuroticism was negatively correlated to both active engagement and independent thinking at the -.120 and -.133 levels, respectively. Although the research population was diverse, based on geographical location, age, organizational level, and work experience, the respondents indicated an ethnicity of 84% White/Caucasian. Future research should include a longitudinal study to determine if changes occur over time—research to determine if various demographic characteristics, including international cultures, would have an impact on the relationships.

Psychological Ownership: The Mediating Effects of Participative Decision-Making on Employees’ Attitudes and Identification Towards the Organization

Paul A. Kuffel | 2018


The possessions we choose to surround ourselves with in the workplace can influence the way we think not only about ourselves but how we think about the people around us (Dittmar, 1992). Employees create relationships with objects through a conscious owning and/or through a physical possession of the object(s) or felt as a relationship between person and nonphysical entities such as ideas, words, artistic creations, as well as other people (Pierce, Kostova, & Dirks, 2001). Expanding this knowledge of employee ownership in the workplace can offer leaders a route towards creating a more effective culture supporting and motivating workers as effective members of the organization. This study advances the psychological ownership literature by examining the effects of employee ownership in three ways: (a) looking at the effects of employees’ taking part in the decision-making process as a mediator of the relationship between psychological ownership and employee perceived control, (b) the effects of employees being part of the decision-making process as a mediator of the relationship between psychological ownership and organizational identification, and (c) evaluating the mediating effect of participative decision-making on the relationship between psychological ownership and perceived control and organizational identification. This study is important for leaders to help understand different factors motivating employees in the workplace. This study explored the relationship between psychological ownership, perceived control, and organizational identification when mediated by participative decision-making in a sample of U.S. government employees (N = 82). The results indicate that psychological ownership positively influences perceived control, and participative decision-making mediates the positive influence on perceived control. No significant relationship was found between psychological ownership and organizational identification or influence of the mediator in the relationship between the variables. It concludes with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of these findings, along with study limitations and recommendations for future research. This research helps to build a better picture for helping to understand how ownership and involvement in decision-making influences employees in the workplace.

Exploring Servant Leadership in a Top-Down Environment

Roosevelt Mareus | 2018


This study used both Greenleaf’s (1977) theory of servant leadership and Spears’s (1995) ten characteristics of servant leadership to explore the concept in a top-down environment. The study proposed to answer the research question: To what extent, if any, is a mayor of a metropolitan area in the Northeast region of the USA displaying at work the ten characteristics of servant leadership as defined by Spears? Twenty selected studies relevant to the current subject were reviewed. This study used an exploratory single-case study design and purposeful sampling techniques. The methodology consisted of in-depth, semistructured, open-ended interview with leaders from the community and employees from each of the various departments throughout City Hall. Thirteen participants who represented a diverse selection of community leaders and employees were interviewed because saturation occurred quicker than expected. Interviews, observation, and archival data were the primary sources of data collection. The key finding of this study revealed that four of the ten servant leadership characteristics as defined by Spears were dominant characteristics with regard to the mayor’s leadership style: building community, commitment to the growth of people, empathy, and stewardship. The scope of this research was limited to the mayor of a metropolitan area in the Northeast region of the USA. Future research should examine other mayors and governors in other regions of the USA using the framework of Greenleaf’s (1977) theory of servant leadership and as defined by Spears to explore if the themes found in this case study are found in other case situations.

Apostle Peter’s Cross-Cultural Leadership in Christian Missions to the Gentiles: A Sociorhetorical Analysis of Acts 10:1-11:18

Sonny Mathew | 2018


With cross-cultural leadership literature being sparse and cross-cultural studies predominately done under the auspices of global leadership studies, this study addressed the significant gap in religious cross-cultural leadership. The process of bridging the gap in religious cross-cultural leadership helped in developing a biblical model of cross-cultural leadership addressing cultural hegemony, the postcolonial theory, the Western missionary enterprise, and the boundary line between the global north and global south. The religious cross-cultural leadership particularities of calling, intellectual humility, religious messaging, and interreligious dialogue served as the foundation for a biblical model of crosscultural leadership. On an intrapersonal level, the biblical model of cross-cultural leadership included calling, as in the selection, personal leadership development, and assignment to a specific region within the eight major cultural zones of Western Christianity and the orthodox, Islamic, Confucian, Japanese, Hindu, African, and Latin American worlds. The biblical model of cross-cultural leadership engagements in cross-cultural contexts on a meso-level includes intellectual humility and the ongoing experiential learning of seeking concrete experiences, developing reflective observations, formulating abstract conceptualizations, and testing and experimenting. The goal of biblical religious messaging is respectful Christian persuasion in interreligious dialogues. On a macrolevel, biblical model of cross-cultural leadership is in boundary-spanning global leadership bridging the social boundaries between people first in local settings and then in international contexts. The biblical model of religious crosscultural leadership on a macrolevel is also engaging in world Christianity, an emerging field that investigates and seeks to understand Christian communities, faith, and practice as they are found on six continents, expressed in diverse ecclesial traditions, and informed by the multitude of historical and cultural experiences—an attempt to give voice to the underrepresented and marginalized communities of faith.

Leadership Preferences of Millennials: Exploring How Generation Y Wants to be Led

Katrina McNeil | 2018


This qualitative study explored the leadership preferences of the older half of the Millennial generation born between 1980 and 1990 in the United States. As Millennials rapidly enter the workforce, organizations will inevitably change. With that, the way leaders lead will also need to change. Literature has provided suggestions for how to best lead Millennials, but very little research has been done from the Millennial perspective asking Millennials how they want to be led. In-depth interviews explored the leadership preferences of the Millennial participants. The 23 participants were purposefully selected from a population of Millennials who were born in the United States between 1980 and 1990, lived in the United States until at least the age of 18, and have been working full time for a minimum of 5 years. The research revealed that Millennials want peer-like relationships with their leaders that are characterized by transparency, collaboration, and two-way feedback. They want hard-working leaders who lead by example and can serve as experienced mentors. Millennials want leaders who care about them as individuals, both inside and outside of the workplace. They want selfless leaders who put the needs of others first. Millennials want empathetic leaders who recognize that life is more than just work and will allow flexibility accordingly. As Millennials continue to join the workforce in substantial numbers, organizational leaders need to reevaluate their current leadership style to ensure they can effectively lead the newest generation in the workforce. Millennials believe they are unique, and they want their leadership tailored. One leadership style will not work for all Millennials. Leaders will need to be flexible enough to adjust their leadership approach to each unique individual and each unique situation. Recommendations for future research consist of expansion to include individuals from the entire generation born from 1980 to 2000 and to conduct a longitudinal study to determine if the leadership preferences of Millennials change over time.

Computers, Cell Phones, and Social Media: How After-Hours Communication Impacts Work–Life Balance and Job Satisfaction

Arian T. Moore | 2018


In the age of technological advancements such as the smart phone, laptop, and iPad, employers have nonstop access to employees, blurring the lines between work and personal life. In an effort to provide more insight into the work–life balance challenges that result from constant access, this research study examined afterhours communication by way of cell phones, computers, and social media and the relationship with job satisfaction and work–life balance. The absence of work–life balance proves detrimental to organizations, leading to higher absenteeism and higher turnover rates. Thus, it is of the organization’s benefit to understand and create culture that allows work–life balance in congruence with organizational goals. A review of work–life balance defined it as “the individual perception that work and nonwork activities are compatible and promote growth in accordance with an individual’s current life priorities” (Kalliath & Brough, 2008, p. 326). The instruments used to measure these variables include the Facebook Use Scale, which measures Facebook use and engagement with coworkers after hours; the Technology-Assisted Supplemental Work Survey, which measures the use of technology for work purposes after hours; the Work–Life Balance Scale, which measures work and nonwork conflict; and the Job Satisfaction Survey, which measures employee level of satisfaction. The quantitative study used correlation analysis to determine the relationship between after-hours communication as an independent variable and two dependent variables—work–life balance and job satisfaction. Participants were recruited through social media and included working professionals across multiple industries. Despite findings from previous research, the results from this study indicated linear correlations between after-hours communication, work–life balance, and job satisfaction when communication is exchanged through computers and cell phones. Additionally, there was no significance found in relation to after-hours communication by way of Facebook and work–life balance and job satisfaction. Due to an imbalance in population sample and insignificant findings, the study indicated a need for future research.

An Empirical Examination of the Relationships Among Perceived Authentic Leadership, Follower’s Hope, Follower’s Trust in the Leader, and Follower’s Work Engagement

Lenora Mosby | 2018


George (2003) discussed how the complexities of 21st-century corporations demand new leadership; George believed leaders need to lead with purpose, promoting values, integrity, and a strong ethical system. Researchers have noted that authentic leadership is positively related to engagement because often authentic leaders strengthen the feelings of self-efficacy, competence, and confidence of their followers (Avolio & Gardner, 2005; Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, May, & Walumbwa, 2005). This study tested the extent to which follower’s hope and follower’s trust in the leader mediated a follower’s perceptions of authentic leadership behaviors of his or her leader and the follower’s level of employee work engagement. Data were collected from a sample of 203 participants that worked in corporate America. Findings from the study revealed there was a positive and significant relationship between perceived authentic leadership behaviors and follower’s work engagement. Follower’s hope and trust in the leader both partially mediated the relationship between perceived authentic leadership and follower’s work engagement since the analysis revealed that after the addition of the mediator, there was very little reduction in the relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed as well as recommendations for future research.

An Exploration of the Apostle Paul’s Influential Power Behaviors Juxtaposed to Destructive Leadership Theory and Weberian Charismatic Attributes: A sociorhetorical Interpretation of Philemon

Angel Denise Newton | 2018


This qualitative study investigated the differences between apostle Paul’s charismatic behavior in Philemon compared to those of destructive leadership theory (DLT) and Weberian charisma. While leadership is mostly a positive phenomenon, the potential for exposure to nonconstructive leadership exists. DLT includes Weberian charismatic phenomena seen as nonconstructive behavior. Both charismatic and destructive leaders, unlike other leadership styles, need a strong influential relationship, positive or negative, between the leader and followers. Philemon is rich for the exploration of Paul’s use of power because it is the only remaining intimate epistle and is replete with rhetoric related to his use of power. Few studies have explored how Paul’s use of power contribute to the discussion of a unique understanding of charismatic behavior in church leadership. Sociorhetorical interpretation, a multifaceted tool, was used to explore the text in Philemon. Sociorhetorical interpretation of Philemon provide insights differentiating the use of charismatic power in Christian contexts from DLT and Weber. First, Paul’s use of power in Philemon makes clear that power is multilateral and shared. It flows from God and is realized between the leader and followers. Second and consequently, this sharing of power aims to align all participants with Christian morals and values. Therefore, Pauline charisma can be recognized by behavior conforming to Christ (deity)—rooted in love and absent from nonconstructive attributes. Abusive behavior is antithetical to the Pauline use of power in Philemon.

Concepts of Human Resource Development in Daniel 3: A Conceptual Framework for Leadership Development

Chad H Newton | 2018


I proposed exegetical and qualitative analyses of Daniel 3 that would provide a framework rooted in intellectual aspects of transformational leadership theory (TLT) for human resource development (HRD) consultants to use. The study involved multiple methods of qualitative interpretation and analysis to implement theoretical triangulation into the findings. The study included the following theories for interpretation: (a) hermeneutics, (b) symbolic interactionism, (c) narratology, and (d) systems theory. The key trait of TLT that this study emphasized involved intellectual stimulation (Yukl, 2013). According to many scholars in the HRD field, intellectual methods of stimulation used to create behavioral change include cognitive, psychological, and transformational qualities of learning. Therefore, I argued that the narratives in Daniel 3 described interactions between King Nebuchadnezzar and Daniel’s friends that revealed a transformational process based on leadership qualities rooted in intellectual and psychological learning. The analytical approach in this study included the following methods: (a) sociorhetorical, (b) first-cycle coding, (c) second-cycle coding, and (d) content analysis. The inclusion of multiple methods of analysis served the purpose of using both religious and nonreligious methods of interpretation so that the findings contained increased generalizability to other contexts and so that future researchers may use the findings to conduct more research. Robbins’s (1996a) approach of socio-rhetorical analysis allowed me to exegete the text from a Judeo–Christian perspective. The result included a conceptual framework composed of 10 concepts related to TLT, HRD, adult learning, and spiritual aspects of transformational learning. The numinosum experience played a significant role in the transformational process, which affected King Nebuchadnezzar’s cognitive worldview and leadership beliefs.

Engaging Untapped Talent: Supporting Autistic Employees in Meaningful Employment Opportunity

Crissy Ortiz | 2018


Twenty-first-century organizations are operating amidst a complex, powerful, and fluid environment. Young adults poised to enter the workforce are a dominant force shaping and reshaping contemporary organizations. Amongst this diverse population of organizational entrants is a marginalized and untapped group of young autistic adults (Hillier et al., 2007; Parr & Hunter, 2014). According to The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016), nearly 500,000 autistic individuals are approaching an employable age. Yet, the group maintains higher than average rates of unemployment and underemployment (Hagner & Cooney, 2005; Hillier et al., 2007; Lorenz & Heinitz, 2014; Mawhood & Howlin, 1999; Müller, Schuler, Burton, & Yates, 2003; Parr & Hunter, 2014). F. M. Gwynette (personal communication, December 12, 2017) suggested the symptomatology of autism present barriers for young adults in acquiring and maintaining meaningful employment. Johnson and Joshi (2016) suggested autistic employees experience stigmas due to perceived social impairments. Perceived impairments present untraditional challenges within the workplace leaving employers uncertain of how to provide appropriate supports to engage autistic employees (Johnson & Joshi, 2016; Parr & Hunter, 2014). This bounded case study explored what organizations can do to engage autistic employees. The main theoretical frameworks that anchored this study were engagement, perceived organizational support, person–organization fit, person–supervisor fit, and person–job fit. Purposeful sampling was used to acquire a medical practitioner who specializes in autism spectrum disorder, a leader and self-advocate who managed autistic employees and serves as an autism consultant, and high-functioning autistic young adults (ages 18-35) with employment experience. The analysis for the study included in vivo coding and analytic memos (Saldaña, 2013). Results found individualized consideration as the cornerstone for organizational supports that engage the autistic cohort. Additional themes that emerged included areas such as wellness, acceptance, humility, intention, open-mindedness in leading, stability, predictability, assertive communication, demonstrations in learning, long-term support, and sensory support. The illuminated concepts and practical strategies enhance engagement of high-functioning young autistic adults in the workplace.

Keywords: accommodations, autism, autistic, employment, engagement, supports

Culture, Shared Mental Schemes, and Leadership: Comparing the Association of Culturally Contingent Implicit Leader Behaviors and Leadership Effectiveness and Organizational Commitment Between Two Subgroups of Latinos in the United States

Luis Guillermo Penaranda | 2018


This investigation builds on the foundation of culturally endorsed implicit leadership theories (CLT), advanced by the Global Leadership & Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) study. CLTs are cognitive structures or beliefs about leadership effectiveness that are shared by members of particular national societies but not as strongly by members of other societies. The GLOBE study focused on comparing societal cultures defined in terms of national identity and geographic location but did not consider that, within those societies, there are subgroups of people whose mental programs about leadership may have been formed in other cultures, as is the case of migrant communities. The present study examined two subgroups of Latinos in the United States (i.e., those who migrated from Latin American countries and those born and raised in the United States) who may resemble the cultural implicit beliefs about leadership behaviors of their societies of origin (i.e., Latino vs. Anglo). The GLOBE study identified seven leader behaviors that are culturally contingent—they are perceived in some cultures as enhancing outstanding leadership, while in other cultures the same behaviors are viewed as inhibiting outstanding leadership. This exploratory study examined the extent to which foreign-born and native-born Latino church volunteers in the United States differ in their association of GLOBE’s seven culturally contingent CLT leader behaviors with leadership effectiveness (LE) and organizational commitment (OC). Regression models were used to examine the relationships between perception of culturally contingent CLT leader behaviors and both LE and OC for each of the subgroups. The difference in the regression coefficients of the regression models of each subsample were examined to test the hypothesized differences between the two groups of participants. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey within the context of Latino church volunteers. The results showed positive relations, mainly between self-sacrificial, status-conscious, bureaucratic, and humane orientation leader behaviors and LE and OC. The only statistically significant differences between the models for each subgroup occurred when examining internally competitive, face-saver, and autonomous leader behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are presented, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Investigating the Link Between Essential Servant Leader Behavior and Employee Engagement in the Knowledge Economic Era: An Autonomous Motivation Critique of Servant Leader Behavior

Larry Phillips | 2018


The purpose of this quantitative exploratory research was to investigate the influence of essential servant leader behavior on the organizational environment. In the knowledge-based economy, the organizational environment requires members with a reciprocal sharing behavior. Without the sharing of unique talents (i.e., knowledge) among organizational associates, employee skills cannot be recognized and developed, and reduced competency thwarts worker engagement. This study tested the predictive capabilities of essential servant leader behavior (Winston & Fields, 2015) to develop reciprocal expectation and knowledge sharing among coworkers. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed a significant mediating influence for both anticipated reciprocal relationships and knowledge sharing on the relationship between essential servant leadership behavior and worker engagement but failed to reveal any noticeable moderation effect from worker discernment. The results of this research show servant leadership theory offers the prospect of a moral-based leadership model through which multilevel (i.e., individual, group, and organizational) activity is positively influenced. A new research area linking organizational climate to servant leadership behavior emerges through Parris and Peachey’s (2013) conceptual support extending servant leadership as a positive influence on the work climate. This study established relationships linking essential servant leader behavior, organizational climate, employee sharing behavior, and worker engagement. Grounded in theory suggesting servant leadership as a leadership style with a moral underlining, this study offers a new way of thinking about follower motivation.

Identification and Selection of Coopetitive Partners: A Small Business Perspective

Steven Renz | 2018


The purpose of this phenomenological case study was to explore how small business leaders and entrepreneurs identify and select effective coopetitive partners. Coopetition is used by firms to gain competitive advantages through collaborative efforts with competing organizations. Coopetitive relationships present unique challenges to small business leaders and entrepreneurs; it also offers them access to new opportunities and needed resources (BarNir & Smith, 2002; Bengtsson & Kock, 2000). The findings from this research provide small business leaders and entrepreneurs with insight into the behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes regarding the identification and selection of coopetitive partners from the lived experiences of 10 small business leaders. These findings offer leaders information they may use to more effectively determine practices to support their coopetitive partnership selection process. This research used the qualitative, phenomenological case study method to examine factors used by small business leaders and entrepreneurs in their identification and selection of coopetitive partners. Research was conducted using purposeful sampling and face-to-face semistructured interviews. Participants in this research had employed coopetitive strategies successfully in conducting their business. The theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991) was used as the basis for predicting behavior. This study used Moustakas’ (1994) modified version of the van Kaam method of phenomenological analysis. The research findings illustrate the importance of leader relationships and networks in identifying and selecting coopetitive partners. A significant finding was the influence of customers in the selection of coopetitive partners. Additionally, this study showed how small business leaders and entrepreneurs developed relationships with their coopetitive partners and the attributes sought in their selection.

Exploring the Relationship Between Pastoral Emotional Intelligence and Pastors’ Perceptions of Members’ Organizational Commitment and Leaders’ Support

Derrick R. Rhodes | 2018


Emotional intelligence is a vital factor in increasing organizational effectiveness, satisfaction, and retention. Generally, research on emotional intelligence and organizational commitment has focused on organizational and environmental factors in contexts outside the ecclesial setting. The purpose of this study was to address gaps in the literature exploring the relationship between pastoral emotional intelligence, pastors’ perceptions of the organizational commitment of their congregations, and pastors’ perceptions of supportive and noncontrolling supervision of the church leadership team. Participants were 134 pastoral care participants. The data were collected via snowball sampling. Wong and Law’s Emotional Intelligence Scale was used to collect the data for emotional intelligence. Mowday, Steers, and Porter’s (1979) shortened Organizational Commitment Questionnaire was used to measure organizational commitment. A set of eight supportive supervision items from the Supportive and NonControlling Supervision Scale was used to measure supportive organizational leadership (Oldman & Cummings, 1996). The findings indicated there was no statistical significance between emotional intelligence and perceived members’ organizational commitment with the exception of self-emotional appraisal; all the other correlations between emotional intelligence and supportive and noncontrolling supervision showed no statistical significance as well. Nevertheless, further investigation indicated that when the whole of emotional intelligence was correlated with perceived members’ organizational commitment and supportive and noncontrolling supervision, statistical significance with both relationships was supported.

Ontological Principles of Leadership in Acts 2 and 6:1-7 and their Anthropological Implications for the Constructs of Christian Leadership and Spirituality in the Workplace

William Sawyer | 2018


This study examined spiritual leadership from a Christian perspective and the relationship of Christian leadership to spirituality in the workplace based on leadership principles gleaned from Acts 2 and 6:1-7. The study drew on sacred and secular spiritual leadership and spirituality in the workplace theories to provide the framework for understanding the concepts. The methodology employed the texture analyses of sociorhetorical critical methods (Robbins, 1996b) and hermeneutical and exegetical interpretation to reveal eight themes and 11 leadership principles that are ontological in the nature of leadership and anthropological in the context of the workplace as found in the pericope. The research revealed that spiritual leadership that is Christian is distinctive because of the ontological transformation of the leader producing purity and power through the work of the Holy Spirit. Luke’s paradigm of Christian leadership includes an element of self-discipline in maintaining and cultivating the inner spiritual health of the leader through protracted personal prayer and careful study of the scriptures. In addition, the study indicated that spiritual leaders are motivated and empowered by wholehearted devotion to Christ and self-sacrificing compassion for others, particularly those who are suffering, in need, and neglected. The results demonstrated that Christian leadership is egalitarian and pluri-form with no distinction in its applicability in religious and secular contexts. Further, Christian leadership principles lived in the workplace are effective, but the results may not be measured by Western concepts of immediacy.

The Transformational Effect of Trigger Events and Leadership Crucibles in the Lives of Authentic Leaders Development

Mark R. Shannon | 2018


The purpose of this study was to examine the role of trigger events and leadership crucibles in the lives of authentic leaders by answering the question: Do trigger events and leadership crucibles play a significant role in authentic leadership development? The study was based on two theories: authentic leadership theory and born-versus-made theory. Participants were provided by a professional executive development coach and qualified as authentic leaders if they scored between 64 and 80 on the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire. The qualified leaders were then asked to participate in a qualitative interview utilizing an interview guide born out of relevant literature. The interview followed the guidelines of the critical incident technique. The interviews were recorded and then transcribed. The transcriptions were subsequently coded several times, categorizing and extrapolating as much data as possible to develop a better understanding of the effects of trigger events and leadership crucibles in the lives of authentic leaders. The data indicated that trigger events and leadership crucibles play a significant role in authentic leadership development.

Calling and Authentic Followership

Stephanie Sheehan | 2018


This research was conducted in response to calls for future research in the areas of spiritual calling and followership. Though research in the area of calling has become more prevalent, it has not distinctly focused on spiritual calling as identified through a biblical worldview. Recent endeavors in this area have yielded development and substantiation of a spiritual calling scale, opening wider the doors of research opportunity. Followership research has been gaining momentum in recent decades; however, authentic followership remains a nascent area, only recently gaining attention, construct development, and tools for measurement. To more fully explore each of these domains and potential interactions, this quantitative study was conducted using survey methodology utilizing the newly developed scales in each of these areas. Data evaluation was conducted through multiple regression analysis and revealed positive relationships between spiritual calling and each dimension of authentic followership, and spiritual calling was indicated as an antecedent of authentic followership. The research and findings contribute empirically to the body of knowledge in these newly emerging areas and provide further validation of measurement tools for use in future research. The research findings also establish a connection between individual spirituality and embodiment of followership. Implications of this connection are discussed and areas of future research considered.

An Historical Look at the Development of Contemporary Political Leadership in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Implications for Future Leadership Development

Flavien S. Shirandi | 2018


Bilgin and Morton (2002) posited that the long period of colonialism and the Cold War democracy tended to make way for many strong African states as expressions of power. This provided a new paradigm of freedom meant to afford the triumph of liberal economics. Equally, N’Gambwa (2011) added that this new paradigm of freedom seemed to have caused resurgence in the concept of leadership in Africa and could be viewed as a deciding factor in the rational management of people and public affairs. The emergence of this new democratic paradigm of leadership is intended to encourage participation that guarantees the rights and freedoms of African citizenry. Understanding the dynamics of this paradigm shift is very necessary and key to reconciling, integrating, and synergizing disparities contained within these dynamics. The dynamics of this paradigm shift may be essential to future leadership development efforts in Africa and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) as a nation. The current phenomenological study explored the various factors identified as having a devastating impact on the DRC. These factors regarded as major impediments to development in the DRC include but are not limited to lack of good political development, socioeconomic discrimination, lack of provision for peace and security to the people of DRC, fulfilling fundamental duties, and protection of the DRC’s territory by the government. In-depth interviews were utilized to examine questions relating to (a) leaders’ moral requisites, (b) poor governance in DRC, and (c) accountability and transparency. Data were analyzed, and results indicated the issue of state failure was a factor that affects political, socioeconomic, and leadership development in the DRC. While corruption conveys the true situation in the country, results also indicated that the DRC needs good and effective leadership that imbibes the culture of integrity as competent for national transformation. In essence, the development and advancement of the DRC as a nation leans on the ability of good leadership. The attribute of good leadership is seen as a virtue that must be valued by political leaders in order to properly manage and direct the affairs of the DRC.

In the Case of GO Virginia: Exploring Early Leadership for Collaborative Advantage in Regional Networks

Brian C. Smith | 2018


This qualitative study explored expectations for leadership in early phase organizing of regional networks in the case of a statewide initiative called GO Virginia. Archival and observational data were used, as well as interview data from individual and group interviews with 48 participants. Leaning on theory posited by Huxham and Vangen (2005), this study contributes to the limited stream of research into leadership in collaborative regional network settings by uniquely maintaining a referent focus on the regional level while exploring expectations across levels (state and regional) and sectors (private, public, and nonprofit) involved. No significant variations in expected regional network leadership attributes and behaviors, which are reported at both individual and group levels, were discovered. Data substantiated case-specific contextual features that were largely top-down in nature and influenced conditions and expectations for leadership vis-à-vis primary activities and structures, processes, and participants. Notwithstanding the importance of structuration, this study lent support for viewing leadership as socially grounded phenomena in which, given characteristics of multiorganizational, multisector network settings that are profiled in this study, ethical leadership and the use of highly participative, dialogical group processes and values-based perspectives are particularly important.

Personal Spirituality’s Effect on Workplace Stress Among Healthcare Workers in U.S. Organizations

Patrick Allen-Kojo Tamakloe | 2018


The purpose of this dissertation was to further the Daniel (2015) research on workplace spirituality (WS) and workplace stress (WPS) to investigate further the research question on whether personal spirituality has an influence on WPS. The literature reviewed included research conducted by the American Institute of Stress (AIS), highlighting the influence of WPS on productivity, personal health, and the bottom-line across U.S. organizations. Additionally, spirituality scholars have reflected on the rise of personal spirituality in the workplace. Prayer fulfillment (PF), universality (UN), and connectedness (CN) that denote spiritual transcendence were predictor variables assessed by the Assessment of Spirituality and Religious Sentiments Scale (ASPIRES). The outcome variable, WPS, was assessed by the Workplace Stress Scale (WSS). I investigated the hypotheses that there was a negative correlation between personal spirituality and WPS; additionally, controlling for gender and tenure, I attempted to determine if there was any statistical significance between PF, UN and CN, and WPS. Data were obtained by a third party entity, Qualtrics, across a population of healthcare workers in the United States for a sample size of N = 105. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s product-moment correlation to establish correlation and multiple regression data analysis to determine a predictive relationship between personal spirituality and WPS. Results obtained from the data computed indicated there was no statistically significant correlation or predictive causality between personal spirituality and WPS. However, there were observed multicollinearity among the independent variables, with evidence of negative correlations with PF, CN, and WPS, though not of statistical significance. The research hypotheses were consequently rejected in favor of the null hypothesis. This research consequently enhanced insight into notions that personal spirituality influenced workplace stress.

Awareness of God, Intrinsic Religious Motivation, Calling, and Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy: A Quantitative Evaluation of Entrepreneurial Intention and Alertness to Entrepreneurial Opportunity

Deloris Sterling Thomas | 2018


The connection between religious beliefs and economic activity dates back to the writings of Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations and Max Weber’s seminal work, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Scholars have examined the role of religious affiliation and activity to measure the effects on economic activity and found a distinction between extrinsic and intrinsic religious motivations. Researchers have found a positive relationship between intrinsic religiosity and economic growth, particularly in entrepreneurship. However, the dearth of empirical and quantitative research to determine the predictive variables that measure intrinsic religious motivations in relation to entrepreneurial activity calls for future research opportunities. The current research used a quantitative method and employed the following instruments: Spiritual Assessment Inventory (SAI) awareness of God subscale, Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) presence-transcendent summons subscale, a Validated Intrinsic Religious Motivation Scale (VIRMS), Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy Scale (ESE) developing new product and market opportunities subscale, Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (EIQ) entrepreneurial intention subscale, and Alertness to Entrepreneurial Opportunities Scale (AEO) association and connection subscale. These instruments were used to examine the connection between SAI-awareness of God, CVQ presence-transcendent summons, validated intrinsic religious motivation, and ESE-developing new product and market opportunities to EIQ-entrepreneurial intention and AEO-association and connection. The GPower 3 calculator computed a minimum sample size of 89 participants assuming power at 0.80, effect size at 0.15, and probability level at .05. SurveyMonkey was used to collect data from a population sample of 155 participants. The results revealed that SAI-awareness of God predicts AEO-association and connection. Validated intrinsic religious motivation and ESE-developing new product and market opportunities showed significance in predicting both EIQ-entrepreneurial intention and AEO-association and connection. Researchers must consider future studies to elucidate the relationship between spirituality and entrepreneurial activity.

Examining the Impact on Organizational Performance of an Aesthetic Leader’s Use of Creative Problem Solving During Extended Fasting

Scott Thomas | 2018


This study examined how a single aesthetic leader’s behavior leveraging the Basadur Simplex four-step creative process model within the confines of an extended 21-day water fast could influence the organizational performance of a management consulting firm. The subjective organizational performance measures that were used within the fast were based upon the Fortune Reputation Index, which provided eight indicators that have been utilized within the business community to measure an organization’s performance. Additionally, the participant employed a four-step variant of the original Basadur Simplex creative problem-solving model to assist in aiding the participant in his decision making during the examination. During the investigation, seven aesthetic themes were highlighted that influenced the participant’s behavior throughout the three stages of the fast: focused problem solving, calmness, mental clarity, mental agility, sensitivity, creative associations, and intuitive decision making. The study leveraged the Dedoose® web-based tool to gather and analyze the data to provide the findings.

The Impact of Leader Emotion on Error Management Culture and Software Testers

Thomas Richard Ulrich | 2018


This research was built on two simple premises: Leadership involves relationships, and relationships are influenced by emotion. Therefore, a leaders’ emotions may influence the people they lead. The purpose of this research was to understand better the influence of a leader’s emotions. The influence of the leaders’ emotions of sadness, happiness, and anger, as well as the affective state of stress, were considered. Furthermore, the influence of leader emotion was assessed regarding (a) followers’ abilities to perform both creative and analytical tasks, and (b) error management culture. However, the relevant literature has indicated that the influence of leader emotions on creative tasks, analytical tasks, and error management culture is complex and even contradictory. For this reason, a qualitative approach was used as a first step. The research sample was bounded to the case of software testers working at a single medical device manufacturer; this sample was used because (a) the literature established that software testing involved both creative and analytical tasks, and (b) the concept of error management culture was relevant to an organization that produced and tested safety critical medical devices. The organization selected for the case had some supervisors in the software test team who were prone to displays of emotion and others who were not. Moreover, a phenomenological framework was used to gather and analyze the data from this bounded case. This research produced a rich description of the lived experiences of these medical device software testers, as they experienced a wide range of leader emotions. The results indicated that no simple correlation existed between any leader emotion and the influence it had on either these testers or the error management culture in which they worked. These findings have practical significance in that these indicated that leaders should be aware that, although their negative affective displays might not influence some employees, they might devastate others. Conversely, these findings might indicate that resilience to leader emotion could be learned by followers.

Trust and Empowerment in Jesus’ Sending of the 72: A Sociorhetorical Analysis of Luke 9:51-10:24

Alex Gerald Wright | 2018


Trust and empowerment are core facets of leadership. However, there is a gap in the current scholarly research regarding both of these individual constructs as well as how they function interdependently. The purpose of this study was to research the nature of trust and empowerment as demonstrated by Jesus and his followers in Luke 9:51-10:24. Specifically, this study sought to determine the nature of Jesus’ trust in his followers, the followers’ trust in Jesus, how Jesus empowered his followers, and how trust and empowerment mutually reinforced one another. This study used Robbins’ (1996a) method of sociorhetorical analysis to perform an exegetical study of the three narratives contained in Luke 9:51-10:24. This study yielded 10 principles regarding trust and empowerment: (a) leaders must ensure that followers demonstrate commitment; (b) followers and leaders must engage in two-way communication; (c) leaders must demonstrate credibility and followers must carefully judge the leader’s credibility; (d) the leader must provide an inspiring vision that both he or she and the followers buy into; (e) leaders should demonstrate and encourage positive deviance; (f) leaders must demonstrate how followers can gain honor and be successful in their tasks; (g) leaders must encourage positive relationships between followers, and followers must demonstrate the ability to have positive relationships with other followers; (h) both followers and leaders must demonstrate a heart-level focus on the vision of the organization; (i) leaders must be careful not to overtrain and must, at times, de-equip followers to ensure that they can complete their task most effectively; and (j) leaders must be aware of the interdependent nature of trust and empowerment. A leader who trusts, and is trusted by followers, should seek to empower; successful empowerment will lead to increased trust in the other by both parties.

Evaluating Fry’s Spiritual Leadership Theory in Nigeria

Michael Adebiyi | 2017


This quantitative research study examines the extent to which the spiritual leadership model previously evaluated by Fry, Vitucci, and Cedillo (2005) in the United States compares to a similar evaluation in Nigeria. Completion of this study in Nigeria, a culture differing from the United States on several cultural dimensions, further addresses the external validity of the spiritual leadership model. Fry et al. found strong support for spiritual leadership theory’s causal model and its measures in the United States with all standardized path coefficients in the hypothesized causal model positive and significant except for the relationship between calling/meaning and organizational commitment. Utilizing a sample of 252 employees from public, private, school system, military, oil and gas, and banking sectors in Nigeria, this study found that only 4 out of 12 of the path coefficients of spiritual leadership theory’s causal model in Nigeria are statistically significant. Interestingly, the relationship between calling/meaning and organizational commitment was found to be statistically significant in Nigeria. Organizational citizenship behavior was discovered not to be a possible outcome of spiritual leadership model in Nigeria. Implications of the study findings, research methodologies, limitations of the study, and recommendations for future research were discussed.

Experiences of Pentecostal Leadership: A Phenomenological Study among Norwegian Pastors

Truls Åkerlund | 2017


Despite the exceptional growth of Pentecostalism over the last century, little research has been done on the nature of Pentecostal leadership. This study offers a better understanding of the essential characteristics of the phenomenon through a phenomenological analysis of the lived leadership experience of Norwegian Pentecostal pastors. Utilizing Giorgi’s (2009) descriptive phenomenological method based on Edmund Husserl’s phenomenology, the study detected a general structure of Pentecostal leadership comprised of eight constituents: (a) motivated by a sense of higher, divine purpose—the leader’s motivation to lead comes from a deep sense of commitment to serve God’s plans and purposes for the congregation and the world; (b) derived leadership—pastors see their leadership as derived from God, implying that they lead on behalf of someone else; (c) human and divine agency in a seamless interaction between rationality and spirituality—the idea of being led by God liberates rather than limits the leader to proactively engage in organizational matters, and the Pentecostal belief that God is active in every aspect of life frees him to seamlessly combine spirituality and rationality in leading the organization; (d) pragmatic and eclectic stance towards the Pentecostal tradition—the leader draws on the Pentecostal tradition in eclectic and often unsystematic ways and approaches Pentecostal spirituality as a dynamic reservoir, something to be defined as much as defining; (e) persuasive communication—in setting the direction for the Pentecostal congregation, the leader relies more on persuasion than position, making verbal communication an important means of influence; (f) dialectic relationship between structure and agency—organizational structures simultaneously enable and constrain leadership agency, meaning that the leader’s ability to influence the organization depends on his ability to adapt to the organization; (g) adaptive to context—Pentecostal leadership considers and adapts to the sociocultural context in which it is situated; and (h) involving the leader’s entire life—the leader leads the Pentecostal organization with his life, having modeling as a prime source of influence. The findings’ implications for theory and practice are considered, as are comparisons with organizational leadership theory and suggestions for further research.

Paul’s Rhetorical Leadership in an Arena of Cultures: A Sociorhetorical and Content Analysis of Acts 21-26 and Romans 13:1-7 That Provides Guidance for Presidents of Christian Colleges During Challenges to Religious Liberty

Johathan Allbaugh | 2017


The current societal pressures regarding religious liberty and institutional sustainability for Christian higher education in America call for rhetorical leadership from presidents of Christian colleges and universities. This study provides a biblically rooted and theoretically sound, multifaceted approach using sociorhetorical criticism and content analysis of Acts 21-26 and Romans 13:1-7. The Apostle Paul was an exemplar of transformational leadership within a cultural context that contained similar societal pressures to the current climate of Christian higher education. Findings from the mixed methodology provided rhetorical, historical, philosophical, political, and theological insights that were subsequently analyzed through a construct of domains of influence with their resident cross-pressures and the arena of cultural conflict with its participating agents. The conclusions of these findings and subsequent analyses were incorporated into a model of transformational leadership with the intention of assisting presidents of Christian colleges and universities as they represent their institutions in the challenges of religious freedom in the public square.

Towards Developing Authentic Small Group Leaders: A Sociorhetorical Analysis of the Book of Exodus 18

Stuart Wayne Boyer | 2017


The study examined the leadership of Moses and the selection of developing leaders as found in Exodus 18. The focus was on the corresponding aspects of leadership, developing leaders, specifically small group leaders, towards contemporary leadership principles. Moreover, the contemporary leadership principles involved within the study included spiritual leadership and authentic leadership. The multidisciplinary exegetical process followed the methodology of sociorhetorical analysis towards the interpretation of aspects of leadership, leadership selection, and leadership development. Included within the process of leadership selection and leadership development, there remain cognitive and moral components. The textural interpretation generated 22 themes, which remain significant towards leadership. The 22 themes were then organized into five leadership principles drawn from Exodus 18. The themes and principles provided a similarity between both spiritual and authentic leadership. There were sufficient differences noted with greater connection towards authentic leadership. Nevertheless, adequate similarities exist within the themes and principles revealed towards spiritual and authentic leadership. All principles of leadership attributes were derived from the Holy Scriptures and included aspects of humility, remaining teachable and the necessity of a growing intimate relationship with God.

Unearthing the Moral and Authentic Leader: Understanding the Impact of Transcendental Leadership, Workplace Spirituality, and Corporate Social Responsibility on Performance

Mignon Sparks Burton | 2017


This study assessed a variable that might counteract a growing contemporary trend of immoral, corrupt, and self-serving leaders. It was posited that the spiritual nature of a transcendental leader promotes a work environment where spirituality is fostered, so corporate behaviors positively guide workers’ communal responsibility, which results in improved organizational performance in both the spheres of task and contextual outcomes. This study asked: Is there a positive relationship between transcendental leadership (TL) and organizational performance, and what effect do workplace spirituality (WS) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) have on this relationship? The relationships between the constructs of TL (independent variable), WS (moderator), CSR (mediator), and organizational performance (dependent variables: task and contextual) were reviewed. Two hierarchical regression analyses examined the criteria variables on their relationship with the two dependent variables (organizational performance task [OPT] and organizational performance contextual [OPC]), as well as the related descriptive statistics. The results detailed participants’ perceived TL positively predicts with both the organizational performance task and contextual variables at significant levels. Therefore, Hypothesis 1a, There is a positive relationship between TL and OPT, and Hypothesis 2a, There is a positive relationship between TL and OPC, were supported. The hypotheses relating to the WS’s moderating effect between TL and CSR as a mediating variable for the criterion variables (OPT and OPC)—Hypothesis 1b, WS moderates the relationship between TL and CSR such that at higher levels of WS the relationship is stronger; Hypothesis 1c, CSR mediates the relationship between TL and OPT such that higher levels of CSR the relationship is stronger; Hypothesis 2b, WS moderates the relationship between TL and CSR such that at higher levels of WS the relationship is stronger; and Hypothesis 2c, CSR mediates the relationship between TL and OPC such that at higher levels of CSR the relationship is stronger—were not supported.

The Dysfunction Junction: The Impact of Toxic Leadership on Follower Effectiveness

Richard Mark Bell | 2017


This study examined the effect of toxic leadership, as moderated by leader–member exchange (LMX), on a follower’s active engagement (AE) and independent, critical thinking (ICT). Schmidt’s (2008) toxic leadership theory describes the five dimensions of toxic leadership as abusive supervision, authoritarian leadership, narcissism, unpredictability, and self-promotion. LMX theory (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995) describes the dyadic relationship between leaders and followers with some followers forming the leader’s in group while others form the leader’s out group. Followership theory describes the role of followers and following in the leadership process, and Kelley (1992) described how follower style occurs based on the two behavioral dimensions of AE and ICT. Ten hypotheses considered the direct effects of the five dimensions of toxic leadership on the two follower behavior dimensions, and 10 hypotheses considered the moderating effect of LMX. A survey method was employed utilizing Schmidt’s (2014) Toxic Leadership Scale, the LMX-7 (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995), and Kelley’s (1992) Followership Styles Questionnaire. Data were collected from 203 nontraditional graduate students with professional work experience in diverse career sectors. Hierarchical multiple regression techniques were used to test the 20 hypotheses. The regression analysis indicated the self-promotion dimension of toxic leadership had a direct effect on the follower’s AE. Other direct effect hypotheses were unsupported. LMX had direct effects on both follower engagement and critical thinking, but no support was found for an interaction effect. Over 78% of the study’s participants indicated having experience as the follower of a toxic leader. The results of the study further the research related to both toxic leadership and followership, demonstrating the pervasiveness of toxic leadership in organizations and indicating the importance of LMX to the followership dimensions of AE and ICT.

The Relationship between Servant Leadership and Employee Engagement

Crystal M. Brown | 2017


Currently, little is known about servant leadership and its relationship with meaningfulness, safety, and availability as it relates to Kahn’s (1990) definition of employee engagement. Furthermore, definitions of servant leadership have varied over the past 30 years, making it difficult to clarify what it means to be a servant leader. For servant leaders to ensure employees are fully engaged in the workplace and to see if a relationship between servant leadership and meaningfulness, safety, and availability exists, a field-based, survey design with multiple regression analyses was conducted controlling for gender. A convenience sample consisted of full-time employees at a financial cooperative in the Charleston, South Carolina, area. The research findings align with most of the minimal literature that exists with respect to servant leadership and employee engagement—meaningfulness, safety, and availability. When controlling for participant gender and leader’s gender, servant leadership has a significant positive relationship with meaningfulness and safety but not with availability.

Leading from the Pews: Leadership Characteristics of Church Mothers in the Sanctified Church

Jane R. Caulton | 2017


During the 20th century, African American Pentecostal and Holiness denominations took on the moniker sanctified church (E. Y. Alexander, 2011; Synan, 2001) and represented assemblies that believed in the empowerment of the Holy Spirit evidenced through spiritual manifestations such as glossolalia, divine healing, and emotional worship. Early membership primarily was composed of poor and marginalized people, and within its structure, women found a place to contribute their skills and abilities (A. D. Butler, 2007; Gilkes, 1986b). Some of them were recognized as church mothers and gained power that they used to support and guide the direction of the church. Yet, these women were not ordained and did not have the accorded legitimate power. I conducted a phenomenological study to answer the research question: What were the leadership characteristics that enabled church mothers to gain and execute power in the sanctified church during a period when most women were denied ordination, leaving them to function in male-dominated spheres? I used the organizational leadership and courageous follower constructs and the variables of church mothers, the sanctified church, and leadership (Banks, 2013; Chaleff, 2009; Dixon, 2008; Gál, 2012). I engaged a purposive sample representing four denominations of the sanctified church: Church of God in Christ, Mount Calvary Holy Church of America, Pentecostal Assemblies of the World, and an independent interdenominational assembly to provide triangulation (Patton, 1999). I based this methodology on the social construction theory. I recorded interviews, transcribed them, dissected them to create a table for each question, and coded the data to identify themes (Creswell, 2003). I categorized the themes and inducted that the leadership traits of church mothers included influence, resourcefulness, modeling, and acclimatizing. This study contributes to the literature on ecclesial leadership, specifically female participation, and to follower studies. I limited the study to the leadership traits of church mothers and did not discuss the implications of recognizing church mothers rather than ordaining them. In the future, researchers may pursue these topics as well the roles of women in other denominations.

Religion and Spirituality in the Workplace: A Quantitative Evaluation of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

Debra J. Dean | 2017


Religion and spirituality were once considered taboo topics in the workplace; however, practitioners and scholars have been finding evidence of positive benefits to the triple bottom line—people, profit, and planet. Benefits include improvement in employee health, reduction of employee stress, more job involvement, increased job satisfaction, higher levels of organizational commitment, less organizational frustration, more organizational identification, and enhanced work unit performance. The first large-scale empirical study of religion and spirituality in the workplace revealed the urgency for organizations to “learn how to harness the whole person and the immense spiritual energy that is at the core of everyone . . . [or] they will not be able to produce world class products and service” (Mitroff & Denton, 1999, p. 84). Responding to the call to explore the two main instruments used to empirically test spirituality at work and contribute to the three most promising theoretical approaches to date, according to Benefiel, Fry, and Geigle (2014), this research used a quantitative, cross-sectional, field-based study to examine the relationships of religion and spirituality in the workplace to work outcomes of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The instruments used to measure six dimensions of workplace spirituality included the Spiritual Leadership Scale and the Spirituality at Work Scale. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire short-form and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire evaluated work outcomes of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Additionally, the Religious Commitment Index and demographic questions examined the control variables of age, education, gender, income, meditation experience, religion, and years of work experience. The findings of this research indicate that altruistic love is worthy of attention with regard to job satisfaction and organizational commitment. In addition to altruistic love, sense of community and meaningful work were significantly predictive of job satisfaction; however, altruistic love clearly stood out as the most important variable.

The Love-Empowered Leader: A Qualitative Case Study of a Pastoral Leadership Exemplar of an Evangelical Congregation in Virginia

Deborah Darlene Reynolds Harper | 2017


The construct of love is under investigation in this empirical qualitative case study. Love is a powerful force and thus can change landscapes. The landscapes under investigation in the study are in the domain of leadership. This is a study of a case exemplar, who demonstrates the practice and presence of love in lived experience. In this case study, love is presented from multiple perspectives so as to direct contemporary leaders to the consideration of a love-centered approach to leadership. The literature has revealed that leadership theory and praxis can be positively impacted by a strong love-empowered leadership approach. The empirical research in the study presents findings that are noteworthy in the modern application of contemporary leadership theory, as well as inspire paradigm shifts in how leadership in viewed from a leadership and organizational effectiveness perspective. Although there have been studies recently that have emphasized the need for love in leadership, not as much study has focused on how love is operationalized, how love can be the motivating factor behind a leader’s reason to lead, how love positively influences members of an organization, and the beneficial organizational consequences of a love-centered approach to leadership. Therefore, this study explored these elements further and presents finding that can contribute to an operational definition of love in leadership based on the sacred text of 1 Corinthians 13. A greater understanding of love as a viable construct in leadership was investigated through the presence and practice of love expressed in lived experience. This study sought to extend the scholarship and empirical research on the construct of love in organizational leadership.

The Effects of the Empowering Role of Followers on Leaders: A Phenomenological Perspective

Evelina Denise Harris-Wilson | 2017


Leadership and followership are interdependent phenomena; nevertheless, most of the past literature has focused on the critical role of the leader. Because of the changing landscape of the world and its economy as a result of globalization and evolving technology, scholars and practitioners have started to focus on the valuable role that followers play in achieving organizational objectives. Scholars such as Kelley (1988) and Chaleff (1995) were pioneers in the study of followership, emphasizing the mutual and complementary role of leaders and followers. Empowerment is an area in which these reciprocal roles manifest. While several scholars have focused on how leaders empower followers (Conger & Kanungo, 1988; Manz, 1992; Spreitzer, 1996; Thomas & Velthouse, 1990), little work has been conducted on how followers empower leaders. To address this gap in the literature, a qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to answer the question: How do followers empower leaders? The participants were assigned to six focus groups consisting of a leader and a follower from different organizations and diverse backgrounds in the Commonwealth of Virginia using the models proposed by Kelley (1988, 1992) and Chaleff, which highlighted components such as critical thinking, active engagement, the courage to challenge, participate in transformation, and take moral action. The perspectives of both the leader and the follower were considered. In-depth questions were formulated from literature to discover how followers possessing the characteristics of effective and courageous followership proposed by Kelley (1988) and Chaleff empowered leaders. Bracketing and triangulation were used to analyze data and to ensure validation and credibility. The findings revealed that leaders were empowered when effective and courageous followers demonstrated skills and qualities such as decision making and leadership, mindfulness, competence, commitment, conflict management, respect, communication, creativity, integrity, mindfulness, and being proactive and relational. When these attributes are utilized daily, it allows the leader to be more productive and focus on other priorities.

Towards a Theory of Leadership for Human Flourishing in a Global Community: A Hermeneutic, Phenomenological, and Process Theory Exploration of the Leadership of Jesus in the Four Gospels

Edward W. Hatch | 2017


Leadership as influence is at the root of most understandings of the phenomenon (Northouse, 2013; Yukl, 2006). Yet the myriad targets and means of influence at the individual, group/team, and social/collective levels give rise to competing values and theories of change (Cameron & Quinn, 2011; J. D. Hunter, 2006; Richter, 2011). There is, however, one common denominator of leadership change–influence that can focus all theories of change and strategies of hope. This one denominator is evident in the leadership of the life of the founder and followers of perhaps the most successful global movement the world has ever seen. Hoksbergen, Curry, and Kuperus (2009) claimed, “No question is more important for our time than what brings about human flourishing in a global community” (p. 11). Then-United Nations Secretary General Ban (2008) said the real global crisis was not a crisis of intractable problems but a crisis of global leadership. To bridge that gap, this study examined the leadership of Jesus of Nazareth in first-century Palestine with a view to developing a theory of leadership for human flourishing in global community. A comprehensive research methodology was crafted from the fields of phenomenology, process theory, and biblical hermeneutics and applied to the narrative texts of the four Christian Gospels. A three-dimensional leadership theory emerged from this study of the life work of Jesus. Following Ricouer’s (1976) phenomenological approach, three passes were made through the Gospels data set. Over 1,100 initially coded themes and patterns were synthesized through examination of recorded events as the central unit of qualitative analysis. Eleven core themes emerged leading to three macrocategories that, upon further study, became the three major leadership dimensions of the proposed theory. With an eye to theory building from the start, Whetten’s (2002) modeling as theory building methodology and the filtering questions of “‘what’s’-as-constructs” (p. 51) and “‘how’s’-as-relationships” (p. 55) further clarified the three leadership dimensions of people, process, and place as central to Jesus’ leadership and human flourishing in a global community. Pike’s (1982) tagmemic linguistic theory helped crystalize understanding of how the same things can be understood from different perspectives as particle, wave, and field. This study concluded by presenting and explicating the middle range theory called three-dimensional leadership theory. Support for the proposed theory was found in contemporary organizational leadership and philosophical and scholarly research leading to 11 supporting propositions. This study contributes to the field of leadership research by offering the first-ever leadership theory premised on the life of Jesus, who is generally accepted as one of the world’s greatest leaders (Lowney, 2003; Stark, 1997, 2006; Willard, 1997). This research also bridges a gap in biblical study by offering a blended methodology that allows other tools to combine with traditional hermeneutics of the narrative text to elicit process. Three-dimensional leadership theory is generalizable to contexts in the global community where leadership is required to raise people to new levels of flourishing, wholeness, and fruitfulness for their own good and the good of others.

Examining the Relationship Between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Organizational Performance: The Moderating Role of Organizational Learning

Michael James Mapalala | 2017


Although literature has highlighted the importance of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in stimulating the general economic development and performance and survival of individual organizations, research on the degree to which EO is related to organizational performance (OP) suffers from the following problems: (a) it has provided inconsistent results, (b) researchers have generally ignored calls for research that investigates how characteristics internal to the organization moderate this relationship, and (c) there is a general lack of research on how EO affects OP in developing countries. The current study examined the relationship between EO and OP as moderated by organizational learning (OL) with the intention of providing quantified answers to the following two research questions: Does EO positively influence OP? Does OL moderate the relationship between EO and OP? I drew on the resource-based view theory to examine this relationship. I collected survey data from 298 selected Tanzanian organizations from a variety of industries as represented by their senior managers using previously validated instruments. I used a series of moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses to test the study’s hypotheses. I found no evidence to support the generally held belief that EO is universally beneficial to OP; rather, I found evidence to suggest that the relationship between EO and OP is much more complicated than it is generally assumed, and that under certain circumstances, the five EO dimensions may vary independently, implying that entrepreneurial activity or processes could sometimes lead to desirable results on one performance dimension and undesirable results on a different performance dimension. I found evidence to suggest that different OL dimensions may have different moderating effects on the relationship between the different EO and OP dimensions. I discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this study and recommend areas for future research.

How Ecclesiological Values Influence Leadership Construction and Leader-Follower Alignment: A Heuristic Inquiry

John Thomas Moxen | 2017


This research sought to determine whether ecclesiological values influenced leadership construction and leader–follower alignment within an ecclesial setting. The study was a heuristic inquiry, which calls for in-depth interviews with individuals connected to a community as well as the insights that can be useful from the experience of the primary researcher. The interviewees were members of Church of the Holy Apostles—a local ecclesial community comprised of Episcopalian and Roman Catholic Christians in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Of the eight individuals selected by the two senior members of the church, seven elected to participate. The in-depth interviews sought to determine whether there are ecclesiological values that are held in common by the members. Four values were found to be most commonly held amongst the members, including a respect for tradition, a sense of urgency, humility, and unity. From the data compiled in the interviews, the researcher discovered that these values play an influential role in how the members at Holy Apostles understand leadership construction as well as how well they align with their various leaders. Future research ought to include the study of a similar ecclesial organization, such as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, interreligious organizations such as UNICEF, communities that experience the coexistence of citizens who follow different faiths, as well as nonreligious organizations.

Examining the Relationship of Follower Perceptions of Leaders’ Servant Leadership Behaviors to Leader Immunity to Corruption: Perspectives from Kenya

Nancy Nkirote Muriuki | 2017


The philosophy of servant leadership differentiates servant leaders as those who put the well-being of those served in the larger society as their highest priority. Servant leadership behaviors are manifestations of inner-directed choices that compel one to want to serve first as opposed to leaders who may desire to exercise power and accumulate wealth through their leadership positions. This study employed a quantitative design to examine follower perceptions of the relationship between servant leadership and leader immunity to corruption expressed as corruption propensity. A structured questionnaire was distributed to 135 followers of leaders working in organizations within the city of Nairobi, Kenya. Furthermore, the inquiry sought to establish whether leader–member exchange (LMX) had a moderating effect on the relationship between followers’ perceptions of their leaders’ servant leadership and leader immunity to corruption. The results of the study confirm that a statistically significant relationship exists between followers’ perceptions of their leader’s servant leadership behaviors and leader immunity to corruption. However, the study found that LMX does not strongly influence the strength of the relationship between perceived servant leadership and leader immunity to corruption as a positive relationship was found only in two of the seven dimensions of servant leadership studied. The study proposes to advance the theory of leadership in general and servant leadership in particular in relation to enhancing the understanding of the role of leadership in curbing corruption in organizations in diverse contexts. Theoretical and practical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Epistemic Motivation and Actively Open-Minded Thinking’s Impact on Innovative Behavior as Moderated by a Leader’s Tolerance for Disagreement within a Dental School Community

Wes Parham | 2017


The rise of globalization has resulted in an organizational atmosphere that has been described as volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA; Horney, Pasmore, & O’Shea, 2010). The increasingly VUCA environment present in the 21st century has served as a catalyst for the emergence of the concept of innovation as a vital element of organizational success. Many scholars have argued that innovation is a key component of organizational success (Amabile, 1988; De Dreu, 2006; Hammond, Neff, Farr, Schwall, & Zhao, 2011), and “organizations benefit by knowing who is most likely to suggest and implement new ideas and what conditions best foster these processes” (Hammond et al., 2011, p. 99). However, despite the interest in innovative behavior, C. H. Wu, Parker, and De Jong (2014) argued that “to date, we know relatively little about how dispositional and contextual aspects might work together” (p. 1512). The current study utilized an interactionist approach to answer the questions of “who is most likely to suggest and implement new ideas and what conditions best foster these processes” (Hammond et al., 2011, p. 99) and examined both dispositional and contextual aspects. It also examined the cognitive dispositions of epistemic motivation and actively open-minded thinking and their impact on individual innovative behavior as a way to identify who is most likely to suggest and implement new ideas while also considering whether the contextual aspect of the leader’s tolerance for disagreement moderates the relationship between these two cognitive dispositions and innovative behavior. Six hypotheses were generated to test these relationships. The study findings support the idea that epistemic motivation and actively open-minded thinking are positively linked to individual innovative behavior but have mixed results on the role of a leader’s tolerance for disagreement as a moderator of this relationship.

The Influence of Authentic Leadership Dimensions on Organizational Commitment and Follower Job Performance of Romanian IT Workers: The Mediating Role of Trust

Ligia Petan | 2017


Authentic leadership represents a values-based approach focused on the development of both leaders and followers (Avolio & Gardner, 2005; Gardner, Cogliser, Davis, & Dickens, 2011). Authentic leadership is characterized by self-awareness, relational transparency, internalized moral perspective, and balanced processing (Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008). Through their examples, authentic leaders inspire followers to change (Avolio & Gardner, 2005). Authentic leadership has been previously linked to a series of positive organizational outcomes. The study of authentic leadership is relevant for the Romanian context, as the country has been struggling to minimize corruption at various institutional and organizational levels. The present study explored the influence of authentic leadership dimensions on organizational commitment and follower job performance directly and indirectly, via trust in supervisor, in a sample of Romanian information technology employees (N = 135). The results indicate that authentic leadership dimensions positively influence organizational commitment, and trust in supervisor partially mediates the positive influence of authentic leadership dimensions on organizational commitment. More specifically, self-awareness and internalized moral perspective were found to significantly influence employee organizational commitment. No significant relationship was found between authentic leadership dimensions and follower job performance. A discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of these findings along with limitations and recommendations for future research conclude the present endeavor. The research makes an important contribution to authentic leadership theory by exploring the influence of authentic leadership on organizational outcomes in Romania.

The Relationship of Followership Style with YMCA Employee Outcomes

Amber Quarles | 2017


Followership is the study of an individual’s ability to follow a leader. Previous studies that have investigated followership have primarily focused on job satisfaction and organizational commitment and have either considered followership as a whole or only considered the dimension of active engagement (Blanchard, Welbourne, Gimore, & Bullock, 2009; Gatti, Claudio, Tartari, & Ghislieri, 2014). Both Blanchard et al. (2009) and Gatti et al. (2014) confirmed a connection between followership, commitment, and job satisfaction; however, each study also offered some incongruous information, suggesting a need for further research in this area. The current study investigated the relationship between two critical dimensions that make up followership style—independent critical thinking and active engagement—with employee in-role and extrarole behavior and person–organization fit. Taking into consideration that these relationships are impacted by the nature of a follower’s interaction with his or her current supervisor, the moderating effect of leader–member exchange was also tested. This study used cross-sectional data collected through a convenience sample of employees (n = 154) in a regional YMCA comprised of five branch locations within Virginia Beach and Chesapeake, Virginia. This study revealed that positive relationships between the follower dimensions of independent critical thinking and active engagement existed between performance (in-role behavior and extrarole behavior) and person–organization fit. This study also rejected leader–member exchange as a moderator between follower dimensions and organizational behavior and person–organization fit. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are presented, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

An Examination of the Role of Leadership Fatigue and Trauma in Ethical and Moral Leadership through a Sociorhetorical Analysis of 2 Samuel 11:1-27

Carlo A. Serrano | 2017


This study examined the role of leadership fatigue in ethical and moral decision making through a sociorhetorical analysis of 2 Samuel 11:1-27. The study of ethical and moral leadership was drawn from the literature on ethical leadership as it relates to values-based leadership theories, such as servant leadership, authentic leadership, transformational leadership, and spiritual leadership. The research followed the exegetical methodologies outlined in the relevant textural layers of sociorhetorical analysis. The data were interpreted for principles connecting to ethical and moral leadership and leadership fatigue. The study results yielded four themes that we expanded to five principles for ethical and moral leadership and leadership fatigue as found in 2 Samuel 11:1-27. The results of the study demonstrate a connection between the presence of leadership fatigue and unethical and immoral decision making and behavior. The five themes summarize the findings of the sociorhetorical analysis and serve as a practical guideline for future leadership practice and research.

Understanding How Transformational Servant Leadership Affects Student Leadership Development in a Higher Education Program in China

Marie Shaw | 2017


Both transformational leadership and servant leadership are dominant theories in leadership studies. I conducted a study to advance both theories in a higher educational setting in the country of China. Based on the existing literature, both transformational leadership and servant leadership have significant effects on leadership development. Though each theory shows its inadequacy when used alone, analysis of the similarities and differences demonstrates a great potential of the two theories to be synergized. This study was designed to engage a synergistic conceptual framework of transformational servant leadership (TSL) and used the conceptual framework as the theoretical foundation for the study of leadership development. The purpose of the study was to understand how TSL affects student leadership development in higher education in China. Guided by the purpose, I formulated research questions to determine how TSL was experienced in a higher education program in China and how the experiences affected student leadership development in terms of calling, character, chemistry, and competency. I engaged multiple case studies of qualitative inquiry and collected data from eight graduated students from the program of Master in Leadership (MIL) through interviews and document examination. The findings indicated that TSL, as a theoretical concept, is a dynamic balance between transformational leadership and servant leadership. It is an integration of leadership factors of values, behaviors, serving relationships, performance, and transformation. TSL has a capacity to develop and equip leaders. In the application of leadership practice, the TSL learning experience affects students’ leadership development in terms of pursuing goals through value-based behaviors, developing people holistically, building relationships and collaboration, improving individual and organization efficacy, and transforming organizations through highly effective teams. In conclusion, TSL is a powerful theoretical concept that maximizes the strengths of transformational leadership and servant leadership theories. It facilitates higher educational programs such as the MIL program to develop students into value-based leaders who can transform organizations through relationships. It was also concluded that TSL, when applied in academic program like the MIL, facilitates the fulfillment of the program’s mission by strengthening the faith of Christian believers and raising the awareness of non-Christians to seek the ultimate purpose and meaning of life.

Japanese Young Adult Female Professional Elevation and Fertility

Noriyo Shoji-Schaffner | 2017


In effort to reverse Japan’s declining fertility rate, researchers have contemplated the causal connection between gender equality, female labor participation, and female fertility. Since Japan’s economic recession began in the 1990s, coupled with globalization of finance- and production-based markets exerting neoliberal pressures on the Japanese employers to increase competitiveness by introducing market-oriented corporate strategies, the female workforce has undergone profound transitions as an increasing percentage of women has sought to establish long-term careers. However, the demographic evidence has indicated only one fourth of young adult women entering the workforce have remained on the long-term career track while the remaining three fourths of young adult women have dropped out of the workforce to pursue domestic responsibilities. For those young adult women who have chosen to remain in the workforce, the question has remained whether they are committed to pursue marriage and fulfill parenthood thus to prove the positive correlations between gender equality, female labor participation, and female fertility. This study applied a qualitative psychological phenomenology approach to discover the actual experiences of seven Japanese young adult female professionals as the representation of new female labor force creating new social identities through the mutual conditioning of work and family life structures. Through psychological phenomenological approach, consisting of content analysis of varied methods of interview findings, this study explored what motivates these young adult female professionals to identify with one fourth of young adult women in Japan who have chosen to stay on the long-term career track and how they reconfigure notions of committed relationships, marriage, and parenthood.

Leadership Style, Innovative Work Behavior, and the Mediating Effect of Innovation Climate on Individual Job Satisfaction and Team Effectiveness

Carl Preston Weaver Jr. | 2017


Creativity and innovation are increasingly important to organizational success in a progressively more connected global economy that seeks the latest new idea or product. Research has supported several major influences on creativity and innovation such as leadership and certain contextual factors. While these factors appear important in supporting subordinate efforts at creativity and innovation, studies are limited on the relationship of leadership style to contextual factors and subsequently on organizational outcomes. Using interactionist theory as the foundation for the research, this study examined the direct and indirect effects of servant leadership on innovation climate, innovative work behavior, intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction, and team effectiveness at the individual level of analysis. The study used cross-sectional survey data from 131 participants across six industry sectors. The data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis to test both direct and mediated relationships. Results indicate servant leadership has a direct positive relationship to innovation climate and both servant leadership and innovation climate have a direct positive relationship to intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction and team effectiveness. There was no mediation effect for innovation climate and a small mediation effect for innovative work behavior on intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction and team effectiveness.

Authentic Leadership: A Model for Professional Moral Courage

Ava C. Abney | 2016


The general purpose of this quantitative research study was to determine the relationship between authentic leadership and professional moral courage. The ultimate goal of this study was to extend understanding of the underlying principles of authentic leadership and how each affects a leader’s ability and motivation to act with unwavering moral courage. The participants of this study were a diverse sampling of leaders selected from my LinkedIn network connections, the world’s largest professional network. All data collected for this quantitative research study used a cross-sectional method with the data collected over a period of 6 days through use of electronically administered online surveys. A correlational research design was used to test for a positive or negative relationship between authentic leadership and professional moral courage. It was found that a positive relationship existed between authentic leader and professional moral courage. Implications for future research are also included.

Ethical Leadership Under Duress: An Exegetical Study of Daniel 1-6

Robert D. Ball | 2016


Leadership is often exercised in environments where there are expectations that clash with a leader’s personal, moral, and ethical standards. A leader may feel the pressure or even coercion to sacrifice certain ethical standards for the sake of expediency in advancement, achievement of goals, financial gain, or even preservation of personal comfort and status. This study employed the combined application of socioscientific and sociohistorical exegetical analysis to examine ethical leadership under duress in the life of Daniel as described in the first six chapters of the Book of Daniel. This study adds to the body of literature concerning ethical leadership with findings that show ethical leadership is (a) fully functional when exercised in environments of coercion and duress, (b) fully effective when exercised in environments of coercion and duress, and (c) powerfully influential when exercised in environments of coercion and duress. Furthermore, this study shows a close connection between ethical leadership, servant leadership, and spiritual leadership.

The Effects of Pastoral Servant Leadership and Commitment of Members to the Organization in Latin American and Anglo American Congregations: As Mediated by Leader-Member Exchange and Identification with the Leader

Xavier Humberto Becerra | 2016


Servant leadership is maturing in its theoretical development. Although initially introduced to the literature over four decades ago by Greenleaf (1970), the relationship of the effect of servant leadership and commitment has not been quantitatively explored until recently. Scholars, such as Sokoll (2013) and Drury (2004), have performed studies in the USA, but no quantitative empirical study has been published from Latin America. A call for the expeditious and quantitative investigation of servant leadership theory applicability in non-Western cultures seems to be emanating from within the academy and across organizations around the world (Northouse, 2015). This study, utilizing validated psychometric instruments, examined the essence of servant leadership and found it to have a significant (p < .001) effect on member commitment, especially on affective organizational commitment. This effect was most accentuated in the Latin American culture. The current study also found leader–member exchange to have a strong mediation significant (p < .001) effect on normative commitment and a modest significant (p < .001) effect on affective organizational commitment. The leader–member exchange effect was found to be more accentuated in the Latin American culture. The mediation role of members’ level of identification with the leader was also a significant (p < .001) effect, but there were no significant contrasts across the two cultures. The study was conducted in churches and online among a robust sample of 431 responses in the USA and 328 in Latin America comprised of multiple Evangelical Christian denominations. Respondents to the study’s survey were highly diverse in regards to age, gender, and involvement. This study offers empirical evidence for organizational decision makers to consider servant leadership as an emerging leadership approach that has a superior effect on cultivating member commitment, even in cultures where it was thought not to be a viable leadership style.

Examining Dark Side Leadership and Impression Management of King David: A Social–Culture Texture Analysis of 2 Samuel 11

Darius M. Benton | 2016


This exposition serves as a biblical foundation toward future theoretical development regarding the variables of impression management and dark side leadership within assumed morally charged public leadership roles such as those serving in religious and/or political contexts. In recent years, there have been numerous reports of the drastic measures these types of leaders exude in response to moral failings and the general mistrust of the public toward these types of leaders in response to such incidences. The present exegetical analysis explores 2 Samuel 11 through social–culture texture analysis. Using an exegetical methodology offered the opportunity to thoroughly examine the intersection between biblical exegesis and organizational theory, particularly dark side leadership and impression management as presented in 2 Samuel 11—a prevalent biblical narrative where King David, a beloved yet flawed leader, is a featured character. This study is significant because there exists a plethora of recent research on dark side leadership; however, there is not much directly relating impression management techniques to this phenomenon nor is there research that makes the connection between dark side leadership and a classically adored biblical leader, until this discourse. The researcher determined that in the narrative of 2 Samuel 11, King David exhibits dark side leadership; in attempts to hide the consequence of his indiscretion, he used extreme impression management tactics. This research narrows the gap between organizational leadership theory and a narrative of biblical leadership while providing multiple opportunities for future research.

Examining the Impact of Leader Member Exchange (LMX) Theory on Employee Engagement and Employee Intent to Stay With an Organization

Keyonna S. Beverly | 2016


Research has shown that there is a current issue in leader member exchange (LMX) literature that needs to be addressed through empirical research (Hussain & Ali, 2012). LMX theory has been shown to be related to outcomes such as “employee performance, employee turnover, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job climate, innovation, organizational citizenship behavior, empowerment, and procedural and distributive justice” (Graen & Uhlbien, 1995, p. 228). But, there has been very limited research relating LMX to employee engagement and intent to stay with an organization. This quantitative study contributes to the literature on LMX theory as it provides empirical evidence that LMX is positively related to employee engagement and employee intent to stay with an organization.

The Distinctive Characteristics of Religious Leadership: A Case Study of the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel in the United States

Stephen Bialowas | 2016


Religion and religious leadership continue to have a profound influence on society. However, there is a shortage of scholarly research on religious leadership, especially regarding the characteristics that are distinctive of religious leadership as compared with leadership in general (Ehrlich, 2001; Lindt, 2005; McClymond, 2001). The current study is designed to fill some of the gap in the literature through a qualitative research strategy in the form of a case study on the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel, commonly known as the Foursquare Church, a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a network of over 1,600 churches in the United States. The study collected data on the distinctive characteristics of Foursquare leadership by examining four core documents of the church and the church’s website and through semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with eight prominent national leaders of the organization. The researcher then analyzed the data through a systematic coding process to identify key themes related to Foursquare leader characteristics and then categorized them. The study also compared the characteristics of Foursquare leadership to the characteristics of leadership as described by Weber’s (1963) theory of religious leadership and with five contemporary leadership theories to discover similarities and differences. The results indicated there were several similarities and differences between Foursquare leadership and leadership described by Weber’s theory and the five contemporary leadership theories. The findings show that Foursquare leadership has much in common with leadership described by the five contemporary theories, but only Weber’s theory accounted for the distinctly religious characteristics of Foursquare leaders. The study concluded that religious leadership as practiced in the Foursquare Church is best described by a combination of the five contemporary theories and Weber’s theory. Discussion describes the implications and limitations of the study as well as recommendations for future research regarding religious leadership.

Measuring Leadership Competencies to Avert Crisis: Development and Validation of an Instrument to Operationalize a Conceptual Model

Jamie J. Brownlee-Turgeon | 2016


Relatively minimal research has been conducted around effective leadership before, during, and after a crisis occurs. More specifically, the precrisis stages lack empirical data and measurement instruments on effective leadership in terms of identifying and averting a crisis. Wooten and James (2008) provided a conceptual model that describes leadership competencies surrounding a crisis. The current study focused on leadership competencies required in the first two stages of the conceptual model: identifying and averting a crisis. The purpose of the study was to develop a measurement tool to evaluate key crisis aversion competencies: sense making, perspective taking, issue selling, organizational agility, and creativity. The measurement tool was developed through a four-step process: (a) item development, (b) item reduction and content validation through the use of a Delphi panel of experts, (c) item evaluation through the use of a large sample and factor analysis, and (d) assessment of construct validity. The study addressed content validity through the utilization of a Delphi panel. Once the Delphi panel refined and reduced the items, the measurement was sent to a large sample (N = 278). Factor analysis supported three factors: participatory management, resourcefulness, and sense making. All scales showed internal reliability. Predictive validity and discriminant validity of the measures were examined and generally supported.

Impact of Servant Leadership and Pay Satisfaction on Affective Commitment of Haitian School Employees

Duky Charles | 2016


The impact of servant leadership and pay satisfaction on affective commitment among Haitian school employees was explored. Three hypotheses predicting positive effects for the two independent variables on the construct of affective commitment were tested. Data were collected for this cross-sectional study from a combination of three questionnaires pertaining to servant leadership, pay satisfaction, and affective commitment. Items related to age, gender, tenure, and position—four variables that were supposed to be controlled for as has been suggested in leadership literature—were also added to the survey questionnaire. Six schools with a total of 359 employees and all located in the north of Haiti constituted the research population. These schools included (a) North Practice School, (b) Classic Study Center, (c) Drop of Love School, (d) Ignace Nau School, (e) Upper-Limbe Baptist School, and (f) Limbe School. Based on Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson, and Tatham’s (2006) suggestion on how to calculate the sample size for multiple regression, a random sample of 150 employees was selected. A four-model multiple regression, through SPSS, was used to analyze the data, test the three hypotheses, and answer the research questions. The model summary tables showed that all the models were weak and seemed to be of no use. However, the coefficient tables indicated significant statistical effect for servant leadership on affective commitment for the second model (p = .001), significant statistical effect for pay satisfaction on affective commitment for the third model (p = .003), and significant statistical effect for servant leadership for the fourth model (p = .018).

Leading Through Instruction of Work: A Socio-Rhetorical Analysis in the Book of Proverbs

Keith GeLarden Dayton | 2016


This paper offers an intertexture analysis of the book of Proverbs that reflected an exegetical analysis of (a) oral–scribal intertexture, (b) historical intertexture, (c) social intertexture, and (d) cultural intertexture. The methodology used was from the work of Robbins (1996a; 1996b) through socio-rhetorical criticism in an exegetical interpretation. The New Revised Standard Version of the Bible (NRSV) and the Hebraic text of the book of Proverbs were considered in this investigation. The analysis provided an additional framework of questions which developed themes that helped shape the overall interpretation and understanding of selected verses in Proverbs, specifically on work and instruction of work by leaders in Proverbs. The results of that analysis were then applied for both instruction and work in developing themes to organize the discussion in this final chapter. Each theme followed both areas of interest in the study, instruction and work. Six themes aggregated from the socio-rhetorical analysis data emerged: (a) agriculture, (b) types and styles of instruction, (c) work as a skill, (d) outcomes, (e) transition, and (f) Yahweh. Two subthemes were developed from the theme of outcomes: hunger and poverty. Based on support from these sources, a working conceptual definition of work was brought forward. The study identified appropriate leadership styles through the leadership theories of charismatic and distributive leadership coupled with an understanding of how the culture and context of an era determined how work may have been instructed. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of the research findings, limitations, implications for contemporary organizations and the framework for future research regarding the notion of work, applicable leadership style, and instruction within the study of historical socio-rhetorical criticism.

From ABD to PhD: Scale Development of Doctoral-Level Learning Environments in Context of Autonomous Learning

Dinah Lynn DeFord | 2016


Many doctoral students reach the final stage of their doctoral matriculation and for one or more reasons withdraw from the program prior to degree completion. The purpose of this study was to develop the Autonomous Learning Environment Scale (ALES), an instrument to measure doctoral-level learning environments in the context of autonomous learning. This study investigated one suspected cause of graduate-level attrition: the learning environment experienced by the PhD candidate during the coursework phase of his or her doctoral journey. Two populations of interest were studied: individuals self-identified as permanent, all-but-dissertation adults (noncompleters) and doctoral program graduates (completers). Each participant must have been enrolled in a dissertation-required doctoral program. The method for the development of the ALES required thorough research of current autonomous learning and learning environment literature. Participants were located initially via snowball methodology and then by cluster sampling via U.S. community colleges. Principal component analysis was used to determine factor loadings. Reliability was evaluated via Cronbach’s alpha (α = 0.961) and test–retest, r = 0.801. Inferential statistics indicated the survey was not a good predictor for noncompleters, but some interesting statistics were revealed regarding graduation odds of ethnicity, gender, and public versus private institutions.

Complexity Theory: An Integration of Spirituality and Moral Competency

Erik Doherty | 2016


This quantitative study advances the existing knowledge of the theoretical and practical applications of complexity theory. The study had a sample of 210 participants from the unionized maritime industry in the Hampton Roads area of Virginia. A two-model multiple regression analysis was used to test the relationship between four variables relating to spirituality as an organizational dimension and three variables relating to moral competency as an organizational dimension on employee performance. This analysis was done to examine if the variables pertaining to the spirituality and moral competency dimensions have a distinct, significant, and positive relationship to employee performance, suggesting that these dimensions should be included within the paradigm of complexity theory. The results support a significant and positive relationship for one of the spirituality variables (meditation) and two of the moral competency variables (impression management and responsibility). Future research is needed to clarify why meditation was the only significant variable for spirituality and also to explain why the remaining variable for moral competency (integrity/honesty/authenticity) was significant but had a negative relationship to employee performance. An enhanced understanding of how these organizational dimensions fit into the framework of complexity theory is beneficial for its application in the knowledge pertaining to the dynamic and unpredictable influences upon contemporary organizations.

Transactional and Transformational Leadership Styles, Organizational Commitment, and Leader Effectiveness in Nigeria

Samuel Olutade Fadare | 2016


This study had a three-part purpose: (a) examine the relationship between dimensions of transactional and transformational leadership styles and dimensions of organizational commitment within sub-Saharan Africa, (b) explore the relationship between dimensions of transactional and transformational leadership styles and leadership effectiveness within sub-Saharan Africa, and (c) determine whether dimensions of transactional and transformational leadership styles were moderated by dimensions of organizational commitment within sub-Saharan Africa to produce effective leadership. A sample of 228 Nigerian employees from a variety of industries who were selected from both the LinkedIn professional networking site and from members of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria completed an online survey. The hierarchical regression technique was subsequently applied to test 40 separate propositions. Findings from this study confirmed that relationships among workers in sub-Saharan Africa were significant and positive in all the following cases: (a) contingent reward and affective commitment, (b) contingent reward and continuance commitment, (c) management-by-exception (active) and continuance commitment, (d) idealized influence (behavior) and continuance commitment, (e) intellectual stimulation and continuance commitment, and (f) management-by-exception (passive) and leadership effectiveness. Gender was found to be consistently significant when predicting dimensions of organizational commitment as well as when determining effective leadership among employees in sub-Saharan Africa. Finally, findings established that no significant relationship existed between dimensions of transactional and transformational leadership styles and effective leadership among sub-Saharan African employees when the relationships were moderated by dimensions of organizational commitment.

The Welcoming Organization Assessment: How the Culturally Intelligent Leader Influences the Newcomer Experience Toward Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

Christine Clare Gibson | 2016


This study explored the newcomer experience and the influence that organizational welcome, as moderated by leader cultural intelligence, has on an individual’s socialization experience as it relates to job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Further adding to the body of research is the Welcoming Organization Assessment (WOA)—an instrument that measures an organizational welcoming as perceived by the newcomer. The study hypothesized, based on the existing body of research connecting newcomers’ socialization tactics with organizational commitment and job satisfaction, that the measure of welcome experienced by the newcomer would be positively correlated to his or her level of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Further, the study hypothesized that the leader’s cultural intelligence would moderate the relationship between the newcomer welcome experience and job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The research supported the relationship between the newcomer welcoming experience and job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Also supported was the hypothesis that leader cultural intelligence moderates the relationship between newcomer welcoming experience and organizational commitment. The WOA was found to be reliable and valid for measuring the level of welcome perceived by the organizational newcomer.

The Impact of Leadership Styles on Employee Entrepreneurial Orientation and Innovative Behavior: A Comparative Analysis of American and Indian Immigrant Entrepreneurs

Raushan Gross | 2016


There is a dearth of literature on leadership styles’ effect on innovative behavior and entrepreneurial orientation within the context of American and Indian immigrant firms. This study fills the gaps in the literature with focus on the leadership styles’ impact on American and Indian immigrant employees employed in small- and medium-sized firms. Theses styles have been understudied regarding the impact germane to employee behavior, despite the current rise in American entrepreneurial firms and the recent spike in Indian immigrant entrepreneurial venture firms operated in the United States. The quantitative research design made it possible to garner a rich amount of data, collected from both American and Indian immigrant firms located in the Research Triangle Park area. The firms in which the samples were drawn represented industries that include technology, sales, grocers, hospitality, and finance. The total overall sample size was 321. The American sample respondent size was 161, and Indian immigrant sample size was 160. These data were analyzed with hierarchical regression analysis and multivariate analysis of variance. After analyzing and testing the hypotheses, results showed there are statistical significant differences in leadership styles between American and Indian immigrant entrepreneurial leaders. The results indicate that transformational leadership style has a statistical significant positive impact on innovative behavior in the context of an Indian immigrant firm; transactional leadership style had a statistical significant positive impact on innovative behavior in American firms and a statistically significant positive impact on entrepreneurial orientation in Indian immigrant firms. The study findings reflect the importance of leadership styles and the impact they have on employee behavior in the workplace. Ingenuity, idea creation, and idea implementation in the workplace play a large part in remaining competitive. Risk taking and proactiveness are behaviors that enable employees to harness future-orientated opportunities for the firm. Therefore, transformational and transactional styles are positively related to increasing employees’ innovative and entrepreneurial behaviors.

The Relationship Between Managers’ Cognitive Style and Leadership Type as Moderated by Organizational Culture

Alireza Hejazi | 2016


This study explored the relationship between a manager’s cognitive style and his or her leadership type as moderated by organizational culture through the perception of his or her subordinates. The manager’s cognitive style was the independent variable, the manager’s leadership type was the dependent variable, and the organizational cultural orientation of unit was the moderator variable. The members of LinkedIn social network and the Association of Professional Futurists listserv who were working under a manager at least for three years shaped the population of this study of which 140 subordinates made the sample through snowball sampling method. Quinn and Cameron’s (1983) competing values framework (CVF) formed the theoretical foundation of this study. Its associated measures at the individual and organizational levels of analysis generate 12 leadership types functioning within four orientations: create, compete, collaborate, and control. Kirton’s (1976) Adaption–Innovation Inventory measured managers’ cognitive style. Lawrence, Lenk, and Quinn’s (2009) Managerial Behavior Instrument measured managers’ leadership type. Quinn and Cameron’s Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument measured the organizational cultural orientation of the unit. This quantitative study applied a hierarchical multiple regression analysis method to test 24 hypotheses derived from the relationships between the independent, dependent, and moderator variables. The regression analyses supported more than one third of the hypotheses. While the adaptive cognitive style could be a predictor of competitor, producer, regulator, and monitor leadership types under the moderating effect of market and hierarchy organizational cultural orientations. The innovative cognitive style only could be a predictor of innovator leadership type in the adhocracy culture. The findings of this study contribute to the study of behavioral complexity in leadership by introducing a new paradigm in which the effectiveness of managers originates from the coordination between their cognitive style and leadership type.

Kenotic Alterity: An Exegetical Study of the Ontological Essence of Leadership as the “Death” of the Leader In Johannine, Pauline, and Petrine Scriptures

Dale T. Huffman | 2016


Although previous studies have attributed empowerment and trust to a leader’s use of generalized reciprocity (Coyle-Shapiro, Kessler, & Purcell, 2004; Gouldner, 1960), this dissertation posited that the relational context flowing from a leader’s ontological acceptance of kenotic alterity may be identified in terms of generalized norms of reciprocity (i.e., low concern for equivalence of exchange, low concern for immediacy of reciprocation, and shared focus of interest rather than self-interest). This qualitative exegetical analysis of John 21, Colossians 3:3, and 1 Peter 4:1 (RSV) presented a biblical perspective on the essence or starting point of leadership in death, inability, and external locus of control resting in God. Based on an exegetical analysis of these passages, this study qualified the meaning of kenosis (exiting or emptying oneself formulated as death per exegesis) for the benefit of others (alterity) recognizing an external locus of control in the work of Christ, rather than internal self–control or self–constraint, or assumption of skill sets. The study explored the extent and function of the death analogy used in Johannine, Pauline, and Petrine Scriptures to describe kenotic alterity and suggested that resulting affective trust leads to generalized norms of reciprocity. Research presented here further suggested that Scripture’s thematic teaching of kenotic emptying using the objectionable figure of death is actually the essence of God-designed leadership.

Examining Learning Antecedents to Entrepreneurial Success

Joseph Daniel Johnson | 2016


In an effort to improve entrepreneurial success outcomes in the United States, researchers have focused on examining variables that promote entrepreneurial activity. The challenge for practitioners is to determine variables that help improve entrepreneurial success. Although there is adequate research in the literature on relationships between variables that precede start-up activity, relatively few studies have investigated the role of entrepreneurial learning on entrepreneurial success. To address these gaps, the current study examined the empirical relationships between entrepreneurial instructional learning, entrepreneurial mentorship learning, entrepreneurial experiential learning, and the self-efficacy of entrepreneurial knowledge on start-up success, income improvement, and net worth improvement. With a cross-sectional sample of entrepreneurs in the United States, the study revealed that entrepreneurial mentorship learning and self-efficacy of entrepreneurial knowledge had a significant and positive relationship with start-up success, income improvement, and net worth improvement but only when examined prior to adding control variables. The study also found that the dimension of the highest level of specific business education achieved within the construct of instructional learning had a significant and positive relationship with income improvement and net worth improvement prior to control variables but not start-up success. Furthermore, the study also found that the dimension of years of start-up experience within the construct of entrepreneurial experiential learning had a significant and positive relationship with net worth improvement and income improvement prior to control variables but not start-up success. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are presented, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Enabling Disruption: Predicting Firms’ Likeliness for Disruptive Success through Scale Development

Dustin Kelley | 2016


Researchers operating within the field of innovation have continually revisited market exploitation beyond the assertions posed within traditional management theory by shifting theoretical and practical interests toward examining organizational refinement and redirection as a basis for competition. Within this context, disruptive innovation, as an innovation refinement approach, has produced paralyzing effects on competition by way of altering market identities. As the complex nature of innovative markets continues to grow, so too do educator and practitioner interests for further interpreting influences on strategic innovative proficiency. The concept of disrupting market conditions necessitates a paradigm shift from traditional technological focus toward examining innovations from a much larger business modeling perspective, requiring realignment of organizational key capacities. Under such assertions, this dissertation provides an analysis and validation of various organizational characteristics and their measured impact on the disruptiveness of innovations when applying toward disruption as a calculated growth strategy. A reductionist approach used within an ex post exhaustive examination of case evidence on disruptive innovation uncovered causal indicators and their respective compiled causes for possible representation of those characteristics pertaining to firms’ likeliness for disruptive innovation success. The disruptive innovation enabler instrument provided the empirical evidence for extending the literature by assigning a prescriptive response from the ex post findings. Specifically, the use of a U.S.-based development sample constructed from 659 founders of entrant firms currently considering themselves disruptive uncovered that (a) disassociation from systematic processes, (b) enhancement of managerial capacities, (c) autonomy for disruptive development and commercialization processes, (d) aligned value innovations, and (e) avoidance of entrenched perspectives, as enabling characteristics, contributed to the grandest degree for improving likeliness for disruptive innovation success.

Influence of Leader Listening Competency on Follower Career Commitment and Leader–Follower Relationship in Public Education

Sandra Kay Kimmel | 2016


Leadership and communication may be the most studied constructs in academic, political, and business contexts. While numerous aspects of these constructs and their effectiveness have been explored, little has been done to understand the implications of leader listening competency (LLC) as a significant component of leader style or behavior affecting follower outcomes. In fact, most leadership theories neglect LLC as a salient component of leadership (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009). Rooted in the theoretical underpinnings of leadership, communication, and career commitment, this study investigated the relationship between LLC and follower career commitment as mediated by the quality of the principal–teacher relationship (i.e., leader–member exchange [LMX]) in a K-12 public school context where teacher career commitment is a central issue (Ingersoll, 2001). Based on a cross-sectional sample of teachers in one rural county in a West Virginia public school district, this study revealed that LLC and the quality of the LMX are not significantly related to teacher commitment. However, the study did find significant and positive relationships between LLC and LMX and between LLC and two of the three control variables—leader task-oriented behaviors and leader relationship-oriented behaviors. The study proposes to advance leadership theory by adding to understanding of the significance of LLC on follower outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are presented, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Profiles of Entrepreneurs: Discriminant and Cluster Analyses of the Romans 12 Motivational Gifts and Locus of Control as Predictors of Entrepreneurs and a Canonical Analysis of the Romans 12 Motivational Gifts and IEO

Lydia R. Knopf | 2016


The purpose of this quantitative exploratory research was to conduct discriminant and cluster analyses to see if the Romans 12 motivational gifts and locus of control (Brandstätter, 2011; Hansemark, 2003; J. R. Lumpkin, 1985; Mueller & Thomas, 2001; Rauch & Frese, 2007; Rotter, 1966) predict membership in the entrepreneurial member group and consequently discover the gift profiles of entrepreneurs (DellaVecchio & Winston, 2015; Pierce, 2015). Canonical correlation analysis was used to investigate relationships between the seven motivational gifts—perceiver, server, teacher, encourager, giver, ruler, and mercy—and the three dimensions of individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO)—innovativeness, risk taking, and proactiveness (Bolton & Lane, 2012; D. W. Bryant, 2015). This investigator extended the scholarly work of DellaVecchio and Winston (2004, 2015), Earnhardt (2014), McPherson (2008), Pierce (2015), Tomlinson and Winston (2011), and Winston’s (2009) Romans 12 motivational gifts profiles; generalizability was ascertained. A random sample of 400 business leaders of all faith traditions from throughout the globe were sought to participate in an online survey comprised of validated scales from prior research—the Motivational Gift Test (DellaVecchio & Winston, 2015), the Brief Locus of Control instrument (J. R. Lumpkin, 1985), and the IEO instrument (Bolton & Lane, 2012). Scholars have indicated individuals with entrepreneurial orientation behaviors of innovativeness, risk taking, and proactiveness, as well as internal locus of control, embody an entrepreneurial human capital advantage not easily replicated; yet, no studies have been conducted to explore these connections (D. W. Bryant, 2015; Smith, 2011). All three hypotheses were supported, revealing all seven motivational gifts predicted those who were entrepreneurial and those who were not. Consequently, five distinct entrepreneurial gift mixes/profiles were established. Additionally, there were relationships of significance between the seven motivational gifts and the three IEO dimensions. Similar to Bosch’s (2013) research, this author provided practical implications for governmental and organizational leaders, business incubators, and academic institutions to foster greater entrepreneurial activity.

A Phenomenological Study on Employee Tenure and Resistance to Organizational Change Initiatives

Kory Kubiak | 2016


The purpose of this study was to explore employee tenure and resistance to organizational change initiatives. Research has indicated that employees’ resistance to organizational change is abundant; however, further insight into the specific tenure of employees’ resistance to change is needed. In this qualitative phenomenological study design, I conducted interviews at two flagship organizations—Target and Wal-Mart—to better understand how specific employee tenure affects resistance to change. These interviews were conducted with eight participants in which saturation was achieved. I conducted four interviews with employees who had 1-5 years of service and four interviews with employees who had 10+ years of experience. After the interviews were finished, thematic text analysis began. Coding units emerged from the interview data. After the categorization of these codes, themes were developed. The findings revealed that short-tenured (1-5 years) employees are more adaptable to organizational change initiatives and have a positive comradery with their leaders. The findings also revealed that long-tenured (10+ years) employees are more resistant to organizational change initiatives and have a more negative comradery with their leaders. The results of this research contribute to the theoretical as well as practitioner literature on the phenomenon of resistance to organizational change. I examined and discussed the findings and proposed recommendations for future researchers.

What Organizational Leaders May Learn From the Relationship Between Vocational Calling and Resilience

Juliana Melissa Lesher | 2016


A quantitative study was conducted to study the relationship between vocational calling and resilience among the employees of a private healthcare system. With healthcare organizations impacted by high turnover rates of healthcare employees, studies that reveal why healthcare employees may be more resilient and more likely to remain committed to their profession are pertinent. Dik, Eldridge, Steger, and Duffy’s (2012) Calling and Vocation Questionnaire along with Wagnild and Young’s (1993) Resilience Scale were employed in this quantitative study. Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to test the first three hypotheses of how the presence of a transcendent summons, the presence of purposeful work, and the presence of a prosocial orientation within the organization may have a positive relationship to a greater sense of resilience for healthcare employees. Hierarchical multiple regressions were further exercised to test the last three hypotheses of how the search for a transcendent summons, the search for purposeful work, and the search for a prosocial orientation within the organization may have a negative relationship to resilience for healthcare employees.

The Impact of Servant Leadership on Courageous Followership and Supervisor-Related Commitment

Scott Christopher Lincoln | 2016


This study helped determine the extent to which perceived servant leadership behaviors in an immediate supervisor encouraged courageous followership behaviors and supervisor-related commitment in their subordinates. This relationship was expected to be moderated by organizational proximity to the leader and the length of time working for that same supervisor. This study measured the perceived servant leadership behaviors of supervisors using The Servant Leadership Survey (Van Dierendonck & Nuijten, 2011), the followers’ courageous followership levels were measured by the Followership Profile (Dixon, 2003), and their supervisor-related commitment was measured by the Supervisor-Related Commitment Scale (Becker, Billings, Eveleth, & Gilbert, 1996). The relationship between the dimensions of servant leadership and both the dimensions of courageous followership and supervisor-related commitment were analyzed using multiple regression analysis moderated by the organizational proximity to the supervisor and length of time spent with the supervisor. While the predicted moderating effects were largely unsupported by the findings, all hypotheses were partially supported and at least one servant leadership behavior was found to be a significant predictor of each aspect of courageous followership and each aspect of supervisor-related commitment. Organizational proximity was also found to be a significant predictor of supervisor-related commitment.

An Empirical Comparative Examination of the Relationships Among School Leadership Behaviors and Teacher Commitment to Students in Malawi

Teddie Edward Malangwasira | 2016


This cross-sectional quantitative research examined the extent to which a model relating leadership behaviors and teacher commitment previously investigated in the United States of America by Freeman (2014) applies in Malawi, a culture differing from the USA on several dimensions. Freeman found that transactional leadership behavior of school principals in the USA has a positive and significant relationship with teacher commitment to students. In addition, he found that collective efficacy fully mediated the relationship between transactional leadership behavior of school principals and teacher commitment to students’ academic achievement and social well-being. No previous study had examined the external validity of these findings. Utilizing a sample of 184 teachers from public primary and secondary schools in Malawi, Freeman demonstrated results that did not support these findings. In fact, this research found the following: (a) intellectual stimulation behavior of school principals, a dimension of transformational leadership behavior, was positively and significantly related to teacher commitment to both students’ academic achievement and students’ social well-being; (b) transactional leadership did not have any effects on teacher commitment to students, and (c) no mediating effects were present for either organizational trust or collective efficacy in Malawi. Implications of the study findings, research methodologies, limitations of the study, and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Spirituality in Law Enforcement: An Exploration of Possible Correlations of Spirituality to Burnout and Job Satisfaction for Police Officers

Richard Vincent Martin | 2016


The vocation of policing is considered a spiritual calling (G. Charles, 2009), yet the day-in-and-day-out stressors of professional police work can lead to depleted spirituality (Friedman, 2005), burnout (Martinussen, Richardson, & Burke, 2007), and reduced job satisfaction (McCreary & Thompson, 2006). This quantitative study fills the existing gap in the quantitative theoretical research on spirituality in policing (G. L. Patton, 1998) to increase understanding and support in the field for spirituality in police officers (Ursitti, 2011) and inform the field on ways to address health and fitness issues of police officers, including officer burnout (J. A. Smith & Charles, 2010). Specifically, this study used correlation analysis, t tests, and analyses of variance to analyze survey results and test for correlations between spirituality and burnout and between spirituality and job satisfaction from a sample of 312 full-time police officers from a midsized urban police department in the state of New York. Results support the existence of a strong positive correlation between spirituality (measured through meaning in life) and job satisfaction; a small negative correlation between spirituality and two dimensions of job burnout, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; and a moderate positive correlation between spirituality and the personal accomplishment dimension of burnout. The study points to the need for police executives to take the spirituality of their officers into account when considering the overall health and welfare of their officers. Additional studies are needed to further explore spirituality to determine whether it can predict job satisfaction or burnout and whether spiritual experiences can reverse the negative effects of the toxicity of policing and enhance the officers’ overall well-being as suggested by Travis (2009).

Exploring the Relationship Between Learner Autonomy and Leadership Effectiveness in the Healthcare System

David Alan Miles | 2016


Leadership and learning are two essential concepts within modern organizations. There has been much investigation, research, and inquiry into finding a deeper understanding of both of the constructs of leadership and adult learning. Investigation of specific relationships between leadership and self-efficacious autonomous learning builds upon the collective body of knowledge for both constructs and the link between leadership and learning. A central focus of the study is what Vaill (1996) called the learning premise, which asserts that “leadership is not learned . . . leadership is [emphasis added] learning” (pp. 126-127). The purpose of this study is to address the identified gap in the existing academic literature by examining the relationship between autonomous learning and leadership effectiveness. The study examines leaders within the healthcare industry and examines the relationship between the leader’s level of learner autonomy (self-reported) and their effectiveness as a leader (subordinate-reported). The findings of the study indicated no statistically significant relationship existed between learner autonomy and leadership effectiveness. There were no differences found in the effectiveness of leaders when comparing groups with functional and dysfunctional levels of learner autonomy. Limitations of the study include sample size, which met statistical criteria and was valid although a larger size may improve external validity. Other recommendations for further research include replication of the study in other industries than healthcare, possible further investigation using the additional scales found in the instruments utilized in this study, and research utilizing the individual component inventories that make up the learner autonomy profile.

The Relationship Between Spiritual Engagement and Authentic Leadership: Exploring the Core of Leadership

Richard A. Roof | 2016


Authentic leadership has garnered recent interest with some theorists suggesting it is a root construct of all positive leadership theories (Avolio & Gardner, 2005) and a developable construct that holds promise for advancing leadership (Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008), yet few antecedents have been investigated. Responding to the call to explore potential antecedents, this research used a quantitative, cross-sectional, survey-based study to examine the relationship of authentic leadership and spiritual engagement. Spiritual engagement is defined as a complex spiritual transformative process of spiritual practices and the attitudes and beliefs that motivate spiritual disciplines and are consequently enhanced by the practices (Roof, Bocarnea, & Winston, 2015). Data were collected from a diverse sample of 65 leaders who self-reported spiritual engagement and 266 associated followers’ perceptions of the leaders’ authentic leadership using previously validated instruments including the Authentic Leadership Questionairre (Walumbwa et al., 2008) and the Spiritual Engagement Instrument (Roof et al., 2015). The potential influence of social desirable responses, age, and gender was tested and found to be not significant. The relationship of the four spiritual engagement constructs—worship, meditation, fasting, and rest—were analyzed using multiple regression and found to not be significant predictors of second-order authentic leadership. Post hoc analyses revealed greater reported measures of spiritual engagement worship and fasting in not-for-profit leaders compared with for-profit leaders, but no significant difference in authentic leadership measures was found. An analysis of the relationship of first-order authentic leadership constructs to spiritual engagement found worship positively related to the relational transparency and balanced processing dimensions of authentic leadership. Implications for advancing spiritual engagement and leadership theory, suggestions for practitioners, and future research directions are examined.

The Effect of American and Nigerian Culture on Antecedents of Ethical Leadership

James D. Rose | 2016


This study addresses the question: How do individual characteristics and organizational environmental factors relate to ethical leadership behaviors of American and Nigerian leaders? Based on a comprehensive review of ethical leadership research, including recent cross-cultural studies, ethical leadership can be defined as modeling ethical normatively appropriate behavior (exemplified by demonstrating integrity, consideration of others, and ethical decision making) and the promotion and reinforcement of such behavior. The study identifies three antecedents researchers have shown to have a significant relationship with ethical leadership: internalized moral identity, individual spirituality, and organizational ethical culture. Nigerian and American cultural differences are identified, most notably, power distance, collectivism, and performance orientation. Six hypotheses are proposed regarding the relationship of the three antecedents to ethical leadership and the moderating effect of American and Nigerian culture. The study utilizes a quantitative approach to test the hypothesized relationships. Results indicate that (a) internalized moral identity is positively associated with ethical leadership behavior in both the American and Nigerian cultures, (b) individual spirituality is positively associated with ethical leadership behavior in both cultures, and (c) organizational ethical culture is positively associated with ethical leadership behavior in the Nigerian sample. Societal culture was not found to moderate the influence of any of the antecedents assessed. These findings further the understanding of antecedents of ethical leadership in both Nigerian and American cultures.

Exploring the Relationships Between Leadership Styles and Job Satisfaction Among Employees of Nonprofit Organizations

Lawanne Shanta Ross-Grant | 2016


This nonexperimental study aims to explore the relationship between leadership styles and job satisfaction among employees of nonprofits. Specifically, the goal of the study is to determine the strength of the linear relationships between job satisfaction and transformational leadership, servant leadership, authentic leadership, and transactional leadership. The research addresses two research questions: Do leadership styles have a positive relationship with job satisfaction among employees of nonprofit organizations? Do leadership styles differ in levels of job satisfaction among employees of nonprofit organizations? The study has five hypotheses. H1: Transformational leadership is positively correlated with job satisfaction. H2: Servant leadership is positively correlated with job satisfaction. H3: Authentic leadership is positively correlated with job satisfaction. H4: Transactional leadership is negatively correlated with job satisfaction. H5: Transformational, servant, authentic, and transactional leadership styles display significantly different levels of job satisfaction. The study employs snowball sampling securing 132 participants who completed the survey electronically. ALQ measured Authentic Leadership; SLQ measured Servant Leadership; MLQ measured Transformational and Transactional Leadership; and JDI measured Job Satisfaction. Age, tenure, and workforce were identified as covariates (categorical control variables). Following analysis, H1, H2, H3, and H4 are supported. With the covariates age and tenure, H5 is supported when considering the significant differences between transformational and authentic leadership and between transformational and transactional leadership. Without the covariates, H5 is supported when considering the significant difference between transformational and authentic leadership.

Authentic Leadership: A Quantitative Study of the Effect of Authentic Leadership on Group Cohesion and Work Engagement in Student Organizations in Mexico

Jorge Fernando Salcedo | 2016


Authentic leadership, as a construct, has caught researchers’ attention, and it has gained recognition and position within leadership studies. Authentic leadership’s predictive capacity is in the developmental and discovering phase. Empirical studies on authentic leadership have less than 8 years, and there is still much to analyze and discover regarding this construct. This quantitative research aimed to add value and knowledge in the exploration of authentic leadership in Mexico. The authentic leadership construct includes four dimensions: (a) self-awareness, which refers to how leaders understand their strengths and weaknesses and the motives they exposure to others; (b) balance processing, which refers to how leaders analyze all relevant data before coming to a decision; (c) internalized moral perspective, which refers to how leaders make decisions based on values and high internal ethical standards; and (d) relational transparency, which refers to how leaders are open in presenting one’s true self to others (Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008). Utilizing previously validated instruments, this study explored whether or not a relationship exists between authentic leadership behaviors of the leader (as perceived by the group members) and group cohesion and work engagement (as reported by the group members) within the Mexican context. This study worked with a sample of undergraduate students from Universidad de Monterrey who are members and active participants of student organizations and who are between 18-29 years old. Using a sample of 226 participants (N = 226), it was clearly demonstrated that there is a positive relationship between the authentic leadership behaviors of the leader and the members’ group cohesion (r = .56, β = .54, p = .000) and that there is a positive relationship between the authentic leadership behaviors of the leader and the members’ work engagement (r = .54, β = .54, p = .000). The study’s findings demonstrate the need to advance the research of authentic leadership in Mexico and Latin America.

The Role of Learner Autonomy in Avoiding Leader Derailment

Wayne R. Sass | 2016


The purpose of this research study was to explore whether or not a significant correlation exists between learner autonomy and leader reserved behavior. Through this correlational study, I examined the relationship between learner autonomy and leader reserved behavior to determine if higher levels of learner autonomy may be associated with lower levels of reserved behavior in leaders and, therefore, lower risk of leader derailment. I reviewed the autonomous learning and leader derailment literature and posed the question: Is there a correlation between learner autonomy and leader reserved behavior? Additionally, from the extant literature, I synthesized a composite illustration, the Sass model, to more fully explicate the development of behavioral intentions toward autonomous learning. I presented the variables of interest, learner autonomy and reserved behavior, along with the instruments used to measure them: the Learner Autonomy Profile-Short Form (LAP-SF) and the Hogan Development Survey (HDS). While, to date, no other researchers have explicitly investigated a correlation between learner autonomy and leader reserved behavior, prior research in the two fields has provided a plausible theoretical basis for the hypothesis that there is a significant, negative correlation between total LAP-SF scores and HDS Reserved scale scores. This self-reporting, cross-sectional, survey-based correlational study utilized a complete sample of managers employed by four firms that comprise a major U.S. healthcare organization’s southern California region. I analyzed the collected data using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (Pearson r). The data supported my hypothesis, revealing a statistically significant, moderate, negative correlation between the two variables of interest. An analysis of the data also revealed additional significant associations between learner autonomy and several potentially derailing leader behaviors. This study made important, original contributions to the quantitative-based literature and bodies of knowledge of two fields—autonomous learning and leader derailment—by discovering new, previously unknown, significant correlations. I make recommendations for future research to ascertain causality.

Managing Insidious Barriers to Upward Communication in Organizations: An Empirical Investigation of Relationships Among Implicit Voice Theories, Power Distance Orientation, Self-Efficacy, and Leader-Directed Voice

Craig Robert Starbuck | 2016


Organizations whose employees can freely voice ideas, suggestions, and problems to decision makers have a competitive advantage in effectively navigating the vicissitudes of today’s hyper-competitive business environment. Studies have amassed considerable evidence related to individual and contextual influences to explain why members of organizations often choose to withhold rather than speak up to superiors. An emerging stream of research has shown that employee silence may stem from self-protective implicit voice theories (IVTs): taken-for-granted rules of self-censorship (Detert & Edmondson, 2011). Building on prior research, this study investigated IVTs, individual power distance orientation, problem-solving self-efficacy, and creative self-efficacy as predictors of leader-directed voice using data collected from 1,032 employees (individual contributors: n = 696; supervisors: n = 336) in an investment firm. This study also tested problem-solving and creative self-efficacy as moderators of the relationships between IVTs and individual power distance orientation with leader-directed voice. All hypotheses were tested with supervisor-reported voice as the dependent variable and compared in post-hoc tests with self-reported voice as the criterion. Two tests using supervisor-reported voice were significant: the don’t embarrass the boss in public IVT was a significant predictor of voice beyond the controls, and the interaction effect of the need solid data or solutions to speak up IVT with creative self-efficacy was significant, though it masked a pattern of amplified negative impact antithetical to the hypothesized nature of moderation. Post-hoc analyses using self-reported voice as the criterion variable revealed that the composite IVTs scale, all individual IVTs apart from the don’t embarrass the boss in public IVT, problem-solving self-efficacy, and creative self-efficacy were significant predictors of voice beyond the control set. In addition, creative self-efficacy attenuated the negative effects of both the presumed target identification and don’t embarrass the boss in public IVTs on self-reported voice. Additional post-hoc testing, theoretical and practical implications, and limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

Testing the Reliability and Validity of the 108 Skills of Natural Born Leaders Self-Assessment

R. Lewis Steinhoff | 2016


There are many leadership self-assessments. Warren Blank’s (2001) 108 Skills of Natural Born Leaders Self-Assessment (NBLSA) is one that has never been statistically validated. The current study, administered in the form of a survey, quantitatively examined the NBLSA for reliability and validity. Face validity draws upon the relationship of the NBLSA items to leadership theory, convergence measured against the Taking Charge instrument developed by Morrison and Phelps (1999), and discriminant validity compared against both the Interpersonal Deviance Scale and the Organizational Deviance Scale of the Deviant Behaviors instrument developed by Aquino, Lewis, and Bradford (1999). This study used DeVellis’ (2012) scale development guidelines. However, given the scale already exists, only the last three of eight steps were required. Analysis revealed there are six factors that capture the major categories of the NLBSA. The new factors showed good internal consistency, strong Pearson correlation coefficient reliability, and convergent validity. The six factors failed to show test–retest reliability and discriminant validity. Therefore, the NBLSA remains a nonvalidated instrument.

Exploring the Social, Psychological, and Organizational Factors Affecting Founder/Executive Departure

Christopher Kenneth Turner | 2016


Executive/Founder transition is a phenomenon that occurs in every organization. While organizations are aware of the need to plan for transition, the common experience of this change is negative for both the leader and organization. Existing studies predominantly have focused on the mechanics and practical outcomes of change with some research assessing the emotional and psychological state of stakeholders. However, theoretically grounded thinking that assesses the wider dynamics and motivations that shape the phenomenon beneath the emotion and psychology of change are obvious in their omission. The stakes of organizational leader transition are too high not to develop a broader theoretical model for how the process is experienced by the departing leader and his or her organization. This thesis frames executive/founder transition in a conceptual framework that draws on anthropological, sociological, psychological, and new scientific theories regarding transitional dynamics. Using a case study methodology, six organizations were investigated to interrogate positive and negative exemplars of transition against six theoretical propositions. The research found that the notion of transitional alignment in the structure, heart, and dynamics of the process are precursors to more positively experienced executive/founder transition. Conversely, where less transitional alignment is present, the process will be more negatively experienced.

Willingness to Take Risk and Psychological Ownership as Moderators of the Team Climate for Innovation to Innovative Work Behavior Relationship

James Anthony Ward | 2016


The purpose of this team innovation research was to investigate two understudied variables (willingness to take risk and psychological ownership) as moderators of the team climate for innovation (TCI) to innovative work behavior (IWB) relationship. This study built on the team innovation research started by West (1990). The research tested the significance of two innovation literature threads. First, it has become normative in the innovation literature that employees with psychological ownership, or a stake, in the business take better care of, have more pride in, and have more motivation to innovate (Avey, Avolio, Crossley, & Luthans, 2009). Second, innovation is an inherently risk-based process, enhanced by individual willingness to take risk that challenges the group (Kheng, Mahmood, & Beris, 2013; Saleh & Wang, 1993). Seven self-report instruments were used to collect data (N = 142) from engineering design build and financial companies in the southeastern United States. Nine hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated the willingness to take risk moderated the task orientation to IWB relationship, and stake moderated the task orientation and support to IWB relationships. The results bear support for the willingness to take risk and stake as important variables in the TCI model. This research added to the understanding of TCI as a descriptive and prescriptive tool. The team innovation theoretical model is complex with risk and stake being but two parts of the puzzle. The theoretical implications built on Bain, Mann, and Pirola-Merlo’s (2001) work that TCI could be expanded to include a context-sensitive basket of IWB indicators. Leaders who modelled these behaviors and had development programs to create a sense of ownership had higher team IWB (Seshadri & Tripathy, 2006) and willingness to stand up and confront the group with new ideas. Innovation is one of a limited number of tools that are sources of competitive advantage—a key to long-term organizational survival (Christensen, 1997). Toward this end, the practical implications included measuring, training, and modelling as a leader’s practical tools to enhance the willingness to take risk and stake to strengthen the TCI–IWB relationship. Recommendations for future research are provided.

Steward Followership Measurement

George B. Warton | 2016


Undergraduate leadership institutions pride themselves on their ability to produce graduates with the requisite leadership tools to navigate the organizational milieu their fledgling leaders will encounter. However, gaps in the theoretical underpinnings of leadership, particularly followership, likely leave the recent leadership graduate without the necessary tools to navigate the leadership requirements in today’s organization (Chaleff, 2009; Kelley, 2010; Uhl-Bien, Riggio, Lowe, & Carsten, 2014). The purpose of this dissertation is to establish the steward follower as a theoretical outworking of courageous, exemplary, implicit, and ethical followership together with coproduction of leadership established within a steward leader paradigm (Carsten & Uhl-Bien, 2012, 2013; Chaleff, 2009; Kelley, 1992; Rich, 2012; Rodin, 2010; Sy, 2010). Following the conceptual establishment of the steward follower, an instrument originally proposed as a three-dimension followership measure (Kaak, Reynolds, & Whyte, 2013) is redesigned into the two-construct Steward Followership Measurement contrasting steward and egoistic followership. The instrument was rewritten as a result of the original design not meeting reliability and validity standards determined through statistical testing. The first survey of 1,576 cadets at the U.S. Air Force Academy (USAFA) in August 2014 (Warton & O’Donnell, 2014) found that the dimensions of maturity and compliant followers factored to a single dimension describing the traits of the steward follower. The dimension of resistant follower was found to be unreliable and, therefore, rewritten for a subsequent survey in October 2015 of 1,146 cadets and renamed the Egoistic Follower Scale (Warton & O’Donnell, 2015). The results from the second survey utilizing the Steward Followership Measurement containing the steward follower and egoistic follower scales were determined to be both reliable and valid. Further, the results of the two surveys are instructive to the USAFA and others beyond the scope of this research focus.

Effects of Innovation Training on Innovative Work Behaviors

Bruce E. Watley | 2016


This study examined the effects of innovation training on innovative work behaviors. Anderson, Potocnik, and Zhou’s (2014) comprehensive state-of-the-science review identified a gap in the existing body of knowledge concerning innovation training and its use in an organizational setting to improve individual innovativeness. Argyris’ (1970) intervention theory, where effective and successful interventions produce behavioral changes in people, and Kirton’s (1976) adoption-innovation theory, where everyone is located on a continuum that ranges from adaptiveness (i.e., doing things better) to innovativeness (i.e., doing things differently), are the theoretical frameworks for this study. The literature review covered the theoretical framework, innovation, creative problem solving, innovation training, self-efficacy, and innovative work behaviors. The research question asked: To what extent does innovation training affect innovative work behaviors? I presented three research hypotheses to test the differences of innovative work behaviors and self-efficacy among groups who received innovation training compared to groups who did not. I used a Solomon Four-Group design where I introduced a proprietary innovation training curriculum as a treatment to individuals in a regional health care organization that employs over 6,000 people. I used a two-way analysis of variance to determine the effects of innovation training on individual innovative work behaviors using DeJong’s (2006) Innovative Work Behavior Questionnaire as well as modified it to measure a participant’s self-efficacy toward innovative work behaviors, which I called the Innovative Work Behavior Appraisal Inventory. The findings indicated there was no statistically significant difference among groups who received innovation training compared to groups who did not for innovative work behaviors or self-efficacy. However, the knowledge gained from this seminal research created a foundation for which to build future research studies.

The Relationship of Professional Values and Spirituality with Motivation to Lead: The Mediating Effect of Social Justice Importance

Michele R. Wells | 2016


Motivation to lead (MTL) is an individual differences construct used as a measurement of an individual’s motivation to take on leadership roles and responsibilities (Chan & Drasgow, 2001). The current exploratory study examined the values of a professional organization—the National Association of Social Workers (NASW)—and individual spirituality as predictors of the four forms of MTL—affective identity (AIMTL), social normative (SNMTL), noncalculative (NCMTL), and ideological (Amit, Lisak, Popper, & Gal, 2007; Chan & Drasgow, 2001). In previous studies using military samples, researchers have controlled for attitudes toward military service (Chan & Drasgow, 2001; Clemmons & Fields, 2011), but the norms of a professional organization have not been previously studied as a predictor of MTL. Previous studies have explored spirituality as a predictor of MTL, finding both positive and negative correlation with the Chan and Drasgow (2001) forms (AIMTL, SNMTL, NCMTL) of the MTL construct (Clemmons, 2008; Porter, 2011; Smith, 2010). Ideological MTL had not been studied using professional norms or spirituality as independent variables. The current study further explored the importance of social justice as a mediator of the relationship between professional norms, spirituality, and the four forms of MTL. The sample participants were professional social workers (N = 302) who by virtue of their education as social workers adhere to the NASW (2008) Code of Ethics. The Code of Ethics is a guide for social workers’ conduct and the promotion of social justice inherent to the mission of social work (NASW, 2008). This study used quantitative measures to examine the relationships among the variables. Theoretical and practical implications are addressed as well as limitations, delimitations, and direction for future research.

Internal Factors That Enable Positive Deviance to Occur in Leaders: A Phenomenological Description

Brian Arthur Williamson | 2016


While Spreitzer and Sonenshein (2003, 2004) and Lavine (2012) provided a strong conceptual foundation from the existing literature regarding positive deviance, Lavine noted that little has been done to date to build upon this initial work. The current phenomenological study explored the internal factors that enable positive deviance to occur in leaders. In-depth interviews were utilized to capture the lived experience across six leaders who were deemed positively deviant by a referent group of eight followers. Data were explicated and resulted in an articulation of the following internal factors that enable positive deviance to occur in leaders: values (prioritization and care for others, values driven, growth and reproduction mind-set, sense of meaning, courageous action, shared approach to leadership, emotional intelligence, integrity), behaviors (connection and care for others, growth and reproduction mind-set, learning and improvement mind-set, courageous action, creativity, shared approach to leadership, emotional intelligence), and attitudes (positivity, humility, abundance, visionary, courage, gratitude). Research and practitioner reflections are presented along with limitations and recommendations for future research.

Hope: Exploring Nonprofit Leaders Generating Hope in Followers

Robert S. Zarges, Jr. | 2016


Leadership theories have included the construct of hope for many years (Helland & Winston, 2005). Luthans and Avolio (2003) asserted, “The force multiplier throughout history has often been attributed to the leader’s ability to generate hope” (p. 253). The current study examined how executive directors in the nonprofit sector describe the experience of generating hope in their followers. A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to develop a composite description of generating hope from participants who have experienced the phenomenon. This study included a review of the theoretical literature that generated the interview questions. Additionally, this study includes a discussion of the qualitative design rationale for data collection and analysis. Six executive directors were interviewed; the key finding was that hope generation rests in quality relationship with followers characterized by teamwork, motivation, modeling, trust, and transparency and includes investing in follower professional development as an external resource through skill building and emotional support that results in personal and professional goal setting and achievement and, ultimately, organizational mission fulfillment. In the conclusion is a discussion of the limitations to this study and recommendations for further research.

Breaking Through the Mental Barriers of an Entrepreneur

Susan E. Anderson | 2015


The diversity in entrepreneurial activity has been shown in literature to represent a complex set of knowledge, resources, and skills yet also has been shown to prevent scholars from finding the universal chords intrinsic to becoming a successful entrepreneur. This dissertation specifically looks at the mental barriers faced by entrepreneurs through a qualitative, phenomenological design, employing interviews to collect data from the perspective of people’s experiences. The study explores the question: What breaks through the mental barriers of an entrepreneur? Expanding on the distinction made in this exploration that there is a difference between internal factors and the placement of external influences related to the process required for breaking through Chopra’s (1999) mental barriers of (a) getting past one’s initial reaction and (b) creating a desired change, this exploration confirmed that a mental barrier breakthrough is possible only by those contenders to a process to be completed. The findings further articulate that depending on one’s willingness and specific path taken, results will reflect either long- or short-term benefits. These findings provide a significant contribution in understanding those areas to develop in regard to one’s ability to break through these mental barriers and where future research may be most beneficial. This dissertation also provides a way for these developments to be articulated into a practical application. Learning the process for breaking through mental barriers takes time and requires exploration, experience, and knowing what to remove or avoid when seeking a clear vision to assess an idea, situation, or obstacle. Future research considerations are also provided.

Understanding Servant Leadership as a Phenomenon Through the Lived Experiences of Leaders of Private Organizations and NGOs in Ibadan and Lagos in Southwest Nigeria: A Qualitative Study Using Q-Sorts

Olofunmilayo O. Akinyele | 2015


This study examines the phenomenon of servant leadership in the Nigerian context. It sought to understand the phenomenon from the lived experiences of leaders of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and private organizations in Ibadan and Lagos in the Southwest region, particularly given the pre-Colonial legacy in the Ibadan kingship-leadership structure. The study (a) discusses Nigeria as the context for the study and (b) identifies and explains differences in pre-Colonial leadership styles of the Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba ethnic communities as well as contemporary organizations in Nigeria and the challenges they face. The study uses the framework of Patterson’s (2003) servant leadership model, particularly service, vision, and humility which have been shown to be common descriptive elements of servant leaders (Hale & Fields, 2007; Ihenacho, 2011), and Hofstede’s (2001) cultural dimensions of (a) individualism vs. collectivism and (b) power distance. The researcher collected data by (a) interviewing senior executives, (b) examining relevant historical and leadership documents, and (c) keeping field notes and a reflective journal. The researcher then conducted a Q-sort. The data were analyzed using Schmolck and Atkinson’s (2000) PQMethod software, deriving three factors of (a) Ǫmǫluabi serving with collaboration and humility, (b) chief servant leading by example with humility and (c) passionate visionary humbly modeling the way through service. Implications for Nigeria, leadership theory and practice, and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Emotional Intelligence, Leader-Member Exchange, Job Stress, and Job Satisfaction: A Study of Practicing Attorneys

Oral Beason | 2015


Some levels of job stress result in productivity, ingenuity, and satisfaction. However, as job stress increases, job satisfaction tends to decline and compromise work results. Internal individual differences and external contextual factors may buffer the effects of negative aspects of stress. This study investigated the buffering effects of emotional intelligence (EI) and leader-member exchange (LMX) on the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. A structured survey questionnaire was used to gather data from 214 attorneys licensed in the State of Florida. The study investigated whether the results of moderated multiple regression analysis of the collected data would show that the interaction of EI and job stress would have buffered the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. Similarly, the study investigated whether the results of moderated multiple regression analysis of the collected data would also show that the interaction LMX and job stress would have buffered the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. However, the results of the study did not support a finding of moderating effects on the independent variable and dependent variable relationship. Analysis of the data revealed that EI and LMX had a mediating effect on the independent variable and dependent variable relationship of the participants. Implications of the study on job stress theories of practice, research methodologies, conceptual limitations, and suggested directions for future research are also discussed.

Servant Leadership and Organizational Citizenship: A Moderated Mediation Model of Perceived Leader Effectiveness and Exchange Ideology in Rwanda

Timothy Brubaker | 2015


What effects do reciprocity expectations have on the relationship between servant leadership and organizational citizenship? The present study proposed and tested a moderated mediation model of the effects of servant leadership on two types of organizational citizenship behaviors (altruism and courtesy). First, the study hypothesized that perceived leader effectiveness mediates the relationship between servant leadership and these two types of organizational citizenship (H1). The study further hypothesized that employee exchange ideology moderates the indirect effects of perceived leader effectiveness in each of these models (H2). Three theoretical trajectories explain the proposed relationships between study variables: social learning theory (Bandura, 1977), cognitive categorization theory (Rosch, 1975), and reciprocity/clientelism (Gouldner, 1960; Landé, 1977). Adult Rwandans working in nongovernment settings comprise the sample for this study. Data collection yielded 194 usable responses (N = 194) which were analyzed based on study hypotheses. Data analysis showed adequate support for the full mediation effects of perceived leader effectiveness on the relationship between servant leadership and both forms of organizational citizenship. However, concerning the moderating effects of exchange ideology in the mediation models, analysis demonstrated that exchange ideology only moderated the mediation model with respect to courtesy and not altruism. The presentation concludes with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications along with suggestions for future research. This study makes an important contribution to leadership theory by better understanding the nature of leader-follower relationships in Africa and the importance of reciprocity in these relationships.

Exploring the Differences of Faith Manifestations and Entrepreneurial Orientations of Catholics and Protestants

David W. Bryant | 2015


There is a dearth of quantitative research that considers the integration of Christian faith and entrepreneurship. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to explore the differences of faith manifestations and entrepreneurial orientations of Catholics and Protestants at work. Based on the foundational relationships of sacred scripture, sacred tradition, and natural law, Catholics embrace a social magisterium that makes them unique not only among other religions but also within the Christian faith. If Catholics are different from Protestants, there should be observable differences in faith manifestations and entrepreneurial behaviors for Catholics and Protestants at work. Utilizing The Integration Box and the Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation instruments, no statistically significant differences for Catholics and Protestants were found. The theoretical implications of this research reveal that the hypothesized Catholic versus Protestant relationship at work may be a false dilemma. From a Catholic perspective, the practical implications of this research reiterate the need for radical Catholic reeducation of the tenets present in Catholic social teaching. Directions for future research are presented.

Leadership Malpractice in Higher Education: Effects of Organizational Ethical Culture and Followers’ Perceived Organizational Support on Abusive Supervision and Vicarious Abusive Supervision

Michelle Clawson | 2015


There has been a growing need to stop bullying from leaders in organizations and to support targets of this often ignored phenomenon. The death of Kevin Morrissey, the managing editor of the University of Virginia’s Virginia Quarterly Review, served as the catalyst in this research. The purpose of this cross-sectional quantitative study was to examine the effects of organizational ethical culture (i.e., ethical values, procedural justice, and interactional justice) and followers’ perception of organizational support on abusive supervision and vicarious abusive supervision in institutions of higher education. Using a sample of 747 administrators, faculty, and staff from 11 colleges and universities in the southeastern region of the United States, organizational ethical culture was found to make the largest statistically significant contribution and was the best predictor of abusive supervision. Followers’ perceived organizational support also made a contribution; however, it was not significant. When examining the individual dimensions measured in organizational ethical culture, interactional justice was highly related to abusive supervision. In relation to vicarious abusive supervision, organizational ethical culture made the largest statistically significant contribution and was the best predictor, although followers’ perceived organizational support made a statistically significant contribution. Position level (i.e., supervisors and nonsupervisors) did not differ in terms of the followers’ tolerance of abusive supervision and vicarious abusive supervision. On the other hand, an employee’s rank had an influence on abusive supervision. To the researcher’s knowledge, there were no studies on abusive supervision and vicarious abusive supervision in the postsecondary education field in the United States. The intent was to demonstrate if supervisory bullying occurred in a higher education setting and to bring awareness of incivility in academe. Implications of these findings are discussed as well as strengths and limitations of the study. Future directions for research of abusive supervision in higher education are suggested.

Measuring Individual Capacity to Lead: Development and Validation of a Theory Based Instrument

Michael J. Daniels | 2015


Few studies have presented a conceptually complete model describing capacity to be a leader. This study developed and tested a measure that operationalizes individual capacity to lead. The measure is based on integrating the conceptual models of Popper and Mayseless (2007), Dries and Pepermans (2012), and Chan and Drasgow (2001). The resulting measure may significantly improve an organization’s ability to select individuals for training and development who have the highest capacity to succeed as leaders. Ultimately, this may prove useful for human resources selection, development initiatives, succession planning, and recruiting. This measurement tool was developed using a four-step process: (a) item development, (b) scale identification and validation through use of a Delphi panel, (c) item reduction and identification of underlying dimensions through use of a large sample (N = 467) of working adults, and (d) assessment of construct validity of the capacity-to-lead instrument. The measure has three components: follower-focused (α = .961), focused on leading and influencing others; learning agility (α = .925), focused on the idea of a leader being adaptable to changing environments, situations, and stimuli; and intellectual curiosity (α = .891), focused on a leader having a curiosity that stems from an intellectual framework and pursuit. Future research ideas, limitations of the study, and practical applications for this instrument are provided.

Examining the Endorsement of Authentic Leadership, Organizational Commitment and Perceived Leader Effectiveness among Nigerian Employees

Amara Emuwa | 2015


This study examined the endorsement of authentic leadership and its relationships with follower outcomes of perceived leader effectiveness and organizational commitment among employees in Nigeria. The study contributes to the incremental understanding of cross-cultural leadership behaviors by comparing the relationship of authentic leadership with desired outcomes in Nigeria to similar relationships observed in previous studies in U.S. employees. In addition, this research examined the extent to which contingent leadership behaviors interact with authentic leadership to strengthen its relationship with employee outcomes. This study used cross-sectional survey data collected from a sample of 212 Nigerian employees across multiple industrial sectors.

The Relationship between Perceptions of Diversity Climate and Value Congruence/Person-Organization Fit: A Focus on Nonminority and Minority Employees’ Differences in Perceptions

Rodney L. Fields | 2015


This quantitative study advances the theoretical discussion of affirming diversity climate in organizations. The study had a sample of 120 participants from various organizations throughout the metropolitan area of Atlanta, Georgia. A three-model hierarchical multiple regression and an independent-samples t test (special case of one-way analysis of variance) were used to test the relationship between perceptions of diversity climate and value congruence/person-organization (P-O) fit while comparing perceptions between nonminority and minority employees. The results support a statistical significance for the following two claims: (a) lower perceptions of diversity climate lead to lower P-O fit and (b) perception of diversity climate differs by ethnicity (nonminority vs. minority). Future research is needed to test other variables that contribute to the relationship between perceptions of diversity climate and value congruence/P-O fit, including expanding the regional scope of participants and organizations and expanding the research globally. Diversity offers a rich platform to further examine the benefits and challenges of the effect diversity, now and in the future, and how it impacts employees and organizations.

The Effect of the Accountability Variables of Responsibility, Openness, and Answerability on Authentic Leadership

Heidi R. Frederick | 2015


One of the unique aspects of authentic leadership that scholars have posited is the possibility that it can be developed (Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008). However, the paucity of research on authentic leadership as a dependent variable reveals a gap that must be addressed. The purpose of this cross-sectional quantitative study is to examine the proactive three-factor accountability theory of responsibility, openness, and answerability practices (Wood & Winston, 2007) as an antecedent to authentic leadership. Using survey results from a sample of full-time employees at private Christian higher education institutions in the United States, a predictive relationship was investigated through multiple regression analysis and a subsequent hierarchical regression analysis. The results indicated that the variables of responsibility, openness, and answerability predict the perception of authentic leadership. One-way analyses of variance, t tests, and post hoc tests were also performed to identify differences in demographic data. Significant differences were found in tenure with the leader. As was expected, high correlation was found among all four scales. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed as well as strengths and weaknesses of the study. Future directions for research of authentic leadership and proactive accountability are suggested.

Social Identity Theory and the Prototypical Ecclesial Leader in Paul’s Letters to Timothy

Michael Gilbert | 2015


One does not need to look far to notice that a leadership crisis is occurring in nearly every industry and field. Leadership is central to the success of a quality-led organization, requiring support and commitment from top management. Despite attempts or perceptions that reduce the significance for a theory of ecclesial leadership, the modern leadership crises under discussion continue to reveal a more desperate need for an appropriate model of ecclesial leadership like never before. This study employs a joint methodology of social-scientific criticism and sociohistorical analysis of the epistles of 1 and 2 Timothy. The results contribute to the reduction of the paucity in literature concerning the role of social identity theory within the field of ecclesial leadership. Beyond social identity theory, the Apostle Paul employed a social identity model of leadership, through leadership succession, to promote Timothy as the prototypical leader over the ecclesia at Ephesus. From the results, the model of prototypical ecclesial leadership constructs surface comprising of (a) mimetic apprenticeship, (b) shared suffering, (c) confronting error, (d) spiritual formation, (e) wealth management, (f) public spirituality, and (g) kingdom focus. The model construct of prototypical ecclesial leadership attempts to inform the divinity academe of the solid gains made by the leadership academe in regard to the contributing construct of the Pauline prototype.

Examining the Relationship Between Group Cohesion and Group Performance in Tuckman’s (1965) Group Life Cycle Model on an Individual-Level Basis

Troy B. Hall | 2015


What leaders currently know about the topic of group cohesion and performance is a reflection of the literature as studied from a group-level basis. The literature has clearly asserted that group cohesion positively impacts group performance when the group is collectively studied. Greer (2012) noted individual-level analysis was needed to extend the literature on this topic. The current study serves two purposes. First, this study’s design supports research to examine the correlation between group cohesion and group performance in all stages of Tuckman’s (1965) group development model from an individual-level perspective. This view of group development, as seen from the individual’s perspective, provides leaders with valuable insight about the group life cycle at the point at which cohesion occurs. Providing leaders with the perspective of when and to what degree cohesion occurs within group development contributes to a leader’s ability to influence, motivate, and enable organizational success. Second, the study’s research design uses the Group Life Cycle Cohesion and Performance Questionnaire (GLCCPQ) created from the works of Carmeli and Waldman (2010), Dobbins and Zaccaro (1986), and D. Miller (2003). Employees of businesses associated with a southeastern U.S. metro Chamber of Commerce accessed the online GLCCPQ and provided data reflecting an individual-level perception used to examine the four study hypotheses. Using correlation analysis for each hypothesis, the expected results confirmed a positive correlation existed between the two variables (cohesion and performance) in the formingstorming, and performing stages of a group’s life cycle. The strongest correlation occurred in the forming stage, contradicting Tuckman’s findings. The lack of correlation within the norming stage data set was unexpected. The study’s conclusions contribute to leadership effectiveness in the areas of influence, motivation, and organizational success. The findings extend the literature, offering an individual-level perspective examining the correlation between group cohesion and group performance at each stage of the group life cycle and not of the group as a whole. Finally, this research design and the GLCCPQ survey offer a strong foundation to spur future research and discovery on this topic.

Examining the Leader Development Process: The Development and Validation of a Leader Education and Development Model

Nicole Hawkins | 2015


The premise of the study was to maximize the capacity of human capital and social capital relationships in organizational leaders through a multistage educational model. Traditional leader development efforts have tended to focus on the collective unit of leadership within an organization, that is, how leaders and followers interact for the greater good of the group or organization. The model suggested in this research encompasses individual leader development and interpersonal content. This research operationalized a framework for a multistage leader development model for developing individual leaders, maximizing leadership capacity, and gaining insight into the evolving process of leader development. The nascent literature of leader development theory and the multidimensional and ever-evolving construct of leader development was also examined. Utilizing Kegan’s (1980) framework of constructive-developmental theory as validated by McCauley, Drath, Palus, O’Conner, and Baker (2006), the current research operationalized Day, Fleenor, Atwater, Sturm, and McKee (2014) identified content areas for leader development (the dimensions of intrapersonal and interpersonal development) into an applicable model that can be utilized to guide leader development in organizations. A mixed-method approach was utilized to determine validity of the proposed model by conducting a single data collection from two groups (identified as subject matter experts and practitioners). The first group involved a qualitative process by interviewing five subject matter experts. The second data group consisted of 57 practitioners from industry and academia who participated via a quantitative survey. Findings indicate support of the suggested model and the emergence of the evolved leadership capital development model.

An Examination of the Role of Spirituality in the Development of the Moral Component of Authentic Leadership through a Sociorhetorical Analysis of Paul’s Letter to Titus

Joshua D. Henson | 2015


This study examined the role of spirituality in the moral development component of authentic leadership in comparison to leadership principles found in the Epistle to Titus. The study of moral development was drawn from the literature on authentic leadership theory, spiritual leadership theory, and preexisting frameworks of moral agency, self-concept, and the stages of moral development. The exegetical process followed the methodology of sociorhetorical analysis and was interpreted for the moral, ethical, and leadership principles found in the pericope. The study yielded five themes of leadership from which 10 principles of leadership were discovered as found in Paul’s letter to Titus. It was found that the principles in Titus generally support the literature on the moral development component of authentic leadership theory. In the case when there were differences, it was found that principles of Titus expand and elevate the standards found in the literature. The study concluded that there is an intimate relationship between sacred and secular contexts such that the moral and ethical standards of the Christian community engage the moral standards of a given social and cultural context and reconfigures them in light of the gospel of Jesus Christ. The 10 core values of ethical behavior discovered in Titus were compared to the constructs of authentic leadership theory, spiritual leadership theory, and the core values of spirituality, and they were found to transcend each construct. The study created a framework for the future study of the core values of morality and ethics in multiple constructs: biblical, secular, and sacred.

On Developing a Deeper Understanding of Authentic Leadership: Interpreting Matthew 3:11-5:48—Using Intertexture Analysis and Social and Cultural Texture Analysis

Stephen L. Kalaluhi | 2015


This inductive, qualitative research study explore the construct of authentic leadership within the context of organizational leadership as demonstrated within the Matthew 3:11 – 5:48 pericope. Using the Matthew 3:11 – 5:48 pericope as a foundation for authentic leadership, this study seeks to answer the following research question: How does the pericope within the Christian sacred text that describes Jesus’ baptism, temptations, subsequent start of ministry, and initial teachings as found in Matthew 3:11 – 5:48 contribute to our current understanding of how organizational outcomes are affected by leader morality when applied from within the intrapersonal, interpersonal, developmental, and pragmatic perspectives of authentic leadership? This research followed the exegetical foundation as described by Robbins (1996a, 1996b), and focused primarily on the frameworks associated with intertexture analysis and social and cultural texture analysis. Nine themes emerged from the data, suggesting the authenticity of Jesus was further enhanced through the intrapersonal perspective, the interpersonal perspective, the developmental perspective, and the pragmatic perspective. Specifically, the nine themes identified the following aspects of authentic leadership: (a) use of traditions, regulations, and pre-existing laws, (b) recitation of traditions, regulations, and pre-existing laws, (c) reconfiguration of traditions, regulations, and pre-existing laws, (d) use of reference, allusion, and echo to build authenticity as a leader, (e) use of social knowledge and its use in establishing authenticity, (f) use of reformist discourse to emphasize different authentic leadership approaches, (g) the concept of ascribed honor and its importance to authentic leaders, (h) the concept of challenge-response and its use in authentic leadership, and (i) the concept of purity and its role in authentic leadership. A discussion about the research findings and their implications to the contemporary organizational leadership context is included. This research also addresses the limitations of this study, as well as provides guidelines pertaining to possible future research related to the topic of authentic leadership studied from within a Christian worldview.

Service Learning Experiences and University Students’ Motivation to Lead

William Lamb | 2015


In an effort to improve service-learning (SL) experiences among students at university campuses, it is valuable for educational leaders to measure the impact that these experiences may have on students. In addition, a responsibility of universities is to prepare students for leadership beyond the collegiate experiences. This study expanded previous research by identifying the relationship of SL experiences with student motivation to lead (MTL). In addition, this study also examined social justice attitudes, problem-solving skills, and perceived leadership skills as possible mediators in the relationship between SL and student MTL. Although there is adequate literature on the three dimensions of motivation to lead (affective-identity, social-normative, and noncalculative), there seemed to be a gap in the investigation of the relationship of student’s SL experiences and MTL. Therefore, this research study utilized a quantitative approach for gathering and analyzing empirical data which revealed outcomes that will be beneficial to expanding the research on SL and MTL. The sample of students, ranging from freshman to seniors at a faith-based institution in the United States participating in this study totaled 407. Control variables included general self-efficacy, gender, race, and previous leadership experience. Two questions guided this study: Does the extent of a student’s SL program experience have a positive multivariate relationship with a student’s MTL? Do student problem-solving skills, beliefs in social justice, and leadership role experiences mediate the relationship between a student’s SL program experiences and student MTL? The results of this research revealed that (a) SL does have a direct relationship with student’s affective-identity MTL, (b) perceived leadership skills fully mediate the relationship between SL and affective-identity MTL, (c) SL is not a predictor of social-normative motivation to lead, (d) neither problem-solving skills nor social justice attitudes mediate the relationship between SL and AIMTL.

A current view into implicit leadership theories and the applicability of servant leadership in Polish universities

Joanna Leontaris | 2015


The primary purpose of this quantitative study was to (a) explore potential cross-generational differences in leadership style preferences depicted by the GLOBE (House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004) project between Polish middle-level managers of 1996/1997 and Polish university employees of 2015, (b) compare the extent to which servant leadership was experienced by followers employed in the higher education sector in Poland and the United States, and (c) investigate the existence of a positive relationship between servant leadership and organizational commitment among Polish employees. The sample was comprised of 113 faculty and staff working at a Polish university located in southern Poland. The participants were on average about 35 years of age and mostly occupied non-leadership positions with women comprising 71.7% of the sample. The data were gathered via an online surveying process during the months of March and April 2015. The questionnaire utilized the following measures to assess the main variables: six leadership style scales designed by the GLOBE project, a parsimonious version of the Essential Servant Leadership Behaviors scale (Winston & Fields, 2015), and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (Mowday, Steers, & Porter, 1982). Polish employees of 2015 preferred team-oriented and participative leadership modes to a lesser extent when compared against their counterparts from the GLOBE project. Polish employees of 2015 also exhibited less tolerance for autonomous leadership style than Polish middle-level managers of 1996/1997. Additionally, servant leadership was practiced more frequently among the contemporary employees in the United States than in Poland. Servant leadership appeared to positively impact organizational commitment among Polish employees when controlling for age, job tenure, and task-oriented leadership (β = .208, p < .05). These findings suggest that future leaders ought to be cognizant of the impact time; major political, social, and economic shifts; and cultural underpinnings may have on the cross-generational and cross-cultural perceptions of the effective and desired leadership practices. Finally, servant leadership may be considered a variable leadership style for Polish employees and by projecting a positive influence on organizational commitment, it may also positively contribute to reducing the extent of the brain drain Poland is currently experiencing.

The Influence of the Big Five Personality Traits and Locus of Control on Organizational Commitment in Historically Black Colleges and Universities Libraries

Brandolyn Love | 2015


This dissertation addresses Neal’s (2005) call for more research on the influence of personal characteristics on turnover in historically Black colleges and universities (HBCU) libraries by assessing the relationship between the Big Five personality traits, locus of control, and organizational commitment. The research focuses on follower perception of the leader using the Big Five personality traits and self-evaluation using organizational commitment. The research includes a double measure of locus of control to measure follower perception and self-evaluation. Each of the Big Five personality traits—openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism—were tested individually. The hypotheses were tested using a nonexperimental, quantitative design that included the widely used and validated Big Five Inventory-10, Internal and External Locus of Control Scale, and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Sample data were collected using the website SurveyMonkey as the host for the questionnaires. The HBCU Library Alliance listserv and website were also used to access sample participants. Multiple regression analysis in SPSS was utilized as the means for analysis of the results of the study. No significant influence existed in the self-perception of locus of control of the follower and organizational commitment. However, the perception of internal locus of control of the leader by followers was found to have a significant negative influence on commitment. Additionally, openness and conscientiousness of the Big Five personality traits were found to have a significant positive influence on organizational commitment in HBCU libraries.

Individual Readiness for Change: The Impact of Organizational Learning Culture and SDL’s Learning Motivation

Sharmane C. Miller | 2015


This cross-sectional study quantitatively investigated the impact of organizational learning culture (OLC) on individual cognitive readiness (COGRE) and emotional readiness (EMRE) for organizational change. Additionally, the moderating influences of the self-directed learning construct of employees’ learning motivation on the relationships between the single dimension of creating continuous learning opportunities (a dimension of OLC) and COGRE and EMRE for organizational change were examined. Using the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ; Watkins & Marsick, 1993), the Readiness Scale of the Organizational Change Questionnaire-Climate of Change, Processes, and Readiness Scale (OCQ-C, P, R; Bouchenooghe, Devos, & Van den Broeck, 2009), the learning motivation scale of the Self-Directed Learning Instrument (SDLI; Cheng, Kuo, Lin, & Lee-Hsieh, 2010) and a demographic questionnaire, perceptual data were obtained from a sample (N = 130) of public, primary school teachers who were embarking on a major organizational change initiative in The Bahamas. Using multiple hierarchical regressions, the findings indicated first that there were statistically significant relationships between EMRE for change and the seven dimensions of OLC. Second, age influenced the relationship between individuals’ perception of their OLC and their EMRE for change. Third, the study found no statistically significant relationships between level of education and EMRE or COGRE for change. Finally, this study found no moderating effects and inferred no causal relationships because of low R2 values. Understanding the influence of the variables of OLC and learning motivation on individual readiness for organizational change provides valuable insight about how organization leaders can adequately prepare for and execute successful change.

Phenomenological Study of the Mentoring Behaviors of the Four Quadrants of Situational Leadership Within the Department of Defense

Noah Mitchell | 2015


This study examined the mentoring behaviors displayed by supervisors in the four quadrants of the situational leadership (SL) model as they focus on the human resource development side of the workforce. Although no study exists that has examined the mentoring behaviors supervisors demonstrate or employ in the four quadrants of the SL model, Kram’s (1988) study was used as the base for identifying the mentoring behaviors supervisors exhibit. A qualitative phenomenological research was conducted to determine the mentoring behaviors in the four quadrants exhibited by supervisors using the SL model and found that supervisors exhibit acceptance, challenging task, coaching, exposure/visibility, and empowerment. Eight supervisors and eight followers were interviewed. The phenomenology focused on “exploring how human beings make sense of experience and transform experience into consciousness” (Patton, 2002, p. 104) and attempted to understand those “who have directly experienced the phenomenon of interest” (p. 104). This study addressed the theoretical framework of the study, research design, sample size, data collection, data analysis, and conclusion. Results are presented along with a discussion. The results will assist supervisors with developing mentoring relationships and utilizing the appropriate mentoring behavior in each SL quadrant to mentor employees. The results also will serve to assist in developing and improving employee performance and productivity that will lead to employees becoming self-directed learners to complete assigned projects and tasks.

Personal Responsibility in the Financial Services Industry: The Cognitive Antecedents and Behavioral Consequences of an Employee’s Sense of Responsibility in Organizations

Kelly D. Monahan | 2015


The purpose of this research was to define and examine the cognitive antecedents and behavioral consequences of personal responsibility within the workplace. A quantitative research design was conducted on a sample of 200 full-time employees working at The Hartford. Confirmatory structural equation modeling confirmed the a priori model, a full mediation model, as the best fit to represent the relationships found within the personal responsibility model. Self-concept beliefs, as manifested by locus of control and self-efficacy, were strong predictors of one’s ascription of responsibility back to the self. Contextual job beliefs, however, were not found to predict personal responsibility and were rather an indirect influence based on the covariant relationship with self-concept beliefs. As predicted, attitudes towards personal responsibility were a strong predictor of whether one intended to engage in helpful behaviors. Therefore, helpful behavioral intentions were found as a direct consequence of personal responsibility. This study provides an extensive model that evaluates the motivational cognitions and intentions of personal responsibility within the workplace based on the theory of reasoned action framework. The findings call into question the job characteristics model as the most appropriate measure of personal responsibility, which states personal responsibility as a byproduct of autonomy. Rather, personal responsibility may be defined as a cognitive process and individual tendency to attribute the consequences of one’s action back to the self. Perhaps rather than focusing on the amount of autonomy one has within the workplace, research should focus on explaining why some employees have a higher sense of personal responsibility and test the stability of that trait. The call for future research invites greater attention and dialogue to the self-cognitions that drive one to ascribe responsibility back to the self.

Exemplary Lives in Speech, Conduct, Love, Faith, and Purity: An Analysis of 1 Timothy 3-4 for Ethical Leadership

Aaron Perry | 2015


Ethical leadership theory concerns the relationship between ethics and leadership. Brown, Trevino, and Harrison (2005) developed a nomological definition for the purpose of developing the ethical leadership scale that is being used widely (Eisenbeiss, 2012; Hunter, 2012). However, the whole construct of ethical leadership lacks grounding. While Brown et al.’s definition has been more commonly used to measure the effects of this version of ethical leadership, Ciulla (2014) and Eisenbeiss (2012) suggested an interdisciplinary approach to provide a stronger foundation and deeper understanding, including such subjects as effectiveness, virtue, and rule-based ethics. In order to answer this challenge to study ethical leadership with an interdisciplinary approach, this study examined 1 Timothy 3-4 for ethical leadership. The study values theology as a contributing discipline to ethical leadership, but the reader may still engage the analysis of 1 Timothy 3-4 without theological commitment. First Timothy is analyzed using sociorhetorical research, specifically the different textures of the text (Robbins, 1996) including intertexture, social texture, and cultural texture. In this light, 1 Timothy presents qualities for leadership in terms of virtue, skill, and maturity of faith. First Timothy uses categories of virtue for leaders found in contemporary and ancient sources, including military leadership and household leadership. The study concludes that ethical leaders are virtuous people, ethical leaders model to empower followers, ethical leadership is necessarily effective to certain ends, and ethical leadership is formed contextually.

A Correlation Analysis of Person-Job Fit, Job Satisfaction, and Motivational Gifts of Entrepreneurs

Andrea M. Pierce | 2015


The purpose of this research is to extend the inaugural work of DellaVecchio and Winston’s (2004) Romans 12 motivational gifts profile. The research explores the differences in job satisfaction and person–job fit based upon the seven Romans 12 motivational gifts profiles. Specifically, the research examines the variables while evaluating the entrepreneurial population. A convenience sample of 150 entrepreneurs from the continental United States were asked to participate in an online survey comprised of the Romans 12 motivational gifts instrument (DellaVecchio & Winston, 2004), the job satisfaction instrument (Weiss, Dawis, England & Lofquist, 1967), and the person–job fit instrument (Saks & Ashforth, 1997). Cluster analysis was used to examine and identify motivational gifts profiles among the sample. Analysis of variance was conducted to determine the differences in job satisfaction and person–job fit based upon clusters identified of the seven Romans 12 motivational gifts. Additional analysis of variance was conducted to determine which motivational gifts had a significant relationship with job satisfaction and person–job fit. The cluster analysis confirmed two significant clusters, both showing the presence of the Romans 12 motivational gifts. Analysis of variance confirmed a significantly higher correlation between one cluster with the reported high to medium scores of the seven Romans 12 motivational gifts scales. Additional correlation tests found a significant relationships between the Romans motivational gifts, job satisfaction, and person–job fit with weak Pearson product-moment correlations reported for all motivational gifts.

Innovative Behavior in Local Government: Exploring the Impact of Organizational Learning Capacity, Authentic Leadership, Psychological Empowerment, and the Moderating Role of Intrinsic Motivation

Leana Polston-Murdoch | 2015


While conventional wisdom may consider innovation in public service a paradoxical concept, an organizational cultural shift that supports knowledge sharing, learning, and exploration is essential to meet the increasing needs and demands of stakeholders. The pace of innovation is increasing in local government as a result of forward-thinking and risk-taking government leaders who partner with subject-matter experts and academic researchers who continue to transform the historical risk-adverse bureaucratic leadership to a culture that cultivates innovative behavior. This study set out to investigate cognitive and contextual factors that influence innovation in local government. The overarching purpose of this study was to investigate how organizational learning capacity, authentic leadership, psychological empowerment, and intrinsic motivation influence innovative behavior within local governments. This framework offers multitheoretical support to understand innovative behavior in local government. Through the lens of social cognitive theory, this research brings into focus how the environment, behavior, and cognitive factors contribute toward innovative behavior within local government. Drawing from self-determination theory, this study examined how psychological empowerment influences innovative behavior. Authentic leadership theory explains how employees’ perception of authentic leaders influences innovative behavior. Self-determination theory clarifies how intrinsic motivation influences the relationships between organizational learning capacity, psychological empowerment, and authentic leadership with innovative behavior. This study used a single-period cross-sectional design. Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to examine survey responses from a sample of 302 local government employees within the United States.

Understanding Team Effectiveness in Culturally Intelligent Intercultural Teams

Scott Reitz | 2015


Globalization has stimulated unprecedented global migration, creating and demanding cultural diversity in organizations and in their teams. Organizations today are increasingly diverse, and intercultural teams are no longer multinational concepts alone. Within national borders, populations are increasingly diverse, and organizational teams reflect this diversity. Regardless of how small cultural differences appear, they have the potential to create significant differences in how teams communicate, perform, and make decisions. Livermore (2009) argued that no two team members respond to the same cultural value in the same way. The current study expands the understanding of how culturally intelligent intercultural teams view effectiveness by identifying key themes drawn from episodic interviews with team members. The more significant emergent themes is the firmly held belief that effective intercultural teams require trust, shared values, service to others, and a respect for team and team members.

Self Efficacy in the Leadership of Jesus’ Disciples: An Inner Texture Socio-Rhetorical Analysis of the Gospel According to John

Davina Sandifer | 2015


Leadership development is a well-known component of successful organizations. As such, leadership development programs are a viable solution for equipping employees with desired skills and characteristics. This study assessed self-efficacy as a generalizable methodology for creating effective leadership development programs. The premise was based on the validity, reliability, predictability, and generalizability of self-efficacy theory and measurement instruments. Through inner texture sociorhetorical analysis of self-efficacy in the leadership development of Jesus’ disciples, sources of efficacy and corresponding learning activities were identified. The following components of self-efficacy in the disciples’ leadership development process were found: the use of a prevalent source of efficacy to cultivate belief in specific thematic content, the utilization of multiple sources of efficacy to cultivate belief in specific thematic content, the use of a prevalent learning activity for specific thematic content, the use of a variety of learning activities to cultivate efficacy as it relates to each category of thematic content, an organized progression of the content, and learning activities facilitated by an authoritative figure. These components were adapted into the self-efficacy leadership development model, a methodology for creating leadership development programs that utilizes sources of efficacy in determining what learning content and learning activities will be most effective in accomplishing leadership development goals.

Twelve Steps Toward Leader Humility: A Sociorhetorical Analysis of Benedict of Nursia’s Chapter on Humility

Jake Stum | 2015


This inductive, qualitative research study explored the construct of leader humility within the context of organizational leadership as demonstrated in the writings of Benedict of Nursia, specifically Chapter 7 of Rule of Saint Benedict. This study further sought to understand factors of humility and answer the following three research questions: What is the process of humility development as described in Chapter 7 of the Rule of Saint Benedict? Do the descriptions of organizational humility provided by Galbraith and Galbraith (2004) effectively define the construct of organizational humility promoted by the Rule of Saint Benedict? How does the organizational humility proposed by Benedict reflect or challenge current models of humility in organizational research? The research method employed in this study emerged from the theoretical approach of hermeneutics as described by Gadamer (2004) and Patton (2002), using sociorhetorical critical analysis (Robbins, 1996a) as the interpretative method with a focus on both the inner textuality and the intertextuality of Chapter 7 of the Rule. Following Robbins’ (1996b) recommended framework, the applied analyses included separate study of inner texts and intertexts. Inner texture analysis included (a) repetitive, (b) progressive, (c) narrational, (d) open-middle-closing, and (e) argumentative textures and patterns. Intertexture exploration included (a) oral-scribal, (b) cultural, (c) social, and (d) historical analysis. A progressive, descriptive model of leader humility emerged to indicate a process of development including the following steps: (a) revelation, (b) commitment, (c) abnegation, (d) submission, (e) patience, (f) honesty, (g) contentment, (h) dependency, (i) measured speech, and (g) saturation. A discussion of the research findings and implications for contemporary organizational leadership is included in addition to potential study limitations and possible future research related to this topic.

Traditionally Inherited Leadership Among the Ewes in Togo, West Africa—Reasons and Beliefs: Building an Integrative Approach

Boniface Toulassi | 2015


Leadership in Africa is still characterized by authoritarian durability—a perpetual presidential incumbency syndrome. To have a deeper understanding of this phenomenon, this dissertation used problem-focused ethnographic methods to investigate reasons and beliefs associated with inherited leadership and how agapao leadership and hope theory could be useful in the construction of an integrative approach to Ewe leadership with shared and participative leadership among the Ewe-Mina in Togo, West Africa. The study (N = 65) employed participant observation, directed observation, and interview-based participant listening with chiefs, queens, notables, royal family, youth, and a district officer to collect rich qualitative data. After coding emergent themes and categories, thick descriptions of Ewe leadership formed a foundation for analysis. Emergent themes were first analyzed using indigenous typologies and then analyst-constructed typologies before being interpreted to present an indigenous portrayal of the characteristics of the Ewe traditionally inherited leadership, its roles, and concerns—and how decisions are made. Royal ancestorship, Zipki, and Fa indicated inheritance and support for the Duto, who, with a successful role play of functional lordship and leadership, facilitates balance and control of power through his prerogative to approve or not any chief appointed by the royal council. Though hierarchical, the flow of information and communication is facilitated by a traditional organ, Kpavi, which is a framework for collegiality, participation, and representation from the people. Though male-dominated, Ewe leadership is open to youth leadership and a substantial growing female leadership with a special focus on female development and emancipation. Data also pointed at critical changes, compelling chiefs to derive their respect and worth from pragmatist and utilitarian angles of instead of from its institutionality. Drawing from the data, suggestions are offered regarding the integration of theory (agapao and hope) and leadership in the construction of the Ewe integrative approach (TogbuiMama, and Sohefia) keeping Kpavi as a way to claim important traditional aspects.

Development of the Authentic Followership Profile (AFP) Test Instrument

Leroy P. VanWhy | 2015


Until recently, the concept of followership has been a relatively general term; an individual who was not a leader was a follower. However, just as differing types of leadership theories have emerged, followership theories are an evolving concept. One such theory is authentic followership (AF), which has only started to emerge in the last decade. Although scholars such as Avolio and Reichard (2008); de Zilwa (2014); Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, May, and Walumbwa (2005); and Goffee and Jones (2006) have developed various models and conceptualizations of AF, to date, there has been no empirical instrument to measure the construct (de Zilwa, 2014). The current research developed and validated a Authentic Followership Profile (AFP) instrument using the attributes that the aforementioned authors used to describe an authentic follower. A panel of five subject matter experts was enlisted to help define a more concise list of attributes of AF from 155 characteristics extracted from the literature. After review and adjudication, the list was narrowed to 74 items that were submitted to a sample participation group via an online survey; 301 completed responses were received. To establish test criterion-related validity, a 20-item test instrument for courageous followership (Dixon, 2003, 2006; Muhlenbeck, 2012) and a nine-item test instrument measuring antisocial behaviors (Fields, 2002; Robinson & O’Leary-Kelly, 1998) were included in the survey that established, as expected, a positive and negative correlation to AF. Component factor analysis results revealed four distinct components within the 74 characteristics that explained 52.48% of the variance. The four components include internalized moral perspective, self-awareness, relational transparency, and psychological ownership, which closely parallel the construct of authentic leadership (Northouse, 2013; Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008) as anticipated. Reliability is very strong with Cronbach’s alphas of .84, .83, .81, and .85, respectively. The final AFP scale contains 23 items. The results of this research open a previously unavailable avenue for future scholarly exploration, as well as potential practitioner application for employee evaluation on this important followership construct.

A Situational Examination of Motivation to Lead: Gendered Implications in Leader Development

Teresa Watson | 2015


Previous research studies have indicated that there are fewer women than men in leadership positions. The causes for this are less understood. This study adopted a different approach to reviewing the situation by focusing on the leader development aspect of motivation to lead (MTL) and whether or not it is impacted by environmental aspects of the organization in the forms of political perceptions, relationships with a current leader, and work-family conflicts. Each of these factors has been shown to have a relationship with gender. This research investigated whether or not gender affects their relationship with a composite form of MTL by examining gender as a moderator variable. Data from a sample of employed individuals in different industries, including government, partially support some hypothesized relationships between MTL, leader-member exchange, and political perceptions. Gender implications are discussed. Limitations and future research for MTL and leader development are addressed.

An Examination of Leadership Charisma From the Perspective of the Apostle Paul and Max Weber With a View Toward an Ecclesial Charismatic Leadership Theory: A Sociorhetorical Interpretation of 1 Corinthians 12

William D. West | 2015


This qualitative study examines the concept of charisma found in 1 Corinthians 12 with a view toward exploring an ecclesial charismatic leadership theory. The sociorhetorical method of interpretation is the primary exegetical method used to explore 1 Corinthians 12. The specific concepts of spiritual gifts presented in 1 Corinthians 12 have long been examined by theologians throughout the history of the church. However, very few articles or books have considered the Pauline concept of charisma as the power and authority the Holy Spirit provides to each individual within the ecclesia. It is the charisma that not only brings the spiritual gift but also provides the power and authority for the individual to provide leadership within the ecclesia through the use of his or her particular spiritual gift for the common good. Paul is credited with coining the term charisma which is grossly misappropriated by Weber (1903/1978). Paul considered power and authority within charisma to be from God and immutable, while Weber described power and authority as being held by the followers who retain the potential for withdrawal by the followers. The sociorhetorical interpretation of 1 Corinthians 12 reveals a model for ecclesial charismatic leadership that begins with God who provides the charisma to each individual of the ecclesia through the indwelling of the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit provides each individual with a particular spiritual gift. Once the individual understands his or her particular spiritual gift and expresses the gift, two things happen. First, the individual fulfills the individual goal for which his or her spiritual gift is given. Second, as each individual expresses his or her spiritual gift, the organizational goal of the common good of the ecclesia is achieved. Therefore, the expression of each individual’s spiritual gift results in greater organizational commitment for the individual and greater overall organizational effectiveness of the ecclesia.