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Regent University is a Christian Institution Offering Undergraduate, Graduate, and Doctoral Degrees Located in Virginia Beach, VA 23464

2016 Dissertations – Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership Program

The final requirement for School of Business & Leadership Ph.D. students is the scholarly research dissertation. To access full-text versions of these dissertations, please contact your university’s library or UMI Dissertation Services. Regent students, staff and faculty may access full-text versions from the Regent University Library.


Authentic Leadership: A Model for Professional Moral Courage

Ava C. Abney | 2016


The general purpose of this quantitative research study was to determine the relationship between authentic leadership and professional moral courage. The ultimate goal of this study was to extend understanding of the underlying principles of authentic leadership and how each affects a leader’s ability and motivation to act with unwavering moral courage. The participants of this study were a diverse sampling of leaders selected from my LinkedIn network connections, the world’s largest professional network. All data collected for this quantitative research study used a cross-sectional method with the data collected over a period of 6 days through use of electronically administered online surveys. A correlational research design was used to test for a positive or negative relationship between authentic leadership and professional moral courage. It was found that a positive relationship existed between authentic leader and professional moral courage. Implications for future research are also included.


Ethical Leadership Under Duress: An Exegetical Study of Daniel 1-6

Robert D. Ball | 2016


Leadership is often exercised in environments where there are expectations that clash with a leader’s personal, moral, and ethical standards. A leader may feel the pressure or even coercion to sacrifice certain ethical standards for the sake of expediency in advancement, achievement of goals, financial gain, or even preservation of personal comfort and status. This study employed the combined application of socioscientific and sociohistorical exegetical analysis to examine ethical leadership under duress in the life of Daniel as described in the first six chapters of the Book of Daniel. This study adds to the body of literature concerning ethical leadership with findings that show ethical leadership is (a) fully functional when exercised in environments of coercion and duress, (b) fully effective when exercised in environments of coercion and duress, and (c) powerfully influential when exercised in environments of coercion and duress. Furthermore, this study shows a close connection between ethical leadership, servant leadership, and spiritual leadership.


The Effects of Pastoral Servant Leadership and Commitment of Members to the Organization in Latin American and Anglo American Congregations: As Mediated by Leader-Member Exchange and Identification with the Leader

Xavier Humberto Becerra | 2016


Servant leadership is maturing in its theoretical development. Although initially introduced to the literature over four decades ago by Greenleaf (1970), the relationship of the effect of servant leadership and commitment has not been quantitatively explored until recently. Scholars, such as Sokoll (2013) and Drury (2004), have performed studies in the USA, but no quantitative empirical study has been published from Latin America. A call for the expeditious and quantitative investigation of servant leadership theory applicability in non-Western cultures seems to be emanating from within the academy and across organizations around the world (Northouse, 2015). This study, utilizing validated psychometric instruments, examined the essence of servant leadership and found it to have a significant (p < .001) effect on member commitment, especially on affective organizational commitment. This effect was most accentuated in the Latin American culture. The current study also found leader–member exchange to have a strong mediation significant (p < .001) effect on normative commitment and a modest significant (p < .001) effect on affective organizational commitment. The leader–member exchange effect was found to be more accentuated in the Latin American culture. The mediation role of members’ level of identification with the leader was also a significant (p < .001) effect, but there were no significant contrasts across the two cultures. The study was conducted in churches and online among a robust sample of 431 responses in the USA and 328 in Latin America comprised of multiple Evangelical Christian denominations. Respondents to the study’s survey were highly diverse in regards to age, gender, and involvement. This study offers empirical evidence for organizational decision makers to consider servant leadership as an emerging leadership approach that has a superior effect on cultivating member commitment, even in cultures where it was thought not to be a viable leadership style.


Examining Dark Side Leadership and Impression Management of King David: A Social–Culture Texture Analysis of 2 Samuel 11

Darius M. Benton | 2016


This exposition serves as a biblical foundation toward future theoretical development regarding the variables of impression management and dark side leadership within assumed morally charged public leadership roles such as those serving in religious and/or political contexts. In recent years, there have been numerous reports of the drastic measures these types of leaders exude in response to moral failings and the general mistrust of the public toward these types of leaders in response to such incidences. The present exegetical analysis explores 2 Samuel 11 through social–culture texture analysis. Using an exegetical methodology offered the opportunity to thoroughly examine the intersection between biblical exegesis and organizational theory, particularly dark side leadership and impression management as presented in 2 Samuel 11—a prevalent biblical narrative where King David, a beloved yet flawed leader, is a featured character. This study is significant because there exists a plethora of recent research on dark side leadership; however, there is not much directly relating impression management techniques to this phenomenon nor is there research that makes the connection between dark side leadership and a classically adored biblical leader, until this discourse. The researcher determined that in the narrative of 2 Samuel 11, King David exhibits dark side leadership; in attempts to hide the consequence of his indiscretion, he used extreme impression management tactics. This research narrows the gap between organizational leadership theory and a narrative of biblical leadership while providing multiple opportunities for future research.


Examining the Impact of Leader Member Exchange (LMX) Theory on Employee Engagement and Employee Intent to Stay With an Organization

Keyonna S. Beverly | 2016


Research has shown that there is a current issue in leader member exchange (LMX) literature that needs to be addressed through empirical research (Hussain & Ali, 2012). LMX theory has been shown to be related to outcomes such as “employee performance, employee turnover, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job climate, innovation, organizational citizenship behavior, empowerment, and procedural and distributive justice” (Graen & Uhlbien, 1995, p. 228). But, there has been very limited research relating LMX to employee engagement and intent to stay with an organization. This quantitative study contributes to the literature on LMX theory as it provides empirical evidence that LMX is positively related to employee engagement and employee intent to stay with an organization.


The Distinctive Characteristics of Religious Leadership: A Case Study of the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel in the United States

Stephen Bialowas | 2016


Religion and religious leadership continue to have a profound influence on society. However, there is a shortage of scholarly research on religious leadership, especially regarding the characteristics that are distinctive of religious leadership as compared with leadership in general (Ehrlich, 2001; Lindt, 2005; McClymond, 2001). The current study is designed to fill some of the gap in the literature through a qualitative research strategy in the form of a case study on the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel, commonly known as the Foursquare Church, a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a network of over 1,600 churches in the United States. The study collected data on the distinctive characteristics of Foursquare leadership by examining four core documents of the church and the church’s website and through semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with eight prominent national leaders of the organization. The researcher then analyzed the data through a systematic coding process to identify key themes related to Foursquare leader characteristics and then categorized them. The study also compared the characteristics of Foursquare leadership to the characteristics of leadership as described by Weber’s (1963) theory of religious leadership and with five contemporary leadership theories to discover similarities and differences. The results indicated there were several similarities and differences between Foursquare leadership and leadership described by Weber’s theory and the five contemporary leadership theories. The findings show that Foursquare leadership has much in common with leadership described by the five contemporary theories, but only Weber’s theory accounted for the distinctly religious characteristics of Foursquare leaders. The study concluded that religious leadership as practiced in the Foursquare Church is best described by a combination of the five contemporary theories and Weber’s theory. Discussion describes the implications and limitations of the study as well as recommendations for future research regarding religious leadership.


Measuring Leadership Competencies to Avert Crisis: Development and Validation of an Instrument to Operationalize a Conceptual Model

Jamie J. Brownlee-Turgeon | 2016


Relatively minimal research has been conducted around effective leadership before, during, and after a crisis occurs. More specifically, the precrisis stages lack empirical data and measurement instruments on effective leadership in terms of identifying and averting a crisis. Wooten and James (2008) provided a conceptual model that describes leadership competencies surrounding a crisis. The current study focused on leadership competencies required in the first two stages of the conceptual model: identifying and averting a crisis. The purpose of the study was to develop a measurement tool to evaluate key crisis aversion competencies: sense making, perspective taking, issue selling, organizational agility, and creativity. The measurement tool was developed through a four-step process: (a) item development, (b) item reduction and content validation through the use of a Delphi panel of experts, (c) item evaluation through the use of a large sample and factor analysis, and (d) assessment of construct validity. The study addressed content validity through the utilization of a Delphi panel. Once the Delphi panel refined and reduced the items, the measurement was sent to a large sample (N = 278). Factor analysis supported three factors: participatory management, resourcefulness, and sense making. All scales showed internal reliability. Predictive validity and discriminant validity of the measures were examined and generally supported.


Impact of Servant Leadership and Pay Satisfaction on Affective Commitment of Haitian School Employees.

Duky Charles | 2016


The impact of servant leadership and pay satisfaction on affective commitment among Haitian school employees was explored. Three hypotheses predicting positive effects for the two independent variables on the construct of affective commitment were tested. Data were collected for this cross-sectional study from a combination of three questionnaires pertaining to servant leadership, pay satisfaction, and affective commitment. Items related to age, gender, tenure, and position—four variables that were supposed to be controlled for as has been suggested in leadership literature—were also added to the survey questionnaire. Six schools with a total of 359 employees and all located in the north of Haiti constituted the research population. These schools included (a) North Practice School, (b) Classic Study Center, (c) Drop of Love School, (d) Ignace Nau School, (e) Upper-Limbe Baptist School, and (f) Limbe School. Based on Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson, and Tatham’s (2006) suggestion on how to calculate the sample size for multiple regression, a random sample of 150 employees was selected. A four-model multiple regression, through SPSS, was used to analyze the data, test the three hypotheses, and answer the research questions. The model summary tables showed that all the models were weak and seemed to be of no use. However, the coefficient tables indicated significant statistical effect for servant leadership on affective commitment for the second model (p = .001), significant statistical effect for pay satisfaction on affective commitment for the third model (p = .003), and significant statistical effect for servant leadership for the fourth model (p = .018).


Leading Through Instruction of Work: A Socio-Rhetorical Analysis in the Book of Proverbs

Keith GeLarden Dayton | 2016


This paper offers an intertexture analysis of the book of Proverbs that reflected an exegetical analysis of (a) oral–scribal intertexture, (b) historical intertexture, (c) social intertexture, and (d) cultural intertexture. The methodology used was from the work of Robbins (1996a; 1996b) through socio-rhetorical criticism in an exegetical interpretation. The New Revised Standard Version of the Bible (NRSV) and the Hebraic text of the book of Proverbs were considered in this investigation. The analysis provided an additional framework of questions which developed themes that helped shape the overall interpretation and understanding of selected verses in Proverbs, specifically on work and instruction of work by leaders in Proverbs. The results of that analysis were then applied for both instruction and work in developing themes to organize the discussion in this final chapter. Each theme followed both areas of interest in the study, instruction and work. Six themes aggregated from the socio-rhetorical analysis data emerged: (a) agriculture, (b) types and styles of instruction, (c) work as a skill, (d) outcomes, (e) transition, and (f) Yahweh. Two subthemes were developed from the theme of outcomes: hunger and poverty. Based on support from these sources, a working conceptual definition of work was brought forward. The study identified appropriate leadership styles through the leadership theories of charismatic and distributive leadership coupled with an understanding of how the culture and context of an era determined how work may have been instructed. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of the research findings, limitations, implications for contemporary organizations and the framework for future research regarding the notion of work, applicable leadership style, and instruction within the study of historical socio-rhetorical criticism.


From ABD to PhD: Scale Development of Doctoral-Level Learning Environments in Context of Autonomous Learning

Dinah Lynn DeFord | 2016


Many doctoral students reach the final stage of their doctoral matriculation and for one or more reasons withdraw from the program prior to degree completion. The purpose of this study was to develop the Autonomous Learning Environment Scale (ALES), an instrument to measure doctoral-level learning environments in the context of autonomous learning. This study investigated one suspected cause of graduate-level attrition: the learning environment experienced by the PhD candidate during the coursework phase of his or her doctoral journey. Two populations of interest were studied: individuals self-identified as permanent, all-but-dissertation adults (noncompleters) and doctoral program graduates (completers). Each participant must have been enrolled in a dissertation-required doctoral program. The method for the development of the ALES required thorough research of current autonomous learning and learning environment literature. Participants were located initially via snowball methodology and then by cluster sampling via U.S. community colleges. Principal component analysis was used to determine factor loadings. Reliability was evaluated via Cronbach’s alpha (? = 0.961) and test–retest, r = 0.801. Inferential statistics indicated the survey was not a good predictor for noncompleters, but some interesting statistics were revealed regarding graduation odds of ethnicity, gender, and public versus private institutions.


Complexity Theory: An Integration of Spirituality and Moral Competency

Erik Doherty | 2016


This quantitative study advances the existing knowledge of the theoretical and practical applications of complexity theory. The study had a sample of 210 participants from the unionized maritime industry in the Hampton Roads area of Virginia. A two-model multiple regression analysis was used to test the relationship between four variables relating to spirituality as an organizational dimension and three variables relating to moral competency as an organizational dimension on employee performance. This analysis was done to examine if the variables pertaining to the spirituality and moral competency dimensions have a distinct, significant, and positive relationship to employee performance, suggesting that these dimensions should be included within the paradigm of complexity theory. The results support a significant and positive relationship for one of the spirituality variables (meditation) and two of the moral competency variables (impression management and responsibility). Future research is needed to clarify why meditation was the only significant variable for spirituality and also to explain why the remaining variable for moral competency (integrity/honesty/authenticity) was significant but had a negative relationship to employee performance. An enhanced understanding of how these organizational dimensions fit into the framework of complexity theory is beneficial for its application in the knowledge pertaining to the dynamic and unpredictable influences upon contemporary organizations.


Transactional and Transformational Leadership Styles, Organizational Commitment, and Leader Effectiveness in Nigeria

Samuel Olutade Fadare | 2016


This study had a three-part purpose: (a) examine the relationship between dimensions of transactional and transformational leadership styles and dimensions of organizational commitment within sub-Saharan Africa, (b) explore the relationship between dimensions of transactional and transformational leadership styles and leadership effectiveness within sub-Saharan Africa, and (c) determine whether dimensions of transactional and transformational leadership styles were moderated by dimensions of organizational commitment within sub-Saharan Africa to produce effective leadership. A sample of 228 Nigerian employees from a variety of industries who were selected from both the LinkedIn professional networking site and from members of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria completed an online survey. The hierarchical regression technique was subsequently applied to test 40 separate propositions. Findings from this study confirmed that relationships among workers in sub-Saharan Africa were significant and positive in all the following cases: (a) contingent reward and affective commitment, (b) contingent reward and continuance commitment, (c) management-by-exception (active) and continuance commitment, (d) idealized influence (behavior) and continuance commitment, (e) intellectual stimulation and continuance commitment, and (f) management-by-exception (passive) and leadership effectiveness. Gender was found to be consistently significant when predicting dimensions of organizational commitment as well as when determining effective leadership among employees in sub-Saharan Africa. Finally, findings established that no significant relationship existed between dimensions of transactional and transformational leadership styles and effective leadership among sub-Saharan African employees when the relationships were moderated by dimensions of organizational commitment.


The Welcoming Organization Assessment: How the Culturally Intelligent Leader Influences the Newcomer Experience Toward Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

Christine Clare Gibson | 2016


This study explored the newcomer experience and the influence that organizational welcome, as moderated by leader cultural intelligence, has on an individual’s socialization experience as it relates to job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Further adding to the body of research is the Welcoming Organization Assessment (WOA)—an instrument that measures an organizational welcoming as perceived by the newcomer. The study hypothesized, based on the existing body of research connecting newcomers’ socialization tactics with organizational commitment and job satisfaction, that the measure of welcome experienced by the newcomer would be positively correlated to his or her level of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Further, the study hypothesized that the leader’s cultural intelligence would moderate the relationship between the newcomer welcome experience and job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The research supported the relationship between the newcomer welcoming experience and job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Also supported was the hypothesis that leader cultural intelligence moderates the relationship between newcomer welcoming experience and organizational commitment. The WOA was found to be reliable and valid for measuring the level of welcome perceived by the organizational newcomer.


The Impact of Leadership Styles on Employee Entrepreneurial Orientation and Innovative Behavior: A Comparative Analysis of American and Indian Immigrant Entrepreneurs

Raushan Gross | 2016


There is a dearth of literature on leadership styles’ effect on innovative behavior and entrepreneurial orientation within the context of American and Indian immigrant firms. This study fills the gaps in the literature with focus on the leadership styles’ impact on American and Indian immigrant employees employed in small- and medium-sized firms. Theses styles have been understudied regarding the impact germane to employee behavior, despite the current rise in American entrepreneurial firms and the recent spike in Indian immigrant entrepreneurial venture firms operated in the United States. The quantitative research design made it possible to garner a rich amount of data, collected from both American and Indian immigrant firms located in the Research Triangle Park area. The firms in which the samples were drawn represented industries that include technology, sales, grocers, hospitality, and finance. The total overall sample size was 321. The American sample respondent size was 161, and Indian immigrant sample size was 160. These data were analyzed with hierarchical regression analysis and multivariate analysis of variance. After analyzing and testing the hypotheses, results showed there are statistical significant differences in leadership styles between American and Indian immigrant entrepreneurial leaders. The results indicate that transformational leadership style has a statistical significant positive impact on innovative behavior in the context of an Indian immigrant firm; transactional leadership style had a statistical significant positive impact on innovative behavior in American firms and a statistically significant positive impact on entrepreneurial orientation in Indian immigrant firms. The study findings reflect the importance of leadership styles and the impact they have on employee behavior in the workplace. Ingenuity, idea creation, and idea implementation in the workplace play a large part in remaining competitive. Risk taking and proactiveness are behaviors that enable employees to harness future-orientated opportunities for the firm. Therefore, transformational and transactional styles are positively related to increasing employees’ innovative and entrepreneurial behaviors.


The Relationship Between Managers’ Cognitive Style and Leadership Type as Moderated by Organizational Culture

Alireza Hejazi | 2016


This study explored the relationship between a manager’s cognitive style and his or her leadership type as moderated by organizational culture through the perception of his or her subordinates. The manager’s cognitive style was the independent variable, the manager’s leadership type was the dependent variable, and the organizational cultural orientation of unit was the moderator variable. The members of LinkedIn social network and the Association of Professional Futurists listserv who were working under a manager at least for three years shaped the population of this study of which 140 subordinates made the sample through snowball sampling method. Quinn and Cameron’s (1983) competing values framework (CVF) formed the theoretical foundation of this study. Its associated measures at the individual and organizational levels of analysis generate 12 leadership types functioning within four orientations: create, compete, collaborate, and control. Kirton’s (1976) Adaption–Innovation Inventory measured managers’ cognitive style. Lawrence, Lenk, and Quinn’s (2009) Managerial Behavior Instrument measured managers’ leadership type. Quinn and Cameron’s Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument measured the organizational cultural orientation of the unit. This quantitative study applied a hierarchical multiple regression analysis method to test 24 hypotheses derived from the relationships between the independent, dependent, and moderator variables. The regression analyses supported more than one third of the hypotheses. While the adaptive cognitive style could be a predictor of competitor, producer, regulator, and monitor leadership types under the moderating effect of market and hierarchy organizational cultural orientations. The innovative cognitive style only could be a predictor of innovator leadership type in the adhocracy culture. The findings of this study contribute to the study of behavioral complexity in leadership by introducing a new paradigm in which the effectiveness of managers originates from the coordination between their cognitive style and leadership type.


Kenotic Alterity: An Exegetical Study of the Ontological Essence of Leadership as the “Death” of the Leader In Johannine, Pauline, and Petrine Scriptures

Dale T. Huffman | 2016


Although previous studies have attributed empowerment and trust to a leader’s use of generalized reciprocity (Coyle-Shapiro, Kessler, & Purcell, 2004; Gouldner, 1960), this dissertation posited that the relational context flowing from a leader’s ontological acceptance of kenotic alterity may be identified in terms of generalized norms of reciprocity (i.e., low concern for equivalence of exchange, low concern for immediacy of reciprocation, and shared focus of interest rather than self-interest). This qualitative exegetical analysis of John 21, Colossians 3:3, and 1 Peter 4:1 (RSV) presented a biblical perspective on the essence or starting point of leadership in death, inability, and external locus of control resting in God. Based on an exegetical analysis of these passages, this study qualified the meaning of kenosis (exiting or emptying oneself formulated as death per exegesis) for the benefit of others (alterity) recognizing an external locus of control in the work of Christ, rather than internal self–control or self–constraint, or assumption of skill sets. The study explored the extent and function of the death analogy used in Johannine, Pauline, and Petrine Scriptures to describe kenotic alterity and suggested that resulting affective trust leads to generalized norms of reciprocity. Research presented here further suggested that Scripture’s thematic teaching of kenotic emptying using the objectionable figure of death is actually the essence of God-designed leadership.


Examining Learning Antecedents to Entrepreneurial Success

Joseph Daniel Johnson | 2016


In an effort to improve entrepreneurial success outcomes in the United States, researchers have focused on examining variables that promote entrepreneurial activity. The challenge for practitioners is to determine variables that help improve entrepreneurial success. Although there is adequate research in the literature on relationships between variables that precede start-up activity, relatively few studies have investigated the role of entrepreneurial learning on entrepreneurial success. To address these gaps, the current study examined the empirical relationships between entrepreneurial instructional learning, entrepreneurial mentorship learning, entrepreneurial experiential learning, and the self-efficacy of entrepreneurial knowledge on start-up success, income improvement, and net worth improvement. With a cross-sectional sample of entrepreneurs in the United States, the study revealed that entrepreneurial mentorship learning and self-efficacy of entrepreneurial knowledge had a significant and positive relationship with start-up success, income improvement, and net worth improvement but only when examined prior to adding control variables. The study also found that the dimension of the highest level of specific business education achieved within the construct of instructional learning had a significant and positive relationship with income improvement and net worth improvement prior to control variables but not start-up success. Furthermore, the study also found that the dimension of years of start-up experience within the construct of entrepreneurial experiential learning had a significant and positive relationship with net worth improvement and income improvement prior to control variables but not start-up success. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are presented, and suggestions for future research are discussed.


Enabling Disruption: Predicting Firms’ Likeliness for Disruptive Success through Scale Development

Dustin Kelley | 2016


Researchers operating within the field of innovation have continually revisited market exploitation beyond the assertions posed within traditional management theory by shifting theoretical and practical interests toward examining organizational refinement and redirection as a basis for competition. Within this context, disruptive innovation, as an innovation refinement approach, has produced paralyzing effects on competition by way of altering market identities. As the complex nature of innovative markets continues to grow, so too do educator and practitioner interests for further interpreting influences on strategic innovative proficiency. The concept of disrupting market conditions necessitates a paradigm shift from traditional technological focus toward examining innovations from a much larger business modeling perspective, requiring realignment of organizational key capacities. Under such assertions, this dissertation provides an analysis and validation of various organizational characteristics and their measured impact on the disruptiveness of innovations when applying toward disruption as a calculated growth strategy. A reductionist approach used within an ex post exhaustive examination of case evidence on disruptive innovation uncovered causal indicators and their respective compiled causes for possible representation of those characteristics pertaining to firms’ likeliness for disruptive innovation success. The disruptive innovation enabler instrument provided the empirical evidence for extending the literature by assigning a prescriptive response from the ex post findings. Specifically, the use of a U.S.-based development sample constructed from 659 founders of entrant firms currently considering themselves disruptive uncovered that (a) disassociation from systematic processes, (b) enhancement of managerial capacities, (c) autonomy for disruptive development and commercialization processes, (d) aligned value innovations, and (e) avoidance of entrenched perspectives, as enabling characteristics, contributed to the grandest degree for improving likeliness for disruptive innovation success.


Influence of Leader Listening Competency on Follower Career Commitment and Leader–Follower Relationship in Public Education

Sandra Kay Kimmel | 2016


Leadership and communication may be the most studied constructs in academic, political, and business contexts. While numerous aspects of these constructs and their effectiveness have been explored, little has been done to understand the implications of leader listening competency (LLC) as a significant component of leader style or behavior affecting follower outcomes. In fact, most leadership theories neglect LLC as a salient component of leadership (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009). Rooted in the theoretical underpinnings of leadership, communication, and career commitment, this study investigated the relationship between LLC and follower career commitment as mediated by the quality of the principal–teacher relationship (i.e., leader–member exchange [LMX]) in a K-12 public school context where teacher career commitment is a central issue (Ingersoll, 2001). Based on a cross-sectional sample of teachers in one rural county in a West Virginia public school district, this study revealed that LLC and the quality of the LMX are not significantly related to teacher commitment. However, the study did find significant and positive relationships between LLC and LMX and between LLC and two of the three control variables—leader task-oriented behaviors and leader relationship-oriented behaviors. The study proposes to advance leadership theory by adding to understanding of the significance of LLC on follower outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are presented, and suggestions for future research are discussed.


Profiles of Entrepreneurs: Discriminant and Cluster Analyses of the Romans 12 Motivational Gifts and Locus of Control as Predictors of Entrepreneurs and a Canonical Analysis of the Romans 12 Motivational Gifts and IEO

Lydia R. Knopf | 2016


The purpose of this quantitative exploratory research was to conduct discriminant and cluster analyses to see if the Romans 12 motivational gifts and locus of control (Brandstätter, 2011; Hansemark, 2003; J. R. Lumpkin, 1985; Mueller & Thomas, 2001; Rauch & Frese, 2007; Rotter, 1966) predict membership in the entrepreneurial member group and consequently discover the gift profiles of entrepreneurs (DellaVecchio & Winston, 2015; Pierce, 2015). Canonical correlation analysis was used to investigate relationships between the seven motivational gifts—perceiver, server, teacher, encourager, giver, ruler, and mercy—and the three dimensions of individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO)—innovativeness, risk taking, and proactiveness (Bolton & Lane, 2012; D. W. Bryant, 2015). This investigator extended the scholarly work of DellaVecchio and Winston (2004, 2015), Earnhardt (2014), McPherson (2008), Pierce (2015), Tomlinson and Winston (2011), and Winston’s (2009) Romans 12 motivational gifts profiles; generalizability was ascertained. A random sample of 400 business leaders of all faith traditions from throughout the globe were sought to participate in an online survey comprised of validated scales from prior research—the Motivational Gift Test (DellaVecchio & Winston, 2015), the Brief Locus of Control instrument (J. R. Lumpkin, 1985), and the IEO instrument (Bolton & Lane, 2012). Scholars have indicated individuals with entrepreneurial orientation behaviors of innovativeness, risk taking, and proactiveness, as well as internal locus of control, embody an entrepreneurial human capital advantage not easily replicated; yet, no studies have been conducted to explore these connections (D. W. Bryant, 2015; Smith, 2011). All three hypotheses were supported, revealing all seven motivational gifts predicted those who were entrepreneurial and those who were not. Consequently, five distinct entrepreneurial gift mixes/profiles were established. Additionally, there were relationships of significance between the seven motivational gifts and the three IEO dimensions. Similar to Bosch’s (2013) research, this author provided practical implications for governmental and organizational leaders, business incubators, and academic institutions to foster greater entrepreneurial activity.


A Phenomenological Study on Employee Tenure and Resistance to Organizational Change Initiatives

Kory Kubiak | 2016


The purpose of this study was to explore employee tenure and resistance to organizational change initiatives. Research has indicated that employees’ resistance to organizational change is abundant; however, further insight into the specific tenure of employees’ resistance to change is needed. In this qualitative phenomenological study design, I conducted interviews at two flagship organizations—Target and Wal-Mart—to better understand how specific employee tenure affects resistance to change. These interviews were conducted with eight participants in which saturation was achieved. I conducted four interviews with employees who had 1-5 years of service and four interviews with employees who had 10+ years of experience. After the interviews were finished, thematic text analysis began. Coding units emerged from the interview data. After the categorization of these codes, themes were developed. The findings revealed that short-tenured (1-5 years) employees are more adaptable to organizational change initiatives and have a positive comradery with their leaders. The findings also revealed that long-tenured (10+ years) employees are more resistant to organizational change initiatives and have a more negative comradery with their leaders. The results of this research contribute to the theoretical as well as practitioner literature on the phenomenon of resistance to organizational change. I examined and discussed the findings and proposed recommendations for future researchers.


What Organizational Leaders May Learn From the Relationship Between Vocational Calling and Resilience

Juliana Melissa Lesher | 2016


A quantitative study was conducted to study the relationship between vocational calling and resilience among the employees of a private healthcare system. With healthcare organizations impacted by high turnover rates of healthcare employees, studies that reveal why healthcare employees may be more resilient and more likely to remain committed to their profession are pertinent. Dik, Eldridge, Steger, and Duffy’s (2012) Calling and Vocation Questionnaire along with Wagnild and Young’s (1993) Resilience Scale were employed in this quantitative study. Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to test the first three hypotheses of how the presence of a transcendent summons, the presence of purposeful work, and the presence of a prosocial orientation within the organization may have a positive relationship to a greater sense of resilience for healthcare employees. Hierarchical multiple regressions were further exercised to test the last three hypotheses of how the search for a transcendent summons, the search for purposeful work, and the search for a prosocial orientation within the organization may have a negative relationship to resilience for healthcare employees.


The Impact of Servant Leadership on Courageous Followership and Supervisor-Related Commitment

Scott Christopher Lincoln | 2016


This study helped determine the extent to which perceived servant leadership behaviors in an immediate supervisor encouraged courageous followership behaviors and supervisor-related commitment in their subordinates. This relationship was expected to be moderated by organizational proximity to the leader and the length of time working for that same supervisor. This study measured the perceived servant leadership behaviors of supervisors using The Servant Leadership Survey (Van Dierendonck & Nuijten, 2011), the followers’ courageous followership levels were measured by the Followership Profile (Dixon, 2003), and their supervisor-related commitment was measured by the Supervisor-Related Commitment Scale (Becker, Billings, Eveleth, & Gilbert, 1996). The relationship between the dimensions of servant leadership and both the dimensions of courageous followership and supervisor-related commitment were analyzed using multiple regression analysis moderated by the organizational proximity to the supervisor and length of time spent with the supervisor. While the predicted moderating effects were largely unsupported by the findings, all hypotheses were partially supported and at least one servant leadership behavior was found to be a significant predictor of each aspect of courageous followership and each aspect of supervisor-related commitment. Organizational proximity was also found to be a significant predictor of supervisor-related commitment.


An Empirical Comparative Examination of the Relationships Among School Leadership Behaviors and Teacher Commitment to Students in Malawi

Teddie Edward Malangwasira | 2016


This cross-sectional quantitative research examined the extent to which a model relating leadership behaviors and teacher commitment previously investigated in the United States of America by Freeman (2014) applies in Malawi, a culture differing from the USA on several dimensions. Freeman found that transactional leadership behavior of school principals in the USA has a positive and significant relationship with teacher commitment to students. In addition, he found that collective efficacy fully mediated the relationship between transactional leadership behavior of school principals and teacher commitment to students’ academic achievement and social well-being. No previous study had examined the external validity of these findings. Utilizing a sample of 184 teachers from public primary and secondary schools in Malawi, Freeman demonstrated results that did not support these findings. In fact, this research found the following: (a) intellectual stimulation behavior of school principals, a dimension of transformational leadership behavior, was positively and significantly related to teacher commitment to both students’ academic achievement and students’ social well-being; (b) transactional leadership did not have any effects on teacher commitment to students, and (c) no mediating effects were present for either organizational trust or collective efficacy in Malawi. Implications of the study findings, research methodologies, limitations of the study, and recommendations for future research are discussed.


Spirituality in Law Enforcement: An Exploration of Possible Correlations of Spirituality to Burnout and Job Satisfaction for Police Officers

Richard Vincent Martin | 2016


The vocation of policing is considered a spiritual calling (G. Charles, 2009), yet the day-in-and-day-out stressors of professional police work can lead to depleted spirituality (Friedman, 2005), burnout (Martinussen, Richardson, & Burke, 2007), and reduced job satisfaction (McCreary & Thompson, 2006). This quantitative study fills the existing gap in the quantitative theoretical research on spirituality in policing (G. L. Patton, 1998) to increase understanding and support in the field for spirituality in police officers (Ursitti, 2011) and inform the field on ways to address health and fitness issues of police officers, including officer burnout (J. A. Smith & Charles, 2010). Specifically, this study used correlation analysis, t tests, and analyses of variance to analyze survey results and test for correlations between spirituality and burnout and between spirituality and job satisfaction from a sample of 312 full-time police officers from a midsized urban police department in the state of New York. Results support the existence of a strong positive correlation between spirituality (measured through meaning in life) and job satisfaction; a small negative correlation between spirituality and two dimensions of job burnout, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; and a moderate positive correlation between spirituality and the personal accomplishment dimension of burnout. The study points to the need for police executives to take the spirituality of their officers into account when considering the overall health and welfare of their officers. Additional studies are needed to further explore spirituality to determine whether it can predict job satisfaction or burnout and whether spiritual experiences can reverse the negative effects of the toxicity of policing and enhance the officers’ overall well-being as suggested by Travis (2009).


Exploring the Relationship Between Learner Autonomy and Leadership Effectiveness in the Healthcare System

David Alan Miles | 2016


Leadership and learning are two essential concepts within modern organizations. There has been much investigation, research, and inquiry into finding a deeper understanding of both of the constructs of leadership and adult learning. Investigation of specific relationships between leadership and self-efficacious autonomous learning builds upon the collective body of knowledge for both constructs and the link between leadership and learning. A central focus of the study is what Vaill (1996) called the learning premise, which asserts that “leadership is not learned . . . leadership is [emphasis added] learning” (pp. 126-127). The purpose of this study is to address the identified gap in the existing academic literature by examining the relationship between autonomous learning and leadership effectiveness. The study examines leaders within the healthcare industry and examines the relationship between the leader’s level of learner autonomy (self-reported) and their effectiveness as a leader (subordinate-reported). The findings of the study indicated no statistically significant relationship existed between learner autonomy and leadership effectiveness. There were no differences found in the effectiveness of leaders when comparing groups with functional and dysfunctional levels of learner autonomy. Limitations of the study include sample size, which met statistical criteria and was valid although a larger size may improve external validity. Other recommendations for further research include replication of the study in other industries than healthcare, possible further investigation using the additional scales found in the instruments utilized in this study, and research utilizing the individual component inventories that make up the learner autonomy profile.


The Relationship Between Spiritual Engagement and Authentic Leadership: Exploring the Core of Leadership

Richard A. Roof | 2016


Authentic leadership has garnered recent interest with some theorists suggesting it is a root construct of all positive leadership theories (Avolio & Gardner, 2005) and a developable construct that holds promise for advancing leadership (Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008), yet few antecedents have been investigated. Responding to the call to explore potential antecedents, this research used a quantitative, cross-sectional, survey-based study to examine the relationship of authentic leadership and spiritual engagement. Spiritual engagement is defined as a complex spiritual transformative process of spiritual practices and the attitudes and beliefs that motivate spiritual disciplines and are consequently enhanced by the practices (Roof, Bocarnea, & Winston, 2015). Data were collected from a diverse sample of 65 leaders who self-reported spiritual engagement and 266 associated followers’ perceptions of the leaders’ authentic leadership using previously validated instruments including the Authentic Leadership Questionairre (Walumbwa et al., 2008) and the Spiritual Engagement Instrument (Roof et al., 2015). The potential influence of social desirable responses, age, and gender was tested and found to be not significant. The relationship of the four spiritual engagement constructs—worship, meditation, fasting, and rest—were analyzed using multiple regression and found to not be significant predictors of second-order authentic leadership. Post hoc analyses revealed greater reported measures of spiritual engagement worship and fasting in not-for-profit leaders compared with for-profit leaders, but no significant difference in authentic leadership measures was found. An analysis of the relationship of first-order authentic leadership constructs to spiritual engagement found worship positively related to the relational transparency and balanced processing dimensions of authentic leadership. Implications for advancing spiritual engagement and leadership theory, suggestions for practitioners, and future research directions are examined.


The Effect of American and Nigerian Culture on Antecedents of Ethical Leadership

James D. Rose | 2016


This study addresses the question: How do individual characteristics and organizational environmental factors relate to ethical leadership behaviors of American and Nigerian leaders? Based on a comprehensive review of ethical leadership research, including recent cross-cultural studies, ethical leadership can be defined as modeling ethical normatively appropriate behavior (exemplified by demonstrating integrity, consideration of others, and ethical decision making) and the promotion and reinforcement of such behavior. The study identifies three antecedents researchers have shown to have a significant relationship with ethical leadership: internalized moral identity, individual spirituality, and organizational ethical culture. Nigerian and American cultural differences are identified, most notably, power distance, collectivism, and performance orientation. Six hypotheses are proposed regarding the relationship of the three antecedents to ethical leadership and the moderating effect of American and Nigerian culture. The study utilizes a quantitative approach to test the hypothesized relationships. Results indicate that (a) internalized moral identity is positively associated with ethical leadership behavior in both the American and Nigerian cultures, (b) individual spirituality is positively associated with ethical leadership behavior in both cultures, and (c) organizational ethical culture is positively associated with ethical leadership behavior in the Nigerian sample. Societal culture was not found to moderate the influence of any of the antecedents assessed. These findings further the understanding of antecedents of ethical leadership in both Nigerian and American cultures.


Exploring the Relationships Between Leadership Styles and Job Satisfaction Among Employees of Nonprofit Organizations

Lawanne Shanta Ross-Grant | 2016


This nonexperimental study aims to explore the relationship between leadership styles and job satisfaction among employees of nonprofits. Specifically, the goal of the study is to determine the strength of the linear relationships between job satisfaction and transformational leadership, servant leadership, authentic leadership, and transactional leadership. The research addresses two research questions: Do leadership styles have a positive relationship with job satisfaction among employees of nonprofit organizations? Do leadership styles differ in levels of job satisfaction among employees of nonprofit organizations? The study has five hypotheses. H1: Transformational leadership is positively correlated with job satisfaction. H2: Servant leadership is positively correlated with job satisfaction. H3: Authentic leadership is positively correlated with job satisfaction. H4: Transactional leadership is negatively correlated with job satisfaction. H5: Transformational, servant, authentic, and transactional leadership styles display significantly different levels of job satisfaction. The study employs snowball sampling securing 132 participants who completed the survey electronically. ALQ measured Authentic Leadership; SLQ measured Servant Leadership; MLQ measured Transformational and Transactional Leadership; and JDI measured Job Satisfaction. Age, tenure, and workforce were identified as covariates (categorical control variables). Following analysis, H1, H2, H3, and H4 are supported. With the covariates age and tenure, H5 is supported when considering the significant differences between transformational and authentic leadership and between transformational and transactional leadership. Without the covariates, H5 is supported when considering the significant difference between transformational and authentic leadership.


Authentic Leadership: A Quantitative Study of the Effect of Authentic Leadership on Group Cohesion and Work Engagement in Student Organizations in Mexico

Jorge Fernando Salcedo | 2016


Authentic leadership, as a construct, has caught researchers’ attention, and it has gained recognition and position within leadership studies. Authentic leadership’s predictive capacity is in the developmental and discovering phase. Empirical studies on authentic leadership have less than 8 years, and there is still much to analyze and discover regarding this construct. This quantitative research aimed to add value and knowledge in the exploration of authentic leadership in Mexico. The authentic leadership construct includes four dimensions: (a) self-awareness, which refers to how leaders understand their strengths and weaknesses and the motives they exposure to others; (b) balance processing, which refers to how leaders analyze all relevant data before coming to a decision; (c) internalized moral perspective, which refers to how leaders make decisions based on values and high internal ethical standards; and (d) relational transparency, which refers to how leaders are open in presenting one’s true self to others (Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008). Utilizing previously validated instruments, this study explored whether or not a relationship exists between authentic leadership behaviors of the leader (as perceived by the group members) and group cohesion and work engagement (as reported by the group members) within the Mexican context. This study worked with a sample of undergraduate students from Universidad de Monterrey who are members and active participants of student organizations and who are between 18-29 years old. Using a sample of 226 participants (N = 226), it was clearly demonstrated that there is a positive relationship between the authentic leadership behaviors of the leader and the members’ group cohesion (r = .56, ? = .54, p = .000) and that there is a positive relationship between the authentic leadership behaviors of the leader and the members’ work engagement (r = .54, ? = .54, p = .000). The study’s findings demonstrate the need to advance the research of authentic leadership in Mexico and Latin America.


The Role of Learner Autonomy in Avoiding Leader Derailment

Wayne R. Sass | 2016


The purpose of this research study was to explore whether or not a significant correlation exists between learner autonomy and leader reserved behavior. Through this correlational study, I examined the relationship between learner autonomy and leader reserved behavior to determine if higher levels of learner autonomy may be associated with lower levels of reserved behavior in leaders and, therefore, lower risk of leader derailment. I reviewed the autonomous learning and leader derailment literature and posed the question: Is there a correlation between learner autonomy and leader reserved behavior? Additionally, from the extant literature, I synthesized a composite illustration, the Sass model, to more fully explicate the development of behavioral intentions toward autonomous learning. I presented the variables of interest, learner autonomy and reserved behavior, along with the instruments used to measure them: the Learner Autonomy Profile-Short Form (LAP-SF) and the Hogan Development Survey (HDS). While, to date, no other researchers have explicitly investigated a correlation between learner autonomy and leader reserved behavior, prior research in the two fields has provided a plausible theoretical basis for the hypothesis that there is a significant, negative correlation between total LAP-SF scores and HDS Reserved scale scores. This self-reporting, cross-sectional, survey-based correlational study utilized a complete sample of managers employed by four firms that comprise a major U.S. healthcare organization’s southern California region. I analyzed the collected data using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (Pearson r). The data supported my hypothesis, revealing a statistically significant, moderate, negative correlation between the two variables of interest. An analysis of the data also revealed additional significant associations between learner autonomy and several potentially derailing leader behaviors. This study made important, original contributions to the quantitative-based literature and bodies of knowledge of two fields—autonomous learning and leader derailment—by discovering new, previously unknown, significant correlations. I make recommendations for future research to ascertain causality.


Managing Insidious Barriers to Upward Communication in Organizations: An Empirical Investigation of Relationships Among Implicit Voice Theories, Power Distance Orientation, Self-Efficacy, and Leader-Directed Voice

Craig Robert Starbuck | 2016


Organizations whose employees can freely voice ideas, suggestions, and problems to decision makers have a competitive advantage in effectively navigating the vicissitudes of today’s hyper-competitive business environment. Studies have amassed considerable evidence related to individual and contextual influences to explain why members of organizations often choose to withhold rather than speak up to superiors. An emerging stream of research has shown that employee silence may stem from self-protective implicit voice theories (IVTs): taken-for-granted rules of self-censorship (Detert & Edmondson, 2011). Building on prior research, this study investigated IVTs, individual power distance orientation, problem-solving self-efficacy, and creative self-efficacy as predictors of leader-directed voice using data collected from 1,032 employees (individual contributors: n = 696; supervisors: n = 336) in an investment firm. This study also tested problem-solving and creative self-efficacy as moderators of the relationships between IVTs and individual power distance orientation with leader-directed voice. All hypotheses were tested with supervisor-reported voice as the dependent variable and compared in post-hoc tests with self-reported voice as the criterion. Two tests using supervisor-reported voice were significant: the don’t embarrass the boss in public IVT was a significant predictor of voice beyond the controls, and the interaction effect of the need solid data or solutions to speak up IVT with creative self-efficacy was significant, though it masked a pattern of amplified negative impact antithetical to the hypothesized nature of moderation. Post-hoc analyses using self-reported voice as the criterion variable revealed that the composite IVTs scale, all individual IVTs apart from the don’t embarrass the boss in public IVT, problem-solving self-efficacy, and creative self-efficacy were significant predictors of voice beyond the control set. In addition, creative self-efficacy attenuated the negative effects of both the presumed target identification and don’t embarrass the boss in public IVTs on self-reported voice. Additional post-hoc testing, theoretical and practical implications, and limitations and directions for future research are discussed.


Testing the Reliability and Validity of the 108 Skills of Natural Born Leaders Self-Assessment

R. Lewis Steinhoff | 2016


There are many leadership self-assessments. Warren Blank’s (2001) 108 Skills of Natural Born Leaders Self-Assessment (NBLSA) is one that has never been statistically validated. The current study, administered in the form of a survey, quantitatively examined the NBLSA for reliability and validity. Face validity draws upon the relationship of the NBLSA items to leadership theory, convergence measured against the Taking Charge instrument developed by Morrison and Phelps (1999), and discriminant validity compared against both the Interpersonal Deviance Scale and the Organizational Deviance Scale of the Deviant Behaviors instrument developed by Aquino, Lewis, and Bradford (1999). This study used DeVellis’ (2012) scale development guidelines. However, given the scale already exists, only the last three of eight steps were required. Analysis revealed there are six factors that capture the major categories of the NLBSA. The new factors showed good internal consistency, strong Pearson correlation coefficient reliability, and convergent validity. The six factors failed to show test–retest reliability and discriminant validity. Therefore, the NBLSA remains a nonvalidated instrument.


Exploring the Social, Psychological, and Organizational Factors Affecting Founder/Executive Departure

Christopher Kenneth Turner | 2016


Executive/Founder transition is a phenomenon that occurs in every organization. While organizations are aware of the need to plan for transition, the common experience of this change is negative for both the leader and organization. Existing studies predominantly have focused on the mechanics and practical outcomes of change with some research assessing the emotional and psychological state of stakeholders. However, theoretically grounded thinking that assesses the wider dynamics and motivations that shape the phenomenon beneath the emotion and psychology of change are obvious in their omission. The stakes of organizational leader transition are too high not to develop a broader theoretical model for how the process is experienced by the departing leader and his or her organization. This thesis frames executive/founder transition in a conceptual framework that draws on anthropological, sociological, psychological, and new scientific theories regarding transitional dynamics. Using a case study methodology, six organizations were investigated to interrogate positive and negative exemplars of transition against six theoretical propositions. The research found that the notion of transitional alignment in the structure, heart, and dynamics of the process are precursors to more positively experienced executive/founder transition. Conversely, where less transitional alignment is present, the process will be more negatively experienced.


Willingness to Take Risk and Psychological Ownership as Moderators of the Team Climate for Innovation to Innovative Work Behavior Relationship

James Anthony Ward | 2016


The purpose of this team innovation research was to investigate two understudied variables (willingness to take risk and psychological ownership) as moderators of the team climate for innovation (TCI) to innovative work behavior (IWB) relationship. This study built on the team innovation research started by West (1990). The research tested the significance of two innovation literature threads. First, it has become normative in the innovation literature that employees with psychological ownership, or a stake, in the business take better care of, have more pride in, and have more motivation to innovate (Avey, Avolio, Crossley, & Luthans, 2009). Second, innovation is an inherently risk-based process, enhanced by individual willingness to take risk that challenges the group (Kheng, Mahmood, &amp; Beris, 2013; Saleh & Wang, 1993). Seven self-report instruments were used to collect data (N = 142) from engineering design build and financial companies in the southeastern United States. Nine hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated the willingness to take risk moderated the task orientation to IWB relationship, and stake moderated the task orientation and support to IWB relationships. The results bear support for the willingness to take risk and stake as important variables in the TCI model. This research added to the understanding of TCI as a descriptive and prescriptive tool. The team innovation theoretical model is complex with risk and stake being but two parts of the puzzle. The theoretical implications built on Bain, Mann, and Pirola-Merlo’s (2001) work that TCI could be expanded to include a context-sensitive basket of IWB indicators. Leaders who modelled these behaviors and had development programs to create a sense of ownership had higher team IWB (Seshadri & Tripathy, 2006) and willingness to stand up and confront the group with new ideas. Innovation is one of a limited number of tools that are sources of competitive advantage—a key to long-term organizational survival (Christensen, 1997). Toward this end, the practical implications included measuring, training, and modelling as a leader’s practical tools to enhance the willingness to take risk and stake to strengthen the TCI–IWB relationship. Recommendations for future research are provided.


Steward Followership Measurement

George B. Warton | 2016


Undergraduate leadership institutions pride themselves on their ability to produce graduates with the requisite leadership tools to navigate the organizational milieu their fledgling leaders will encounter. However, gaps in the theoretical underpinnings of leadership, particularly followership, likely leave the recent leadership graduate without the necessary tools to navigate the leadership requirements in today’s organization (Chaleff, 2009; Kelley, 2010; Uhl-Bien, Riggio, Lowe, & Carsten, 2014). The purpose of this dissertation is to establish the steward follower as a theoretical outworking of courageous, exemplary, implicit, and ethical followership together with coproduction of leadership established within a steward leader paradigm (Carsten & Uhl-Bien, 2012, 2013; Chaleff, 2009; Kelley, 1992; Rich, 2012; Rodin, 2010; Sy, 2010). Following the conceptual establishment of the steward follower, an instrument originally proposed as a three-dimension followership measure (Kaak, Reynolds, & Whyte, 2013) is redesigned into the two-construct Steward Followership Measurement contrasting steward and egoistic followership. The instrument was rewritten as a result of the original design not meeting reliability and validity standards determined through statistical testing. The first survey of 1,576 cadets at the U.S. Air Force Academy (USAFA) in August 2014 (Warton & O’Donnell, 2014) found that the dimensions of maturity and compliant followers factored to a single dimension describing the traits of the steward follower. The dimension of resistant follower was found to be unreliable and, therefore, rewritten for a subsequent survey in October 2015 of 1,146 cadets and renamed the Egoistic Follower Scale (Warton & O’Donnell, 2015). The results from the second survey utilizing the Steward Followership Measurement containing the steward follower and egoistic follower scales were determined to be both reliable and valid. Further, the results of the two surveys are instructive to the USAFA and others beyond the scope of this research focus.


Effects of Innovation Training on Innovative Work Behaviors

Bruce E. Watley | 2016


This study examined the effects of innovation training on innovative work behaviors. Anderson, Potocnik, and Zhou’s (2014) comprehensive state-of-the-science review identified a gap in the existing body of knowledge concerning innovation training and its use in an organizational setting to improve individual innovativeness. Argyris’ (1970) intervention theory, where effective and successful interventions produce behavioral changes in people, and Kirton’s (1976) adoption-innovation theory, where everyone is located on a continuum that ranges from adaptiveness (i.e., doing things better) to innovativeness (i.e., doing things differently), are the theoretical frameworks for this study. The literature review covered the theoretical framework, innovation, creative problem solving, innovation training, self-efficacy, and innovative work behaviors. The research question asked: To what extent does innovation training affect innovative work behaviors? I presented three research hypotheses to test the differences of innovative work behaviors and self-efficacy among groups who received innovation training compared to groups who did not. I used a Solomon Four-Group design where I introduced a proprietary innovation training curriculum as a treatment to individuals in a regional health care organization that employs over 6,000 people. I used a two-way analysis of variance to determine the effects of innovation training on individual innovative work behaviors using DeJong’s (2006) Innovative Work Behavior Questionnaire as well as modified it to measure a participant’s self-efficacy toward innovative work behaviors, which I called the Innovative Work Behavior Appraisal Inventory. The findings indicated there was no statistically significant difference among groups who received innovation training compared to groups who did not for innovative work behaviors or self-efficacy. However, the knowledge gained from this seminal research created a foundation for which to build future research studies.


The Relationship of Professional Values and Spirituality with Motivation to Lead: The Mediating Effect of Social Justice Importance

Michele R. Wells | 2016


Motivation to lead (MTL) is an individual differences construct used as a measurement of an individual’s motivation to take on leadership roles and responsibilities (Chan & Drasgow, 2001). The current exploratory study examined the values of a professional organization—the National Association of Social Workers (NASW)—and individual spirituality as predictors of the four forms of MTL—affective identity (AIMTL), social normative (SNMTL), noncalculative (NCMTL), and ideological (Amit, Lisak, Popper, & Gal, 2007; Chan & Drasgow, 2001). In previous studies using military samples, researchers have controlled for attitudes toward military service (Chan & Drasgow, 2001; Clemmons & Fields, 2011), but the norms of a professional organization have not been previously studied as a predictor of MTL. Previous studies have explored spirituality as a predictor of MTL, finding both positive and negative correlation with the Chan and Drasgow (2001) forms (AIMTL, SNMTL, NCMTL) of the MTL construct (Clemmons, 2008; Porter, 2011; Smith, 2010). Ideological MTL had not been studied using professional norms or spirituality as independent variables. The current study further explored the importance of social justice as a mediator of the relationship between professional norms, spirituality, and the four forms of MTL. The sample participants were professional social workers (N = 302) who by virtue of their education as social workers adhere to the NASW (2008) Code of Ethics. The Code of Ethics is a guide for social workers’ conduct and the promotion of social justice inherent to the mission of social work (NASW, 2008). This study used quantitative measures to examine the relationships among the variables. Theoretical and practical implications are addressed as well as limitations, delimitations, and direction for future research.


Internal Factors That Enable Positive Deviance to Occur in Leaders: A Phenomenological Description

Brian Arthur Williamson | 2016


While Spreitzer and Sonenshein (2003, 2004) and Lavine (2012) provided a strong conceptual foundation from the existing literature regarding positive deviance, Lavine noted that little has been done to date to build upon this initial work. The current phenomenological study explored the internal factors that enable positive deviance to occur in leaders. In-depth interviews were utilized to capture the lived experience across six leaders who were deemed positively deviant by a referent group of eight followers. Data were explicated and resulted in an articulation of the following internal factors that enable positive deviance to occur in leaders: values (prioritization and care for others, values driven, growth and reproduction mind-set, sense of meaning, courageous action, shared approach to leadership, emotional intelligence, integrity), behaviors (connection and care for others, growth and reproduction mind-set, learning and improvement mind-set, courageous action, creativity, shared approach to leadership, emotional intelligence), and attitudes (positivity, humility, abundance, visionary, courage, gratitude). Research and practitioner reflections are presented along with limitations and recommendations for future research.


Hope: Exploring Nonprofit Leaders Generating Hope in Followers

Robert S. Zarges, Jr. | 2016


Leadership theories have included the construct of hope for many years (Helland & Winston, 2005). Luthans and Avolio (2003) asserted, “The force multiplier throughout history has often been attributed to the leader’s ability to generate hope” (p. 253). The current study examined how executive directors in the nonprofit sector describe the experience of generating hope in their followers. A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to develop a composite description of generating hope from participants who have experienced the phenomenon. This study included a review of the theoretical literature that generated the interview questions. Additionally, this study includes a discussion of the qualitative design rationale for data collection and analysis. Six executive directors were interviewed; the key finding was that hope generation rests in quality relationship with followers characterized by teamwork, motivation, modeling, trust, and transparency and includes investing in follower professional development as an external resource through skill building and emotional support that results in personal and professional goal setting and achievement and, ultimately, organizational mission fulfillment. In the conclusion is a discussion of the limitations to this study and recommendations for further research.