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Regent University is a Christian Institution Offering Undergraduate, Graduate, and Doctoral Degrees Located in Virginia Beach, VA 23464

2015 Dissertations – Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership Program

The final requirement for School of Business & Leadership Ph.D. students is the scholarly research dissertation. To access full-text versions of these dissertations, please contact your university’s library or UMI Dissertation Services. Regent students, staff and faculty may access full-text versions from the Regent University Library.

Breaking Through the Mental Barriers of an Entrepreneur

Susan E. Anderson | 2015


The diversity in entrepreneurial activity has been shown in literature to represent a complex set of knowledge, resources, and skills yet also has been shown to prevent scholars from finding the universal chords intrinsic to becoming a successful entrepreneur. This dissertation specifically looks at the mental barriers faced by entrepreneurs through a qualitative, phenomenological design, employing interviews to collect data from the perspective of people’s experiences. The study explores the question: What breaks through the mental barriers of an entrepreneur? Expanding on the distinction made in this exploration that there is a difference between internal factors and the placement of external influences related to the process required for breaking through Chopra’s (1999) mental barriers of (a) getting past one’s initial reaction and (b) creating a desired change, this exploration confirmed that a mental barrier breakthrough is possible only by those contenders to a process to be completed. The findings further articulate that depending on one’s willingness and specific path taken, results will reflect either long- or short-term benefits. These findings provide a significant contribution in understanding those areas to develop in regard to one’s ability to break through these mental barriers and where future research may be most beneficial. This dissertation also provides a way for these developments to be articulated into a practical application. Learning the process for breaking through mental barriers takes time and requires exploration, experience, and knowing what to remove or avoid when seeking a clear vision to assess an idea, situation, or obstacle. Future research considerations are also provided.

Understanding Servant Leadership as a Phenomenon Through the Lived Experiences of Leaders of Private Organizations and NGOs in Ibadan and Lagos in Southwest Nigeria: A Qualitative Study Using Q-Sorts

Olofunmilayo O. Akinyele | 2015


This study examines the phenomenon of servant leadership in the Nigerian context. It sought to understand the phenomenon from the lived experiences of leaders of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and private organizations in Ibadan and Lagos in the Southwest region, particularly given the pre-Colonial legacy in the Ibadan kingship-leadership structure. The study (a) discusses Nigeria as the context for the study and (b) identifies and explains differences in pre-Colonial leadership styles of the Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba ethnic communities as well as contemporary organizations in Nigeria and the challenges they face. The study uses the framework of Patterson’s (2003) servant leadership model, particularly service, vision, and humility which have been shown to be common descriptive elements of servant leaders (Hale & Fields, 2007; Ihenacho, 2011), and Hofstede’s (2001) cultural dimensions of (a) individualism vs. collectivism and (b) power distance. The researcher collected data by (a) interviewing senior executives, (b) examining relevant historical and leadership documents, and (c) keeping field notes and a reflective journal. The researcher then conducted a Q-sort. The data were analyzed using Schmolck and Atkinson’s (2000) PQMethod software, deriving three factors of (a) ?m?luabi serving with collaboration and humility, (b) chief servant leading by example with humility and (c) passionate visionary humbly modeling the way through service. Implications for Nigeria, leadership theory and practice, and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Emotional Intelligence, Leader-Member Exchange, Job Stress, and Job Satisfaction: A Study of Practicing Attorneys

Oral Beason | 2015


Some levels of job stress result in productivity, ingenuity, and satisfaction. However, as job stress increases, job satisfaction tends to decline and compromise work results. Internal individual differences and external contextual factors may buffer the effects of negative aspects of stress. This study investigated the buffering effects of emotional intelligence (EI) and leader-member exchange (LMX) on the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. A structured survey questionnaire was used to gather data from 214 attorneys licensed in the State of Florida. The study investigated whether the results of moderated multiple regression analysis of the collected data would show that the interaction of EI and job stress would have buffered the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. Similarly, the study investigated whether the results of moderated multiple regression analysis of the collected data would also show that the interaction LMX and job stress would have buffered the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. However, the results of the study did not support a finding of moderating effects on the independent variable and dependent variable relationship. Analysis of the data revealed that EI and LMX had a mediating effect on the independent variable and dependent variable relationship of the participants. Implications of the study on job stress theories of practice, research methodologies, conceptual limitations, and suggested directions for future research are also discussed.

Servant Leadership and Organizational Citizenship: A Moderated Mediation Model of Perceived Leader Effectiveness and Exchange Ideology in Rwanda

Timothy Brubaker | 2015


What effects do reciprocity expectations have on the relationship between servant leadership and organizational citizenship? The present study proposed and tested a moderated mediation model of the effects of servant leadership on two types of organizational citizenship behaviors (altruism and courtesy). First, the study hypothesized that perceived leader effectiveness mediates the relationship between servant leadership and these two types of organizational citizenship (H1). The study further hypothesized that employee exchange ideology moderates the indirect effects of perceived leader effectiveness in each of these models (H2). Three theoretical trajectories explain the proposed relationships between study variables: social learning theory (Bandura, 1977), cognitive categorization theory (Rosch, 1975), and reciprocity/clientelism (Gouldner, 1960; Landé, 1977). Adult Rwandans working in nongovernment settings comprise the sample for this study. Data collection yielded 194 usable responses (N = 194) which were analyzed based on study hypotheses. Data analysis showed adequate support for the full mediation effects of perceived leader effectiveness on the relationship between servant leadership and both forms of organizational citizenship. However, concerning the moderating effects of exchange ideology in the mediation models, analysis demonstrated that exchange ideology only moderated the mediation model with respect to courtesy and not altruism. The presentation concludes with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications along with suggestions for future research. This study makes an important contribution to leadership theory by better understanding the nature of leader-follower relationships in Africa and the importance of reciprocity in these relationships.

Exploring the Differences of Faith Manifestations and Entrepreneurial Orientations of Catholics and Protestants

David W. Bryant | 2015


There is a dearth of quantitative research that considers the integration of Christian faith and entrepreneurship. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to explore the differences of faith manifestations and entrepreneurial orientations of Catholics and Protestants at work. Based on the foundational relationships of sacred scripture, sacred tradition, and natural law, Catholics embrace a social magisterium that makes them unique not only among other religions but also within the Christian faith. If Catholics are different from Protestants, there should be observable differences in faith manifestations and entrepreneurial behaviors for Catholics and Protestants at work. Utilizing The Integration Box and the Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation instruments, no statistically significant differences for Catholics and Protestants were found. The theoretical implications of this research reveal that the hypothesized Catholic versus Protestant relationship at work may be a false dilemma. From a Catholic perspective, the practical implications of this research reiterate the need for radical Catholic reeducation of the tenets present in Catholic social teaching. Directions for future research are presented.

Leadership Malpractice in Higher Education: Effects of Organizational Ethical Culture and Followers’ Perceived Organizational Support on Abusive Supervision and Vicarious Abusive Supervision

Michelle Clawson | 2015


There has been a growing need to stop bullying from leaders in organizations and to support targets of this often ignored phenomenon. The death of Kevin Morrissey, the managing editor of the University of Virginia’s Virginia Quarterly Review, served as the catalyst in this research. The purpose of this cross-sectional quantitative study was to examine the effects of organizational ethical culture (i.e., ethical values, procedural justice, and interactional justice) and followers’ perception of organizational support on abusive supervision and vicarious abusive supervision in institutions of higher education. Using a sample of 747 administrators, faculty, and staff from 11 colleges and universities in the southeastern region of the United States, organizational ethical culture was found to make the largest statistically significant contribution and was the best predictor of abusive supervision. Followers’ perceived organizational support also made a contribution; however, it was not significant. When examining the individual dimensions measured in organizational ethical culture, interactional justice was highly related to abusive supervision. In relation to vicarious abusive supervision, organizational ethical culture made the largest statistically significant contribution and was the best predictor, although followers’ perceived organizational support made a statistically significant contribution. Position level (i.e., supervisors and nonsupervisors) did not differ in terms of the followers’ tolerance of abusive supervision and vicarious abusive supervision. On the other hand, an employee’s rank had an influence on abusive supervision. To the researcher’s knowledge, there were no studies on abusive supervision and vicarious abusive supervision in the postsecondary education field in the United States. The intent was to demonstrate if supervisory bullying occurred in a higher education setting and to bring awareness of incivility in academe. Implications of these findings are discussed as well as strengths and limitations of the study. Future directions for research of abusive supervision in higher education are suggested.

Measuring Individual Capacity to Lead: Development and Validation of a Theory Based Instrument

Michael J. Daniels | 2015


Few studies have presented a conceptually complete model describing capacity to be a leader. This study developed and tested a measure that operationalizes individual capacity to lead. The measure is based on integrating the conceptual models of Popper and Mayseless (2007), Dries and Pepermans (2012), and Chan and Drasgow (2001). The resulting measure may significantly improve an organization’s ability to select individuals for training and development who have the highest capacity to succeed as leaders. Ultimately, this may prove useful for human resources selection, development initiatives, succession planning, and recruiting. This measurement tool was developed using a four-step process: (a) item development, (b) scale identification and validation through use of a Delphi panel, (c) item reduction and identification of underlying dimensions through use of a large sample (N = 467) of working adults, and (d) assessment of construct validity of the capacity-to-lead instrument. The measure has three components: follower-focused (? = .961), focused on leading and influencing others; learning agility (? = .925), focused on the idea of a leader being adaptable to changing environments, situations, and stimuli; and intellectual curiosity (? = .891), focused on a leader having a curiosity that stems from an intellectual framework and pursuit. Future research ideas, limitations of the study, and practical applications for this instrument are provided.

Examining the Endorsement of Authentic Leadership, Organizational Commitment and Perceived Leader Effectiveness among Nigerian Employees

Amara Emuwa | 2015


This study examined the endorsement of authentic leadership and its relationships with follower outcomes of perceived leader effectiveness and organizational commitment among employees in Nigeria. The study contributes to the incremental understanding of cross-cultural leadership behaviors by comparing the relationship of authentic leadership with desired outcomes in Nigeria to similar relationships observed in previous studies in U.S. employees. In addition, this research examined the extent to which contingent leadership behaviors interact with authentic leadership to strengthen its relationship with employee outcomes. This study used cross-sectional survey data collected from a sample of 212 Nigerian employees across multiple industrial sectors.

The Relationship between Perceptions of Diversity Climate and Value Congruence/Person-Organization Fit: A Focus on Nonminority and Minority Employees’ Differences in Perceptions

Rodney L. Fields | 2015


This quantitative study advances the theoretical discussion of affirming diversity climate in organizations. The study had a sample of 120 participants from various organizations throughout the metropolitan area of Atlanta, Georgia. A three-model hierarchical multiple regression and an independent-samples t test (special case of one-way analysis of variance) were used to test the relationship between perceptions of diversity climate and value congruence/person-organization (P-O) fit while comparing perceptions between nonminority and minority employees. The results support a statistical significance for the following two claims: (a) lower perceptions of diversity climate lead to lower P-O fit and (b) perception of diversity climate differs by ethnicity (nonminority vs. minority). Future research is needed to test other variables that contribute to the relationship between perceptions of diversity climate and value congruence/P-O fit, including expanding the regional scope of participants and organizations and expanding the research globally. Diversity offers a rich platform to further examine the benefits and challenges of the effect diversity, now and in the future, and how it impacts employees and organizations.

The Effect of the Accountability Variables of Responsibility, Openness, and Answerability on Authentic Leadership

Heidi R. Frederick | 2015


One of the unique aspects of authentic leadership that scholars have posited is the possibility that it can be developed (Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008). However, the paucity of research on authentic leadership as a dependent variable reveals a gap that must be addressed. The purpose of this cross-sectional quantitative study is to examine the proactive three-factor accountability theory of responsibility, openness, and answerability practices (Wood & Winston, 2007) as an antecedent to authentic leadership. Using survey results from a sample of full-time employees at private Christian higher education institutions in the United States, a predictive relationship was investigated through multiple regression analysis and a subsequent hierarchical regression analysis. The results indicated that the variables of responsibility, openness, and answerability predict the perception of authentic leadership. One-way analyses of variance, t tests, and post hoc tests were also performed to identify differences in demographic data. Significant differences were found in tenure with the leader. As was expected, high correlation was found among all four scales. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed as well as strengths and weaknesses of the study. Future directions for research of authentic leadership and proactive accountability are suggested.

Social Identity Theory and the Prototypical Ecclesial Leader in Paul’s Letters to Timothy

Michael Gilbert | 2015


One does not need to look far to notice that a leadership crisis is occurring in nearly every industry and field. Leadership is central to the success of a quality-led organization, requiring support and commitment from top management. Despite attempts or perceptions that reduce the significance for a theory of ecclesial leadership, the modern leadership crises under discussion continue to reveal a more desperate need for an appropriate model of ecclesial leadership like never before. This study employs a joint methodology of social-scientific criticism and sociohistorical analysis of the epistles of 1 and 2 Timothy. The results contribute to the reduction of the paucity in literature concerning the role of social identity theory within the field of ecclesial leadership. Beyond social identity theory, the Apostle Paul employed a social identity model of leadership, through leadership succession, to promote Timothy as the prototypical leader over the ecclesia at Ephesus. From the results, the model of prototypical ecclesial leadership constructs surface comprising of (a) mimetic apprenticeship, (b) shared suffering, (c) confronting error, (d) spiritual formation, (e) wealth management, (f) public spirituality, and (g) kingdom focus. The model construct of prototypical ecclesial leadership attempts to inform the divinity academe of the solid gains made by the leadership academe in regard to the contributing construct of the Pauline prototype.

Examining the Relationship Between Group Cohesion and Group Performance in Tuckman’s (1965) Group Life Cycle Model on an Individual-Level Basis

Troy B. Hall | 2015


What leaders currently know about the topic of group cohesion and performance is a reflection of the literature as studied from a group-level basis. The literature has clearly asserted that group cohesion positively impacts group performance when the group is collectively studied. Greer (2012) noted individual-level analysis was needed to extend the literature on this topic. The current study serves two purposes. First, this study’s design supports research to examine the correlation between group cohesion and group performance in all stages of Tuckman’s (1965) group development model from an individual-level perspective. This view of group development, as seen from the individual’s perspective, provides leaders with valuable insight about the group life cycle at the point at which cohesion occurs. Providing leaders with the perspective of when and to what degree cohesion occurs within group development contributes to a leader’s ability to influence, motivate, and enable organizational success. Second, the study’s research design uses the Group Life Cycle Cohesion and Performance Questionnaire (GLCCPQ) created from the works of Carmeli and Waldman (2010), Dobbins and Zaccaro (1986), and D. Miller (2003). Employees of businesses associated with a southeastern U.S. metro Chamber of Commerce accessed the online GLCCPQ and provided data reflecting an individual-level perception used to examine the four study hypotheses. Using correlation analysis for each hypothesis, the expected results confirmed a positive correlation existed between the two variables (cohesion and performance) in the forming, storming, and performing stages of a group’s life cycle. The strongest correlation occurred in the forming stage, contradicting Tuckman’s findings. The lack of correlation within the norming stage data set was unexpected. The study’s conclusions contribute to leadership effectiveness in the areas of influence, motivation, and organizational success. The findings extend the literature, offering an individual-level perspective examining the correlation between group cohesion and group performance at each stage of the group life cycle and not of the group as a whole. Finally, this research design and the GLCCPQ survey offer a strong foundation to spur future research and discovery on this topic.

Examining the Leader Development Process: The Development and Validation of a Leader Education and Development Model

Nicole Hawkins | 2015


The premise of the study was to maximize the capacity of human capital and social capital relationships in organizational leaders through a multistage educational model. Traditional leader development efforts have tended to focus on the collective unit of leadership within an organization, that is, how leaders and followers interact for the greater good of the group or organization. The model suggested in this research encompasses individual leader development and interpersonal content. This research operationalized a framework for a multistage leader development model for developing individual leaders, maximizing leadership capacity, and gaining insight into the evolving process of leader development. The nascent literature of leader development theory and the multidimensional and ever-evolving construct of leader development was also examined. Utilizing Kegan’s (1980) framework of constructive-developmental theory as validated by McCauley, Drath, Palus, O’Conner, and Baker (2006), the current research operationalized Day, Fleenor, Atwater, Sturm, and McKee (2014) identified content areas for leader development (the dimensions of intrapersonal and interpersonal development) into an applicable model that can be utilized to guide leader development in organizations. A mixed-method approach was utilized to determine validity of the proposed model by conducting a single data collection from two groups (identified as subject matter experts and practitioners). The first group involved a qualitative process by interviewing five subject matter experts. The second data group consisted of 57 practitioners from industry and academia who participated via a quantitative survey. Findings indicate support of the suggested model and the emergence of the evolved leadership capital development model

An Examination of the Role of Spirituality in the Development of the Moral Component of Authentic Leadership through a Sociorhetorical Analysis of Paul’s Letter to Titus

Joshua D. Henson | 2015


This study examined the role of spirituality in the moral development component of authentic leadership in comparison to leadership principles found in the Epistle to Titus. The study of moral development was drawn from the literature on authentic leadership theory, spiritual leadership theory, and preexisting frameworks of moral agency, self-concept, and the stages of moral development. The exegetical process followed the methodology of sociorhetorical analysis and was interpreted for the moral, ethical, and leadership principles found in the pericope. The study yielded five themes of leadership from which 10 principles of leadership were discovered as found in Paul’s letter to Titus. It was found that the principles in Titus generally support the literature on the moral development component of authentic leadership theory. In the case when there were differences, it was found that principles of Titus expand and elevate the standards found in the literature. The study concluded that there is an intimate relationship between sacred and secular contexts such that the moral and ethical standards of the Christian community engage the moral standards of a given social and cultural context and reconfigures them in light of the gospel of Jesus Christ. The 10 core values of ethical behavior discovered in Titus were compared to the constructs of authentic leadership theory, spiritual leadership theory, and the core values of spirituality, and they were found to transcend each construct. The study created a framework for the future study of the core values of morality and ethics in multiple constructs: biblical, secular, and sacred.

On Developing a Deeper Understanding of Authentic Leadership: Interpreting Matthew 3:11-5:48—Using Intertexture Analysis and Social and Cultural Texture Analysis

Stephen L. Kalaluhi | 2015


This inductive, qualitative research study explore the construct of authentic leadership within the context of organizational leadership as demonstrated within the Matthew 3:11 – 5:48 pericope. Using the Matthew 3:11 – 5:48 pericope as a foundation for authentic leadership, this study seeks to answer the following research question: How does the pericope within the Christian sacred text that describes Jesus’ baptism, temptations, subsequent start of ministry, and initial teachings as found in Matthew 3:11 – 5:48 contribute to our current understanding of how organizational outcomes are affected by leader morality when applied from within the intrapersonal, interpersonal, developmental, and pragmatic perspectives of authentic leadership? This research followed the exegetical foundation as described by Robbins (1996a, 1996b), and focused primarily on the frameworks associated with intertexture analysis and social and cultural texture analysis. Nine themes emerged from the data, suggesting the authenticity of Jesus was further enhanced through the intrapersonal perspective, the interpersonal perspective, the developmental perspective, and the pragmatic perspective. Specifically, the nine themes identified the following aspects of authentic leadership: (a) use of traditions, regulations, and pre-existing laws, (b) recitation of traditions, regulations, and pre-existing laws, (c) reconfiguration of traditions, regulations, and pre-existing laws, (d) use of reference, allusion, and echo to build authenticity as a leader, (e) use of social knowledge and its use in establishing authenticity, (f) use of reformist discourse to emphasize different authentic leadership approaches, (g) the concept of ascribed honor and its importance to authentic leaders, (h) the concept of challenge-response and its use in authentic leadership, and (i) the concept of purity and its role in authentic leadership. A discussion about the research findings and their implications to the contemporary organizational leadership context is included. This research also addresses the limitations of this study, as well as provides guidelines pertaining to possible future research related to the topic of authentic leadership studied from within a Christian worldview.

Service Learning Experiences and University Students’ Motivation to Lead

William Lamb | 2015


In an effort to improve service-learning (SL) experiences among students at university campuses, it is valuable for educational leaders to measure the impact that these experiences may have on students. In addition, a responsibility of universities is to prepare students for leadership beyond the collegiate experiences. This study expanded previous research by identifying the relationship of SL experiences with student motivation to lead (MTL). In addition, this study also examined social justice attitudes, problem-solving skills, and perceived leadership skills as possible mediators in the relationship between SL and student MTL. Although there is adequate literature on the three dimensions of motivation to lead (affective-identity, social-normative, and noncalculative), there seemed to be a gap in the investigation of the relationship of student’s SL experiences and MTL. Therefore, this research study utilized a quantitative approach for gathering and analyzing empirical data which revealed outcomes that will be beneficial to expanding the research on SL and MTL. The sample of students, ranging from freshman to seniors at a faith-based institution in the United States participating in this study totaled 407. Control variables included general self-efficacy, gender, race, and previous leadership experience. Two questions guided this study: Does the extent of a student’s SL program experience have a positive multivariate relationship with a student’s MTL? Do student problem-solving skills, beliefs in social justice, and leadership role experiences mediate the relationship between a student’s SL program experiences and student MTL? The results of this research revealed that (a) SL does have a direct relationship with student’s affective-identity MTL, (b) perceived leadership skills fully mediate the relationship between SL and affective-identity MTL, (c) SL is not a predictor of social-normative motivation to lead, (d) neither problem-solving skills nor social justice attitudes mediate the relationship between SL and AIMTL.

A current view into implicit leadership theories and the applicability of servant leadership in Polish universities

Joanna Leontaris | 2015


The primary purpose of this quantitative study was to (a) explore potential cross-generational differences in leadership style preferences depicted by the GLOBE (House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004) project between Polish middle-level managers of 1996/1997 and Polish university employees of 2015, (b) compare the extent to which servant leadership was experienced by followers employed in the higher education sector in Poland and the United States, and (c) investigate the existence of a positive relationship between servant leadership and organizational commitment among Polish employees. The sample was comprised of 113 faculty and staff working at a Polish university located in southern Poland. The participants were on average about 35 years of age and mostly occupied non-leadership positions with women comprising 71.7% of the sample. The data were gathered via an online surveying process during the months of March and April 2015. The questionnaire utilized the following measures to assess the main variables: six leadership style scales designed by the GLOBE project, a parsimonious version of the Essential Servant Leadership Behaviors scale (Winston & Fields, 2015), and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (Mowday, Steers, & Porter, 1982). Polish employees of 2015 preferred team-oriented and participative leadership modes to a lesser extent when compared against their counterparts from the GLOBE project. Polish employees of 2015 also exhibited less tolerance for autonomous leadership style than Polish middle-level managers of 1996/1997. Additionally, servant leadership was practiced more frequently among the contemporary employees in the United States than in Poland. Servant leadership appeared to positively impact organizational commitment among Polish employees when controlling for age, job tenure, and task-oriented leadership (? = .208, p < .05). These findings suggest that future leaders ought to be cognizant of the impact time; major political, social, and economic shifts; and cultural underpinnings may have on the cross-generational and cross-cultural perceptions of the effective and desired leadership practices. Finally, servant leadership may be considered a variable leadership style for Polish employees and by projecting a positive influence on organizational commitment, it may also positively contribute to reducing the extent of the brain drain Poland is currently experiencing.

The Influence of the Big Five Personality Traits and Locus of Control on Organizational Commitment in Historically Black Colleges and Universities Libraries

Brandolyn Love | 2015


This dissertation addresses Neal’s (2005) call for more research on the influence of personal characteristics on turnover in historically Black colleges and universities (HBCU) libraries by assessing the relationship between the Big Five personality traits, locus of control, and organizational commitment. The research focuses on follower perception of the leader using the Big Five personality traits and self-evaluation using organizational commitment. The research includes a double measure of locus of control to measure follower perception and self-evaluation. Each of the Big Five personality traits—openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism—were tested individually. The hypotheses were tested using a nonexperimental, quantitative design that included the widely used and validated Big Five Inventory-10, Internal and External Locus of Control Scale, and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Sample data were collected using the website SurveyMonkey as the host for the questionnaires. The HBCU Library Alliance listserv and website were also used to access sample participants. Multiple regression analysis in SPSS was utilized as the means for analysis of the results of the study. No significant influence existed in the self-perception of locus of control of the follower and organizational commitment. However, the perception of internal locus of control of the leader by followers was found to have a significant negative influence on commitment. Additionally, openness and conscientiousness of the Big Five personality traits were found to have a significant positive influence on organizational commitment in HBCU libraries.

Individual Readiness for Change: The Impact of Organizational Learning Culture and SDL’s Learning Motivation

Sharmane C. Miller | 2015


This cross-sectional study quantitatively investigated the impact of organizational learning culture (OLC) on individual cognitive readiness (COGRE) and emotional readiness (EMRE) for organizational change. Additionally, the moderating influences of the self-directed learning construct of employees’ learning motivation on the relationships between the single dimension of creating continuous learning opportunities (a dimension of OLC) and COGRE and EMRE for organizational change were examined. Using the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ; Watkins & Marsick, 1993), the Readiness Scale of the Organizational Change Questionnaire-Climate of Change, Processes, and Readiness Scale (OCQ-C, P, R; Bouchenooghe, Devos, & Van den Broeck, 2009), the learning motivation scale of the Self-Directed Learning Instrument (SDLI; Cheng, Kuo, Lin, & Lee-Hsieh, 2010) and a demographic questionnaire, perceptual data were obtained from a sample (N = 130) of public, primary school teachers who were embarking on a major organizational change initiative in The Bahamas. Using multiple hierarchical regressions, the findings indicated first that there were statistically significant relationships between EMRE for change and the seven dimensions of OLC. Second, age influenced the relationship between individuals’ perception of their OLC and their EMRE for change. Third, the study found no statistically significant relationships between level of education and EMRE or COGRE for change. Finally, this study found no moderating effects and inferred no causal relationships because of low R2 values. Understanding the influence of the variables of OLC and learning motivation on individual readiness for organizational change provides valuable insight about how organization leaders can adequately prepare for and execute successful change.

Phenomenological Study of the Mentoring Behaviors of the Four Quadrants of Situational Leadership Within the Department of Defense

Noah Mitchell | 2015


This study examined the mentoring behaviors displayed by supervisors in the four quadrants of the situational leadership (SL) model as they focus on the human resource development side of the workforce. Although no study exists that has examined the mentoring behaviors supervisors demonstrate or employ in the four quadrants of the SL model, Kram’s (1988) study was used as the base for identifying the mentoring behaviors supervisors exhibit. A qualitative phenomenological research was conducted to determine the mentoring behaviors in the four quadrants exhibited by supervisors using the SL model and found that supervisors exhibit acceptance, challenging task, coaching, exposure/visibility, and empowerment. Eight supervisors and eight followers were interviewed. The phenomenology focused on “exploring how human beings make sense of experience and transform experience into consciousness” (Patton, 2002, p. 104) and attempted to understand those “who have directly experienced the phenomenon of interest” (p. 104). This study addressed the theoretical framework of the study, research design, sample size, data collection, data analysis, and conclusion. Results are presented along with a discussion. The results will assist supervisors with developing mentoring relationships and utilizing the appropriate mentoring behavior in each SL quadrant to mentor employees. The results also will serve to assist in developing and improving employee performance and productivity that will lead to employees becoming self-directed learners to complete assigned projects and tasks.

Personal Responsibility in the Financial Services Industry: The Cognitive Antecedents and Behavioral Consequences of an Employee’s Sense of Responsibility in Organizations

Kelly D. Monahan | 2015


The purpose of this research was to define and examine the cognitive antecedents and behavioral consequences of personal responsibility within the workplace. A quantitative research design was conducted on a sample of 200 full-time employees working at The Hartford. Confirmatory structural equation modeling confirmed the a priori model, a full mediation model, as the best fit to represent the relationships found within the personal responsibility model. Self-concept beliefs, as manifested by locus of control and self-efficacy, were strong predictors of one’s ascription of responsibility back to the self. Contextual job beliefs, however, were not found to predict personal responsibility and were rather an indirect influence based on the covariant relationship with self-concept beliefs. As predicted, attitudes towards personal responsibility were a strong predictor of whether one intended to engage in helpful behaviors. Therefore, helpful behavioral intentions were found as a direct consequence of personal responsibility. This study provides an extensive model that evaluates the motivational cognitions and intentions of personal responsibility within the workplace based on the theory of reasoned action framework. The findings call into question the job characteristics model as the most appropriate measure of personal responsibility, which states personal responsibility as a byproduct of autonomy. Rather, personal responsibility may be defined as a cognitive process and individual tendency to attribute the consequences of one’s action back to the self. Perhaps rather than focusing on the amount of autonomy one has within the workplace, research should focus on explaining why some employees have a higher sense of personal responsibility and test the stability of that trait. The call for future research invites greater attention and dialogue to the self-cognitions that drive one to ascribe responsibility back to the self.

Exemplary Lives in Speech, Conduct, Love, Faith, and Purity: An Analysis of 1 Timothy 3-4 for Ethical Leadership

Aaron Perry | 2015


Ethical leadership theory concerns the relationship between ethics and leadership. Brown, Trevino, and Harrison (2005) developed a nomological definition for the purpose of developing the ethical leadership scale that is being used widely (Eisenbeiss, 2012; Hunter, 2012). However, the whole construct of ethical leadership lacks grounding. While Brown et al.’s definition has been more commonly used to measure the effects of this version of ethical leadership, Ciulla (2014) and Eisenbeiss (2012) suggested an interdisciplinary approach to provide a stronger foundation and deeper understanding, including such subjects as effectiveness, virtue, and rule-based ethics. In order to answer this challenge to study ethical leadership with an interdisciplinary approach, this study examined 1 Timothy 3-4 for ethical leadership. The study values theology as a contributing discipline to ethical leadership, but the reader may still engage the analysis of 1 Timothy 3-4 without theological commitment. First Timothy is analyzed using sociorhetorical research, specifically the different textures of the text (Robbins, 1996) including intertexture, social texture, and cultural texture. In this light, 1 Timothy presents qualities for leadership in terms of virtue, skill, and maturity of faith. First Timothy uses categories of virtue for leaders found in contemporary and ancient sources, including military leadership and household leadership. The study concludes that ethical leaders are virtuous people, ethical leaders model to empower followers, ethical leadership is necessarily effective to certain ends, and ethical leadership is formed contextually.

A Correlation Analysis of Person-Job Fit, Job Satisfaction, and Motivational Gifts of Entrepreneurs

Andrea M. Pierce | 2015


The purpose of this research is to extend the inaugural work of DellaVecchio and Winston’s (2004) Romans 12 motivational gifts profile. The research explores the differences in job satisfaction and person–job fit based upon the seven Romans 12 motivational gifts profiles. Specifically, the research examines the variables while evaluating the entrepreneurial population. A convenience sample of 150 entrepreneurs from the continental United States were asked to participate in an online survey comprised of the Romans 12 motivational gifts instrument (DellaVecchio & Winston, 2004), the job satisfaction instrument (Weiss, Dawis, England & Lofquist, 1967), and the person–job fit instrument (Saks & Ashforth, 1997). Cluster analysis was used to examine and identify motivational gifts profiles among the sample. Analysis of variance was conducted to determine the differences in job satisfaction and person–job fit based upon clusters identified of the seven Romans 12 motivational gifts. Additional analysis of variance was conducted to determine which motivational gifts had a significant relationship with job satisfaction and person–job fit. The cluster analysis confirmed two significant clusters, both showing the presence of the Romans 12 motivational gifts. Analysis of variance confirmed a significantly higher correlation between one cluster with the reported high to medium scores of the seven Romans 12 motivational gifts scales. Additional correlation tests found a significant relationships between the Romans motivational gifts, job satisfaction, and person–job fit with weak Pearson product-moment correlations reported for all motivational gifts.

Innovative Behavior in Local Government: Exploring the Impact of Organizational Learning Capacity, Authentic Leadership, Psychological Empowerment, and the Moderating Role of Intrinsic Motivation

Leana Polston-Murdoch | 2015


While conventional wisdom may consider innovation in public service a paradoxical concept, an organizational cultural shift that supports knowledge sharing, learning, and exploration is essential to meet the increasing needs and demands of stakeholders. The pace of innovation is increasing in local government as a result of forward-thinking and risk-taking government leaders who partner with subject-matter experts and academic researchers who continue to transform the historical risk-adverse bureaucratic leadership to a culture that cultivates innovative behavior. This study set out to investigate cognitive and contextual factors that influence innovation in local government. The overarching purpose of this study was to investigate how organizational learning capacity, authentic leadership, psychological empowerment, and intrinsic motivation influence innovative behavior within local governments. This framework offers multitheoretical support to understand innovative behavior in local government. Through the lens of social cognitive theory, this research brings into focus how the environment, behavior, and cognitive factors contribute toward innovative behavior within local government. Drawing from self-determination theory, this study examined how psychological empowerment influences innovative behavior. Authentic leadership theory explains how employees’ perception of authentic leaders influences innovative behavior. Self-determination theory clarifies how intrinsic motivation influences the relationships between organizational learning capacity, psychological empowerment, and authentic leadership with innovative behavior. This study used a single-period cross-sectional design. Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to examine survey responses from a sample of 302 local government employees within the United States.

Understanding Team Effectiveness in Culturally Intelligent Intercultural Teams

Scott Reitz | 2015


Globalization has stimulated unprecedented global migration, creating and demanding cultural diversity in organizations and in their teams. Organizations today are increasingly diverse, and intercultural teams are no longer multinational concepts alone. Within national borders, populations are increasingly diverse, and organizational teams reflect this diversity. Regardless of how small cultural differences appear, they have the potential to create significant differences in how teams communicate, perform, and make decisions. Livermore (2009) argued that no two team members respond to the same cultural value in the same way. The current study expands the understanding of how culturally intelligent intercultural teams view effectiveness by identifying key themes drawn from episodic interviews with team members. The more significant emergent themes is the firmly held belief that effective intercultural teams require trust, shared values, service to others, and a respect for team and team members.

Self Efficacy in the Leadership of Jesus’ Disciples: An Inner Texture Socio-Rhetorical Analysis of the Gospel According to John

Davina Sandifer | 2015


Leadership development is a well-known component of successful organizations. As such, leadership development programs are a viable solution for equipping employees with desired skills and characteristics. This study assessed self-efficacy as a generalizable methodology for creating effective leadership development programs. The premise was based on the validity, reliability, predictability, and generalizability of self-efficacy theory and measurement instruments. Through inner texture sociorhetorical analysis of self-efficacy in the leadership development of Jesus’ disciples, sources of efficacy and corresponding learning activities were identified. The following components of self-efficacy in the disciples’ leadership development process were found: the use of a prevalent source of efficacy to cultivate belief in specific thematic content, the utilization of multiple sources of efficacy to cultivate belief in specific thematic content, the use of a prevalent learning activity for specific thematic content, the use of a variety of learning activities to cultivate efficacy as it relates to each category of thematic content, an organized progression of the content, and learning activities facilitated by an authoritative figure. These components were adapted into the self-efficacy leadership development model, a methodology for creating leadership development programs that utilizes sources of efficacy in determining what learning content and learning activities will be most effective in accomplishing leadership development goals.

Twelve Steps Toward Leader Humility: A Sociorhetorical Analysis of Benedict of Nursia’s Chapter on Humility

Jake Stum | 2015


This inductive, qualitative research study explored the construct of leader humility within the context of organizational leadership as demonstrated in the writings of Benedict of Nursia, specifically Chapter 7 of Rule of Saint Benedict. This study further sought to understand factors of humility and answer the following three research questions: What is the process of humility development as described in Chapter 7 of the Rule of Saint Benedict? Do the descriptions of organizational humility provided by Galbraith and Galbraith (2004) effectively define the construct of organizational humility promoted by the Rule of Saint Benedict? How does the organizational humility proposed by Benedict reflect or challenge current models of humility in organizational research? The research method employed in this study emerged from the theoretical approach of hermeneutics as described by Gadamer (2004) and Patton (2002), using sociorhetorical critical analysis (Robbins, 1996a) as the interpretative method with a focus on both the inner textuality and the intertextuality of Chapter 7 of the Rule. Following Robbins’ (1996b) recommended framework, the applied analyses included separate study of inner texts and intertexts. Inner texture analysis included (a) repetitive, (b) progressive, (c) narrational, (d) open-middle-closing, and (e) argumentative textures and patterns. Intertexture exploration included (a) oral-scribal, (b) cultural, (c) social, and (d) historical analysis. A progressive, descriptive model of leader humility emerged to indicate a process of development including the following steps: (a) revelation, (b) commitment, (c) abnegation, (d) submission, (e) patience, (f) honesty, (g) contentment, (h) dependency, (i) measured speech, and (g) saturation. A discussion of the research findings and implications for contemporary organizational leadership is included in addition to potential study limitations and possible future research related to this topic.

Traditionally Inherited Leadership Among the Ewes in Togo, West Africa—Reasons and Beliefs: Building an Integrative Approach

Boniface Toulassi | 2015


Leadership in Africa is still characterized by authoritarian durability—a perpetual presidential incumbency syndrome. To have a deeper understanding of this phenomenon, this dissertation used problem-focused ethnographic methods to investigate reasons and beliefs associated with inherited leadership and how agapao leadership and hope theory could be useful in the construction of an integrative approach to Ewe leadership with shared and participative leadership among the Ewe-Mina in Togo, West Africa. The study (N = 65) employed participant observation, directed observation, and interview-based participant listening with chiefs, queens, notables, royal family, youth, and a district officer to collect rich qualitative data. After coding emergent themes and categories, thick descriptions of Ewe leadership formed a foundation for analysis. Emergent themes were first analyzed using indigenous typologies and then analyst-constructed typologies before being interpreted to present an indigenous portrayal of the characteristics of the Ewe traditionally inherited leadership, its roles, and concerns—and how decisions are made. Royal ancestorship, Zipki, and Fa indicated inheritance and support for the Duto, who, with a successful role play of functional lordship and leadership, facilitates balance and control of power through his prerogative to approve or not any chief appointed by the royal council. Though hierarchical, the flow of information and communication is facilitated by a traditional organ, Kpavi, which is a framework for collegiality, participation, and representation from the people. Though male-dominated, Ewe leadership is open to youth leadership and a substantial growing female leadership with a special focus on female development and emancipation. Data also pointed at critical changes, compelling chiefs to derive their respect and worth from pragmatist and utilitarian angles of instead of from its institutionality. Drawing from the data, suggestions are offered regarding the integration of theory (agapao and hope) and leadership in the construction of the Ewe integrative approach (Togbui, Mama, and Sohefia) keeping Kpavi as a way to claim important traditional aspects.

Development of the Authentic Followership Profile (AFP) Test Instrument

Leroy P. VanWhy | 2015


Until recently, the concept of followership has been a relatively general term; an individual who was not a leader was a follower. However, just as differing types of leadership theories have emerged, followership theories are an evolving concept. One such theory is authentic followership (AF), which has only started to emerge in the last decade. Although scholars such as Avolio and Reichard (2008); de Zilwa (2014); Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, May, and Walumbwa (2005); and Goffee and Jones (2006) have developed various models and conceptualizations of AF, to date, there has been no empirical instrument to measure the construct (de Zilwa, 2014). The current research developed and validated a Authentic Followership Profile (AFP) instrument using the attributes that the aforementioned authors used to describe an authentic follower. A panel of five subject matter experts was enlisted to help define a more concise list of attributes of AF from 155 characteristics extracted from the literature. After review and adjudication, the list was narrowed to 74 items that were submitted to a sample participation group via an online survey; 301 completed responses were received. To establish test criterion-related validity, a 20-item test instrument for courageous followership (Dixon, 2003, 2006; Muhlenbeck, 2012) and a nine-item test instrument measuring antisocial behaviors (Fields, 2002; Robinson & O’Leary-Kelly, 1998) were included in the survey that established, as expected, a positive and negative correlation to AF. Component factor analysis results revealed four distinct components within the 74 characteristics that explained 52.48% of the variance. The four components include internalized moral perspective, self-awareness, relational transparency, and psychological ownership, which closely parallel the construct of authentic leadership (Northouse, 2013; Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008) as anticipated. Reliability is very strong with Cronbach’s alphas of .84, .83, .81, and .85, respectively. The final AFP scale contains 23 items. The results of this research open a previously unavailable avenue for future scholarly exploration, as well as potential practitioner application for employee evaluation on this important followership construct.

A Situational Examination of Motivation to Lead: Gendered Implications in Leader Development

Teresa Watson | 2015


Previous research studies have indicated that there are fewer women than men in leadership positions. The causes for this are less understood. This study adopted a different approach to reviewing the situation by focusing on the leader development aspect of motivation to lead (MTL) and whether or not it is impacted by environmental aspects of the organization in the forms of political perceptions, relationships with a current leader, and work-family conflicts. Each of these factors has been shown to have a relationship with gender. This research investigated whether or not gender affects their relationship with a composite form of MTL by examining gender as a moderator variable. Data from a sample of employed individuals in different industries, including government, partially support some hypothesized relationships between MTL, leader-member exchange, and political perceptions. Gender implications are discussed. Limitations and future research for MTL and leader development are addressed.

An Examination of Leadership Charisma From the Perspective of the Apostle Paul and Max Weber With a View Toward an Ecclesial Charismatic Leadership Theory: A Sociorhetorical Interpretation of 1 Corinthians 12

William D. West | 2015


This qualitative study examines the concept of charisma found in 1 Corinthians 12 with a view toward exploring an ecclesial charismatic leadership theory. The sociorhetorical method of interpretation is the primary exegetical method used to explore 1 Corinthians 12. The specific concepts of spiritual gifts presented in 1 Corinthians 12 have long been examined by theologians throughout the history of the church. However, very few articles or books have considered the Pauline concept of charisma as the power and authority the Holy Spirit provides to each individual within the ecclesia. It is the charisma that not only brings the spiritual gift but also provides the power and authority for the individual to provide leadership within the ecclesia through the use of his or her particular spiritual gift for the common good. Paul is credited with coining the term charisma which is grossly misappropriated by Weber (1903/1978). Paul considered power and authority within charisma to be from God and immutable, while Weber described power and authority as being held by the followers who retain the potential for withdrawal by the followers. The sociorhetorical interpretation of 1 Corinthians 12 reveals a model for ecclesial charismatic leadership that begins with God who provides the charisma to each individual of the ecclesia through the indwelling of the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit provides each individual with a particular spiritual gift. Once the individual understands his or her particular spiritual gift and expresses the gift, two things happen. First, the individual fulfills the individual goal for which his or her spiritual gift is given. Second, as each individual expresses his or her spiritual gift, the organizational goal of the common good of the ecclesia is achieved. Therefore, the expression of each individual’s spiritual gift results in greater organizational commitment for the individual and greater overall organizational effectiveness of the ecclesia.