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The Four Cs of Christian Leadership

This paper examines the role of calling (doing what God wants you to), competence (being good at what you do), confidence (knowing what you can accomplish in the context), and character (“good” traits) with the purpose of showing that character, while important, is the fourth in the sequence of the four. The paper draws from both Old Testament and New Testament examples of success based on each of the four Cs. The premise of the paper is that with each successful level of the four Cs, greater success happens. An organization’s leadership development program may be informed by this paper in that developing-leaders should first be filtered/selected by their sense of calling, followed then by education and training to increase their competence. Then, developing leaders can receive counseling and education to increase their confidence and finally, developing leaders can be coached, measured, critiqued, and developed in character traits.

The Four Cs of Christian Leadership

A panel discussion at Regent University in 2002 during a doctoral residency program attempted to answer the question “What is Christian Leadership,” and while concepts of qualities, characteristics, capabilities, and behaviors were addressed, the question seemed to be unanswered at the end. As a participant of this panel, I was left with a gnawing uneasiness about what constituted a Christian or “Bible-based” leader. It was during a 10-hour automobile drive with my spouse that the answer began to emerge. My spouse stated her observation that some character-flawed old-testament leaders seemed to be blessed by God and that didn’t seem to fit the general notion that “good” leaders are high-character leaders. It was from this point that I began the search to understand what a Christian leader is and found four key elements in sequence – Calling, or doing the will of God, Competence, or doing what you do well, Confidence, or knowing what you can do by yourself and what you can do with God’s help, and Character, or living a life according to Old Testament and New Testament character values. This paper presents these four along with a review of the literature on “what is a Christian Leader.”


It seems appropriate to begin with Jesus’ words. John 5:30 records Jesus’ statement “I can do nothing on My own initiative. As I hear, I judge; and My judgment is just, because I do not seek My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me.” What is translated as “will” in the last sentence is qelema (Thelema) that implies what God wishes or commands. The same word occurs eight times in the Gospel of John:

Table 1: Occurrences of qelema (Thelema) (will) in the Gospel of John

Verse Text
John 1:13 “who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God (NAS).”
John 4:34 Jesus said to them, “My food is to do the will of Him who sent Me, and to accomplish His work.”
John 5:30 “I can do nothing on My own initiative. As I hear, I judge; and My judgment is just, because I do not seek My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me.”
John 6:38 “For I have come down from heaven, not to do My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me.”
John 6:39 “And this is the will of Him who sent Me, that of all that He has given Me I lose nothing, but raise it up on the last day.”
John 6:40 “For this is the will of My Father, that everyone who beholds the Son and believes in Him, may have eternal life; and I Myself will raise him up on the last day.”
John 7:17 “If any man is willing to do His will, he shall know of the teaching, whether it is of God, or whether I speak from Myself.”
John 9:31 “We know that God does not hear sinners; but if anyone is God-fearing, and does His will, He hears him.”


It seems logical that if Jesus stated in different contexts that his purpose is to do the will of God, His Father (calling), then it should be the first order for a Christian leader to comply with the will of God for him/her. However, it is not clear from the verses above how one knows the calling of God. We gain some insight into how one might know the will of God from 1Samuel 3:1-10 in which we find God calling Samuel and Samuel, first believing that Eli had called him and then later learning that God was calling him responded to God, as he was directed by Eli: “Here I am.”

From this it is logical that if one hears from God then we know God’s purpose by direct revelation. From Genisys 39: 1-6 we can see how God’s anointing can be sufficient for success.

Now Joseph had been taken down to Egypt; and Potiphar, an Egyptian officer of Pharaoh, the captain of the bodyguard, bought him from the Ishmaelites, who had taken him down there. The LORD was with Joseph, so he became a successful man. And he was in the house of his master, the Egyptian. Now his master saw that the LORD was with him and {how} the LORD caused all that he did to prosper in his hand. So Joseph found favor in his sight and became his personal servant; and he made him overseer over his house, and all that he owned he put in his charge. It came about that from the time he made him overseer in his house and over all that he owned, the LORD blessed the Egyptian’s house on account of Joseph; thus the LORD’S blessing was upon all that he owned, in the house and in the field. So he left everything he owned in Joseph’s charge; and with him {there} he did not concern himself with anything except the food which he ate. Now Joseph was handsome in form and appearance.

It should be noted that calling is something that comes from God and is not something that one can be educated/trained to receive.


Anecdotal evidence from invited speakers on entrepreneurship at Regent University indicates that those entrepreneurs who went into business as a call from God but who did not know how to do business did well although the entrepreneurs indicate that they made a lot of mistakes. Through their mistakes, these uneducated entrepreneurs say that God took care of them and the problems always seemed to be corrected after initial losses and errors.

In contrast, anecdotal evidence from entrepreneurs who also went into business because of a call from God, but who had an education in business indicated that they were successful. In comparing the two groups, the anecdotal evidence shows that doing what you do well (competence) leads to a higher level of performance.

From the Old Testament beginning in Genesis and moving through the books, the following verses seem to support a need for competence. In Genesis 47:6 we find a call for capable men.

The land of Egypt is at your disposal; settle your father and your brothers in the best of the land, let them live in the land of Goshen; and if you know any capable men among them, then put them in charge of my livestock.

Continuing on in Exodus 31: 1-5 we find God advising Moses that He selected capable (competent) men.

Then the Lord said to Moses, “See, I have chosen Bezalel son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, and I have filled him with the Spirit of God, with skill, ability and knowledge in all kinds of crafts – to make artistic designs for work in gold, silver and bronze, to cut and set stones, to work in wood, and to engage in all kinds of craftsmanship”

In addition, in Exodus 35:25 we see that “skilled” workers were selected to make elements for the tent of meeting. It is interesting to note that preceding this mention of “skilled” the text in Exodus 35:21 says that these people’s hearts were stirred by God (called).

Exodus 35:21: Everyone whose heart stirred him and everyone whose spirit moved him came and brought the LORD’S contribution for the work of the tent of meeting and for all its service and for the holy garments.

Exodus 35:25: All the skilled women spun with their hands, and brought what they had spun, {in} blue and purple {and} scarlet {material} and {in} fine linen. (NAS)

We see in 1Kings 7:14 that it was first wisdom and understanding (competence in thought) and then skill (competence in craft) that preceded Hiram’s employment by King Solomon.

He was a widow’s son from the tribe of Naphtali, and his father was a man of Tyre, a worker in bronze; and he was filled with wisdom and understanding and skill for doing any work in bronze. So he came to King Solomon and performed all his work.

From 1 Chronicles 26:30 and 32 we see reference to the need to have capable people.

1 Chronicles 26:30: As for the Hebronites, Hashabiah and his relatives, 1,700 capable men, had charge of the affairs of Israel west of the Jordan, for all the work of the LORD and the service of the king.

1 Chronicles 26:32: and his relatives, capable men, {were} 2,700 in number, heads of fathers’ {households}. And King David made them overseers of the Reubenites, the Gadites and the half-tribe of the Manassites concerning all the affairs of God and of the king.

Continuing with evidence from the Old Testament, we find in 2 Chronicles 2:7 and 2:13-14 that “skilled” people are needed and desired.

2 Chronicles 2:7: Now send me a skilled man to work in gold, silver, brass and iron, and in purple, crimson and violet {fabrics}, and who knows how to make engravings, to {work} with the skilled men whom I have in Judah and Jerusalem, whom David my father provided.

2 Chronicles 2:13 – 14 Now I am sending Huram-abi, a skilled man, endowed with understanding, the son of a Danite woman and a Tyrian father, who knows how to work in gold, silver, bronze, iron, stone and wood, {and} in purple, violet, linen and crimson fabrics, and {who knows how} to make all kinds of engravings and to execute any design which may be assigned to him, {to work} with your skilled men and with those of my lord David your father.

From Proverbs 22:29 we find a compelling argument for competence.

Do you see a man skilled in his work? He will stand before kings; He will not stand before obscure men.

In Jeremiah 10:9 we find yet another reference to competence in the terms of “craftsman” and “skilled men.”

Beaten silver is brought from Tarshish, And gold from Uphaz, The work of a craftsman and of the hands of a goldsmith; Violet and purple are their clothing; They are all the work of skilled men.

From Ezra 7:1-10 we see that the hand of God was upon him (a calling) that preceded Ezra’s action of studying and practicing the law of the Lord even though the text shows that he was already skilled in the law of Moses.

Now after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia, {there went up} Ezra son of Seraiah, son of Azariah, son of Hilkiah, son of Shallum, son of Zadok, son of Ahitub, son of Amariah, son of Azariah, son of Meraioth, son of Zerahiah, son of Uzzi, son of Bukki, son of Abishua, son of Phinehas, son of Eleazar, son of Aaron the chief priest. This Ezra went up from Babylon, and he was a scribe skilled in the law of Moses, which the LORD God of Israel had given; and the king granted him all he requested because the hand of the LORD his God {was} upon him. Some of the sons of Israel and some of the priests, the Levites, the singers, the gatekeepers and the temple servants went up to Jerusalem in the seventh year of King Artaxerxes. He came to Jerusalem in the fifth month, which was in the seventh year of the king. For on the first of the first month he began to go up from Babylon; and on the first of the fifth month he came to Jerusalem, because the good hand of his God {was} upon him. For Ezra had set his heart to study the law of the LORD and to practice {it}, and to teach {His} statutes and ordinances in Israel.(NAS)

Competence does not always align with doing what is good but can, as we see in Ezekiel 21:31 and in Daniel 8:23, apply to doing what is not considered good but still doing it well.

Exekiel 21:31: I will pour out My indignation on you; I will blow on you with the fire of My wrath, and I will give you into the hand of brutal men, skilled in destruction.

Daniel 8:23: In the latter period of their rule, When the transgressors have run {their course}, A king will arise, insolent and skilled in intrigue.

Colossians 3:34-24 gives a sense of the need to do what we do well, from which we can derive a need for competence.

Whatever you do, work at it with all your heart, as working for the Lord, not for men, since you know that you will receive an inheritance from the Lord as a reward. It is the Lord Christ you are serving.

In summary, the verses presented above all refer to the need to be good at what we do. While from the prior section on calling it is clear that calling without competence can still lead to success – calling with confidence should lead to greater success.


Even with calling and competence, success may not occur to the level that it could if the leader lacks confidence. The notion of confidence is similar to the concept of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1994) in that people perceive their ability to do or not do something. The focus here is on self-perception, rather than reality. While it is possible and probable that perception matches reality, it is perception that drives this concept. Successes and failures contribute to a perception of self-efficacy, although when faced with unfamiliar situations, experience is replaced with self-beliefs of the individual. We can see an account of this in the account of Elijah’s confrontation with Baal’s priests and then Elijah’s subsequent confrontation with Jezebel. In 1 Kings 18 we find Elijah engaging the Priests and challenging them to a contest in which the priests of Baal would call upon their god to bring fire down and light the sacrificial fire. After the priests of Baal failed, Elijah took his turn and increased the difficulty by soaking the wood and the offering with water. Filled with confidence, Elijah prayed and fire came from Heaven and consumed not only the wood and the offering but the entire altar.

1Kings 18:38: Then the fire of the LORD fell and consumed the burnt offering and the wood and the stones and the dust, and licked up the water that was in the trench.

Following this success, the account in 1 Kings 18 says that Elijah then killed the 450 prophets of Baal. This is a demonstration of calling, competence, and confidence. However, following Elijah’s success, which should have increased his perception of his self-efficacy, Elijah learns that Jezebel is angry with him and seeks his demise as accounted in 1Kings 19:1-4. In this account, we see a lack of confidence from Elijah in that while he faced and killed 450 prophets, he now is ready to give up when faced with one woman.

Now Ahab told Jezebel all that Elijah had done, and how he had killed all the prophets with the sword. Then Jezebel sent a messenger to Elijah, saying, “So may the gods do to me and even more, if I do not make your life as the life of one of them by tomorrow about this time.” And he was afraid and arose and ran for his life and came to Beersheba, which belongs to Judah, and left his servant there. But he himself went a day’s journey into the wilderness, and came and sat down under a juniper tree; and he requested for himself that he might die, and said, “It is enough; now, O LORD, take my life, for I am not better than my fathers

From Matthew 14:28-31 we see an example of both confidence and a lack of confidence in the account of Peter asking Jesus to let Peter walk on the water.

Peter said to Him, “Lord, if it is You, command me to come to You on the water.” And He said, “Come!” And Peter got out of the boat, and walked on the water and came toward Jesus. But seeing the wind, he became frightened, and beginning to sink, he cried out, “Lord, save me!” Immediately Jesus stretched out His hand and took hold of him, and said to him, “You of little faith, why did you doubt?”

From this exchange, we can see that calling without competence (presumed that Peter did not get trained in walking on water) but with confidence can lead to success, but that calling without confidence (“little faith” ojligopistiva [oligopistos] as Jesus states) leads to failure.

In Matthew’s gospel we find five references to faith (confidence) relative to Jesus’ healing of the ill and infirmed, but these accounts are not relevant to the focus of this article on the four Cs of leadership. However, we do find a passage in Matthew 17: 14-21 in which Jesus reprimands the disciples for not having enough faith (confidence) in what can be done. In the passage below, note the movement from the child’s father first to the disciples and then, when the disciples did not succeed, to Jesus himself.

Luke 9: 1-6: When they came to the crowd, a man came up to Jesus, falling on his knees before Him and saying, “Lord, have mercy on my son, for he is a lunatic and is very ill; for he often falls into the fire and often into the water. I brought him to Your disciples, and they could not cure him.” And Jesus answered and said, “You unbelieving and perverted generation, how long shall I be with you? How long shall I put up with you? Bring him here to Me.” And Jesus rebuked him, and the demon came out of him, and the boy was cured at once. Then the disciples came to Jesus privately and said, “Why could we not drive it out?” And He said to them, “Because of the littleness of your faith; for truly I say to you, if you have faith the size of a mustard seed, you will say to this mountain, `Move from here to there,’ and it will move; and nothing will be impossible to you. “But this kind does not go out except by prayer and fasting.

Although this may imply that confidence has more impact than competence, we know from Luke 9: 1-6 that Jesus gave the disciples the competence to heal and that the disciples did, in fact, heal.

And He called the twelve together, and gave them power and authority over all the demons and to heal diseases. And He sent them out to proclaim the kingdom of God and to perform healing. And He said to them, “Take nothing for your journey, neither a staff, nor a bag, nor bread, nor money; and do not even have two tunics apiece. Whatever house you enter, stay there until you leave that city. And as for those who do not receive you, as you go out from that city, shake the dust off your feet as a testimony against them.” Departing, they began going throughout the villages, preaching the gospel and healing everywhere.

It seems the disciples were successful with healing (competence and some confidence), but with more confidence, the disciples could have been more successful.

In Acts 11:22-24 we see an account of Barnabas’ success and the ascription of his success to his faith (confidence) ojligopistiva (oligopistos):

The news about them reached the ears of the church at Jerusalem, and they sent Barnabas off to Antioch. Then when he arrived and witnessed the grace of God, he rejoiced and began to encourage them all with resolute heart to remain true to the Lord; for he was a good man, and full of the Holy Spirit and of faith. And considerable numbers were brought to the Lord.

In summary, the verses cited above show that confidence has a contribution to success. From calling comes a large measure of success followed then by competence and then confidence. While each is sufficient, it seems to build as the elements are added together.


In addition to the prior elements of calling, competence, and confidence, character is a key element of Christian (biblical) leadership as evidenced in the passages of Psalms 1 and 15; The Beatitudes, Philemon, 1 Peter, and 2 Peter 1:5-1. Character, although in the fourth position of the four Cs, has a significant amount of material since it seems that there is a general sense that character is the most important. This is not borne out though when one looks at the character of Moses when he killed the Egyptian

Exodus 2:14: But he said, “Who made you a prince or a judge over us? Are you intending to kill me as you killed the Egyptian?” Then Moses was afraid and said, “Surely the matter has become known.”

or in Abraham when he presented his wife as his sister to the King

Genesis 20:2: Abraham said of Sarah his wife, “She is my sister.” So Abimelech king of Gerar sent and took Sarah.

or when David committed adultery. Although there was a severe penalty later in this life, he continued to be successful for quite some time.

2 Samuel 11: 3-4: So David sent and inquired about the woman. And one said, “Is this not Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite?” David sent messengers and took her, and when she came to him, he lay with her; and when she had purified herself from her uncleanness, she returned to her house.

The historical accounts of Ahab indicate that he was successful in that his 11 to 19 year reign, depending on which historical account you read (, produced several cities and intense riches, albeit 1 Kings 16:30 shows that he was not known for good character.

Ahab the son of Omri did evil in the sight of the LORD more than all who were before him.

Thus, from the verses above, we can see that character is not the determinant for success. While Ahab did not show calling or character, he did show competence and confidence, the other referents above showed both calling, competence, and confidence in what they did. The sections that follow show both character and behavior in which the behavior is the outgrowth of the character.

Psalms 1 provides us with a view of the righteous leader who, through his/her beliefs, demonstrates characteristics in line with biblical principles. The passage below shows that a “blessed” leader does not interact with the wicked nor participate with evil people.

Psalms 1:1-6: How blessed is the man who does not walk in the counsel of the wicked, nor stand in the path of sinners, nor sit in the seat of scoffers! But his delight is in the law of the LORD, and on His law he meditates day and night. He will be like a tree firmly planted by streams of water, which yields its fruit in its season and its leaf does not wither; and in whatever he does,he prospers. The wicked are not so, but they are like chaff which the wind drives away. Therefore the wicked will not stand in the judgment, nor sinners in the assembly of the righteous. For the LORD knows the way of the righteous, but the way of the wicked will perish.

While Psalm 1 begins with what not to do and then moves into what to do, Psalm 15 begins with what to do and then moves into what not to do.

Psalm 15: 1-2: O LORD, who may abide in Your tent? Who may dwell on Your holy hill? He who walks with integrity, and works righteousness, and speaks truth in his heart.

The Hebrew that we translate as walk is halak (halak) means to abide and dwell. What we translate as integrity is ~ymt (tamiym) and what we translate as righteousness is qdc (tsedeq) and implies justice in addition to righteousness. From this, it would seem that characteristics of a biblical leader would include integrity and to seek what is right (this will be found again in the section on the beatitudes.

Psalm 15:3 continues from 15:2 and provides a glimpse of what is not done.

He does not slander with his tongue, nor does evil to his neighbor, nor takes up a reproach against his friend;

This concern voiced by the psalmist is not contradictory to the notion of telling the truth, but focuses on righteousness. If one is to confront the problems of another, then one may need to speak to the person about noted problems, but the focus of this has to be (from the inner character) on helping the person. This does not imply that every problem noted has to be spoken. Discretion is, many times, a part of righteousness. If someone needs to hear the truth, then do so with integrity and righteousness.

The psalmist says that the one who wishes to be with God will not do ill to a neighbor but, instead, will do what is good. Note how this ties to Jesus’ words in the Sermon on the Mount that we are to love our neighbor. Note that the Hebrew [r (rea) used in Psalm 15:3 means that your neighbor is one with whom you have a more personal relationship.

The psalmist, after explaining what to do and what not to do moves on to attitudes toward others and self.

Psalm 15:4: In whose eyes a reprobate is despised, but who honors those who fear the LORD; he swears to his own hurt and does not change.

The psalmist implies that those who live with God recognize the differences between those who are “of God” and those who are “not of God.” The resident of the “Holy Hill” dislikes and avoids the vile person but gives honor to those who fear the Lord.

This implies that rewards and honors in our organizations should not be for selling the most or doing the most work or volunteering the most time or giving the most money, but rather to recognize those who fear/revere our Lord. At Regent University, we nominate and select the employee of the month. While some of the characteristics are for doing a lot of work and handling a lot of responsibility, some of the criteria are about living a life that demonstrates a fear/reverence of God. Through Psalm 15 we see that in our organizations where we work, where we attend church, where we live, and in the government that oversees our lives, we need to recognize those who live their lives as a good citizen of the Holy Hill and to see the work that is done as an outgrowth of the right values. Thus, we honor those who demonstrate the values but do not recognize the work.

Likewise, we should not honor those people who make a lot of money or achieve a lot of significance, but who do so by means, methods, and for purposes that are not aligned with the values of the Holy Hill. How often do we hold up musicians, actors/actresses, and wealthy business people as “honorable” when the motives and behaviors of these people are contrary to the values of the Holy Hill?

According to Williams (2002), the psalmist implies that the resident of the Holy Hill does not seek to make immoral gain. Of interest, at the time of the psalmist’s writing, according to Williams, Hebrews were asked not to charge interest when loaning money since the one who needed to borrow did so because they were in financial trouble. Rather, the borrower made a pledge to repay (note the tie to the prior verse about swearing an oath). Williams points out, however, that Hebrews could lend money to non-Hebrews and collect interest.

The psalmist uses a concluding remark to show the underlying value of being a good citizen of the Holy Hill. To not be shaken implies to be on solid ground. To not be dislodged (note the tie to living with God). Of interest, note the similarities to Jesus’ words in the Sermon on the Mount in which Jesus contrasts the builders of the house on the sand versus the builders of the house on the rock. The psalmist presents the idea that living a life according to the values necessary to be a resident of the Holy Hill results in security of position and in blessings, or peace.

Psalms 15:4-5: In whose eyes a reprobate is despised, But who honors those who fear the LORD; He swears to his own hurt and does not change; he does not put out his money at interest, nor does he take a bribe against the innocent. He who does these things will never be shaken.

1Timothy 3 and Titus 1

1 Timothy 3 provides us with the traits and characteristics of a good leader, or overseer as Timothy states.

1 Timothy 3:2-7: An overseer, then, must be above reproach, the husband of one wife, temperate, prudent, respectable, hospitable, able to teach, not addicted to wine or pugnacious, but gentle, peaceable, free from the love of money. He must be one who manages his own household well, keeping his children under control with all dignity (but if a man does not know how to manage his own household, how will he take care of the church of God?), and not a new convert, so that he will not become conceited and fall into the condemnation incurred by the devil. And he must have a good reputation with those outside the church, so that he will not fall into reproach and the snare of the devil.

From verses 2-7 we can see that a good leader must demonstrate integrity. What we translate as reproach is anepileptoß (anepileptos) that means to be caught or arrested. The intent here is not to do what is wrong and not get caught, but rather to do nothing that might lead to getting caught. In other words, live your life in such a manner that no matter how finely your life is scrutinized, you will not be found “in reproach.” In addition, in the passage, we see that a leader must be temperate nefaleoß (nephaleos), meaning to remain sober and not under the influence of alcohol; prudent sofron (sophron), meaning to curb one’s desires; respectable kosmioß (kosmios), meaning to be modest; and hospitable filoxenoß (philoxenos), meaning to be generous to guests. In addition, the passage says that leaders should not be pugnacious plekteß (plektes), meaning to not be quarrelsome, which is similar to the beatitude “to be meek.” In support of this requirement to not be pugnacious is the requirement to be gentle and peaceable. The passage concludes by indicating that the leader must be seen in a positive light by people outside of the organization.In Titus 1 we see a recasting of some of the character elements from 1Timothy 3.

Titus 1:5-6: For this reason I left you in Crete, that you would set in order what remains and appoint elders in every city as I directed you, namely, if any man is above reproach, the husband of one wife, having children who believe, not accused of dissipation or rebellion. For the overseer must be above reproach as God’s steward, not self-willed, not quick-tempered, not addicted to wine, not pugnacious, not fond of sordid gain, but hospitable, loving what is good, sensible, just, devout, self-controlled, holding fast the faithful word which is in accordance with the teaching, so that he will be able both to exhort in sound doctrine and to refute those who contradict.

In the Titus passage, we see parallels for being above reproach and the addition of not being accused of dissipation or living a life of waste and excess as well as avoiding rebellion, which from the Greek anupotaktoß (anupotaktos) means to resist being under control. This last point is interesting in that it establishes a character trait of knowing that we are all under authority to someone in the organization.


James helps us understand the character of a leader by admonishing us to listen well, react in a controlled manner, similar to what the beatitude “blessed are the meek” calls for, to be humble, which is akin to the beatitude “blessed are the poor in spirit,” to be active rather than passive, and controlled in his speech.

James 1:19-27: This you know, my beloved brethren. But everyone must be quick to hear, slow to speak and slow to anger; for the anger of man does not achieve the righteousness of God. Therefore, putting aside all filthiness and all that remains of wickedness, in humility receive the word implanted, which is able to save your souls. But prove yourselves doers of the word, and not merely hearers who delude themselves. For if anyone is a hearer of the word and not a doer, he is like a man who looks at his natural face in a mirror; for once he has looked at himself and gone away, he has immediately forgotten what kind of person he was. But one who looks intently at the perfect law, the law of liberty, and abides by it, not having become a forgetful hearer but an effectual doer, this man will be blessed in what he does. If anyone thinks himself to be religious, and yet does not bridle his tongue but deceives his own heart, this man’s religion is worthless. Pure and undefiled religion in the sight of our God and Father is this: to visit orphans and widows in their distress, and to keep oneself unstained by the world.

1 Peter and 2 Peter

Our list of characteristics continues with the assistance of 1 Peter 2:1.

1 Peter 2:1: Therefore, putting aside all malice and all deceit and hypocrisy and envy and all slander.

From this one verse we see that the leader should avoid intention to harm, dishonesty, inappropriate speech, and covetousness. In addition, the leader should be of integrity and not say one thing but do another (hypocrisy).

From 2 Peter 1:5 we find both character traits and actions.

2 Peter 1:5: Now for this very reason also, applying all diligence, in your faith supply moral excellence, and in your moral excellence, knowledge, and in your knowledge, self-control, and in your self-control, perseverance, and in your perseverance, godliness, and in your godliness, brotherly kindness, and in your brotherly kindness, love.

Peter calls for us to show moral excellence although he does not define moral in terms that we can measure. Presuming that we can measure it, according to Peter, we should be able to achieve knowledge and then self-control, which seems to be a character trait in that the word for self-control is egkrateia (egkrateia) that is translated as the virtue of one who masters his desires. This sense of self-control is similar to what we found in 1Timothy 3.

Character Summary

From the passages above, a leader needs the following character traits (there are duplications in the list since the list reflects the character traits presented above): (a) integrity, (b) righteous, (c) truthful, (d) helpful, (e) discrete, (f) desire to do good, (g) discriminating, (h) integrity, (i) sober, ( j) prudent, (k) respectable, (l) hospitable, (m) not quarrelsome, (n) above reproach, (o) not wasteful/dissipative, (p) submits to control, (q) listens well, (r) controls one’s speech, (s) avoids intention to harm, (t) avoids dishonesty, (u) avoids inappropriate speech, (v) is not covetous, (w) avoids hypocrisy, (x) morally excellent, and (y) self-controlled.


This paper presented the four Cs of Christian/biblical leadership in a hierarchy of first: Calling, second: Competence, third: Confidence, and fourth: Character. The premise of this paper is that with each successful level of the four Cs, greater success happens. The paper is limited in that there may well be many more examples of the four Cs in the Old and New Testaments and it is not the intent of this paper to be exhaustive, but to present and support the concepts of the four Cs.

An organization’s leadership development program may be informed by this paper in that developing leaders should first be filtered/selected by their sense of calling and calling, followed then by education and training to increase their competence. Then developing leaders can receive counseling and education to increase their confidence and finally, developing leaders can be coached, measured, critiqued and developed in character traits.

Future research may include grounded theory about these four Cs as well as case studies of exemplary leaders who demonstrate the four Cs and subsequently, after more detailed operationalization of the concepts instruments, may be developed to measure a leader’s attainment of each of the four Cs.


Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press.

Williams, D. (2002) The Preacher’s Commentary #13 Psalms 1-72. Thomas Nelson Publishing.

About the Author

Dr. Bruce Winston has been a part of Regent University since 1991 with the School of Business & Leadership (SBL). He serves as director of the Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership program and teaches in the Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership and Doctor of Strategic Leadership programs. Dr. Winston served as dean of the school from 2006-2013 and is active in the GLE seminars and conferences. His research interests include servant leadership, organizational development and transformation, leadership development, distance education and technology in higher education.

Ph.D. Student Publications

Students enrolled in the Ph.D. program in the School of Business & Leadership are provided opportunities to engage in research, writing, presentations and other scholarly activities in the early stages of their academic studies. Our emphasis on publishing and presentations permits our students to:

  • Pursue their research interests with viable ends
  • Collaborate with faculty, student colleagues and other external resources
  • Gain exposure to national and international academic conferences
  • Build a curriculum vitae

Listed below are some of the most current works and activities of our Ph.D. students.

2016 January – December

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • Åkerlund, T. (2016). Missional Leadership: A Critical Review of the Research Literature. Australasian Pentecostal Studies, 18. Retrieved from
  • Åkerlund, T. (2016). “To live lives worthy of God:” Leadership and Spiritual Formation in 1 Thessalonians 2:1-12. Journal of Spiritual Formation & Soul Care, 9(1), 18–34.
  • Åkerlund, T. (2016). “When the Fire Fell”: Historical and Narrative Perspectives on the Charismatic Leadership of T. B. Barratt. PentecoStudies, 15(1), 7–24.
  • Huizinga, R. B. (2016). Breaking Faith: A Quantitative Examination of Followership During Termination. Journal of Strategic and International Studies, 11(2), 5–14.
  • Huizinga, R. B. (2016). An Understanding of Humility-Based Leadership Impacting Organizational Climate. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 9(1), 34–44.

2015 January – December

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • Åkerlund, T. (2015). Pentekostale former for ledelse i fortid og framtid. In K. I. Tangen & K.-W. Sæther (Eds.), Pentekostale perspektiver (Vol. 23, pp. 187–202). Bergen, Norway: Fagbokforlaget.
  • Åkerlund, T. (2015). Son, sent, and servant: Johannine perspectives on servant leadership theory. Scandinavian Journal of Leadership and Theology, 2. Retrieved from
  • Roof, R. A. (2015). The association of individual spirituality on employee engagement: The Spirit at work. Journal of Business Ethics, 130(3), 585-599. DOI 10.1007/s10551-014-2246-
  • Perry, A. (2015). Lift up the lowly and bring down the exalted: Gender studies, organizations, and the Ethiopian eunuch. Journal of Religious Studies 14(1), 45-66. and development. Journal of Practical Consulting, 5(2), 19-28.
  • Starbuck, C. R. (2015). An investigation of the relationship between follower perceptions of leader openness to experience and follower job satisfaction. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communication and Conflict, 19(1), 118-130.
  • Martin, R. (2015). Exploration of the research and development of the concept of followership since 2008: The importance of relationships and emotional intelligence. Sage Open, (October-December 2015: 1–9, DOI: 10.1177/2158244015608421)

Academic Presentations

  • Roof, R. A. (2015). Spiritual Self-Care: The Power of Spiritual Disciplines for Leadership Development. Workshop within the Leadership & Organizational Psychology track of The American Association of Christian Counselors’ (AACC) World Conference, Nashville, TN, September 2015.
  • Watley, B. (2015). A Theoretical Framework for Examining the Effects of Innovation Training. Presentation at the Autonomous Learning World Caucus, Oxford, England, March 2015.
  • Hernandez-Hernandez, C. N. A. (2015). Implementing ISO17025 in a research laboratory: A study case of episodic change. Conference: XII Coloquio Internacional de Cuerpos Académicos y Grupos de Investigación en Análisis Organizacional, At San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chis. México, Volume: XII
  • Hernandez-Hernandez, C. N. A. (2015). Ethical development for insurance sales agents: Insights from stewardship theory. Conference: XII Coloquio Internacional de Cuerpos Académicos y Grupos de Investigación en Análisis Organizacional, At San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chis. México, Volume: XII.
  • Malangwasira, T. E. (2015). The moderating effects of strategic thinking on the relationship between self-directed learning and leader effectiveness in small organizations. Presentations at the Autonomous Learning World Caucus: Autonomous Learning: Human Resource Development: Organizational Leadership: Education. Worfson College and Exeter College, University of Oxford, England. UK. March, 2015.

2014 January – December

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • Åkerlund, T. (2014). Leadership in Corinth: Reciprocity and leader-member exchange in 2 Corinthians 6:11-13. Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership, 6(1), 162–175.
  • Åkerlund, T. (2014). Preaching as Christian leadership: The story, the sermon, and the prophetic imagination. Journal of Religious Leadership, 13(1), 79–97.
  • Ling, S., Huizinga, R., Mayo, P., Larouche, R., Freitag, D., Aspeslet, L., & Foster, R. (2014). Cytochrome P450 3A and P-glycoprotein drug-drug interactions with voclosporin. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 77(6), 1039–1050.
  • Mayo, P., Ling, S., Huizinga, R., Freitag, D., Aspeslet, L., & Foster, R. (2014). Population PKPD of voclosporin in renal allograft patients. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 54(5), 537–545.
  • Toulassi, B. (2014). Understanding chaordic groups in Africa: Christian responses. International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship, 1(12), 188-213.
  • Toulassi, B. (2014). Does global leadership mean ‘no leadership’? International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship, 1(12), 340-351. Full Text PDF:
  • Ball, R. (2014). Christian leadership and the crippling effect of narcissism: A historical intertexture analysis of Judges 13-16. Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership 6(1), 16-26.
  • Roof, R. A. (2014). Authentic leadership questionnaire (ALQ) psychometrics. Asian Journal of Business Ethics, 3(1), 57-64. DOI 10.1007/s13520-013-0031-2

Academic Presentations

  • Huizinga, R. B. (2014). Courage to Act: A Study of Nehemiah’s Actions in Nehemiah 2: 4-9. In Regent University 9th Annual Biblical Perspectives in Leadership Roundtable.
  • Watley, B. (2014). Scale Development: Innovative Behavior Instrument. Presentation at the Autonomous Learning World Caucus, Oxford, England, March 2014.
  • Watley, B. (2014). Experiential Learning in Entrepreneurship Education. Presentation at the International Assembly of Collegiate Business Education (IACBE) National Conference, San Diego, CA, April 2014.
  • Starbuck, C. R. (2014). An Investigation of the Relationship between Follower Perceptions of Leader Openness to Experience and Follower Job Satisfaction. Allied Academics International Conference, Nashville, TN.
  • Fletcher, P. (2014). Ethical Leadership’s Influence on the Organizational Identity of Narcissism: A Socio-Rhetorical Analysis of 2 Chronicles 30:1-27. Presentation at Virtual Conference on Moral Leadership, Regent University, December 2014. Retrieved from

2013 January – December

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • Ling, S. Y., Huizinga, R. B., Mayo, P. R., Freitag, D. G., Aspeslet, L. J., & Foster, R. T. (2013). Pharmacokinetics of voclosporin in renal impairment and hepatic impairment. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 53(12), 1303–1312. doi:10.1002/jcph.166.
  • Malangwasira, T. E. (2013). Demographic differences between a leader and followers tend to inhibit leader-follower exchange levels and job satisfaction. Journal of organizational culture, communication and conflict, 17(2), 63-106.
  • Mayo, P. R., Huizinga, R. B., Ling, S. Y., Freitag, D. G., Aspeslet, L. J., & Foster, R. T. (2013). Voclosporin food effect and single oral ascending dose pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in healthy human subjects. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 53(8), 819–26. doi:10.1002/jcph.114.
  • Tonkin, T., (2013). God’s timeless change management plan: An exegetical view of Revelation 19. The American Journal of Biblical Theology, 14(02).
  • Tonkin, T., (2013, Winter). Authentic versus transformational leadership: Assessing their effectiveness on organizational citizenship behavior of followers. International Journal of Business and Public Administration, In-press.

Academic Presentations

  • Watley, B. (2013). The Effects of Innovation Training on Individual Innovative Behaviors. Presentation at the Autonomous Learning World Caucus, Oxford, England, March 2013.
  • Watley, B. (2013). Enlarging the World of Entrepreneurial Studies. Presentation at the International Assembly of Collegiate Business Education (IACBE) National Conference, Orlando, FL, April 2013.
  • Watley, B. (2013). Antecedents of Individual Innovative Behaviors. Presentation at the Conclave for Leadership Research and Analysis, Regent University.
  • Toulassi, B. (2013). Moral leadership: The morality of leadership. Regent University.
  • Roof, R. A. (2014). Decisions in Context: How Culture Shapes the Decision Process. Presentation [virtual] at the Thirteenth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, June 2013.
  • Malangwasira, T. E. (2013). Faith in Uncertain Times for Christian Leadership: A Social-rhetorical Analysis Based on Hebrews 11:23-29. Presentation at the 2013 Biblical Perspectives Roundtable, Regent University, May 2013.
  • Roof, R. A. (2013). Born or made? The influence of personality on leadership effectiveness. Presentation at the American Association of Christian Counselors (AACC) World Conference, Leadership Coaching and Organizational Psychology Track, September 2013.
  • Tuggle, M., (2013). Training in the workplace: A self-directed learning model. International Academy of Business and Public Administration Disciplines (IABPAD), 2013 Proceedings, Las Vegas, NV.
  • Tonkin, T., (2013). Assessing Innovation in the Boardroom:Evidence for a Dual Process Model of Creativity Judgement with the Context of Innovation. International Academy of Business and Public Administration Disciplines (IABPAD), 2013 Proceedings, Dallas, TX.
  • Tonkin, T., (2013). The Effects of Locus of Control and Gender on Implicit Leadership Perception. International Leadership Association (ILA) Women and Leadership Affinity Group Inaugural Conference, 2013 Conference Proceedings Pacific Grove, CA.

2012 January – December

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • Watley, B. (2012). Transformational power of divine empowerment: An intertexture analysis of Acts 2; (Published). Emerging Leadership Journeys (ELJ), 5(3), Spring 2012.
  • Huizing, R. L. (2012). Mentoring Together: A Literature Review of Group Mentoring. Mentoring and Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 20(1), 27-55.
  • Huizing, R. L. (2012). In Search of a Healthy Church: A Meta-Ethnographic Study. Great Commission Research Journal, 4(1), 43-59.
  • Caulton, J.R. (2012). The Development and Use of the Theory of ERG: A Literature Review. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 5(1).
  • Holloway, J. B. (2012). Leadership Behavior and Organizational Climate: An Empirical Study in a Non-Profit Organization, Emerging Leaders Journey, 5(1), 9-35.
  • Holloway, J. B. (2012). Jesus as Agent of Change and Guiding. The American Journal of Biblical Theology, 13(24).
  • David Hartley (Cohort 2007). Sun Tzu and Command Assessment: A Study on Commander’s Courage, The International Journal of Leadership Studies, 6, 2, 263-273.
  • Daniels, T. L. (2011). Decision Making in Afrocentric and Eurocentric Organizations, Journal of Black Studies, 43(3), 324-335.
  • Huizing, R. (2011). Bringing Christ to the table of leadership: Moving towards a theology of leadership. Journal of Applied Christian Leadership, 5(2), 58-75.
  • Gandolfi, F., Renz, L., Hansson, M., & Davenport, J. (2012). Post-downsizing implications and consequences: a global perspective. In C. Cooper, A. Pandey & J. Quick (Eds.), Downsizing: is less still more. (356-388). Cambridge University Press.
  • Metheny, G. (2012). Christian Stewardship. Gospel Advocate, 154(8), 34-35.

Academic Presentations

  • Toulassi, B. (2012). Educational Leadership: Educational Renaissance in Francophone Africa. Riverside University, California. GLOBAL Mindset Development In leadership and Management Conference. Proceedings, 3, p. 69.
  • Tonkin, T., O’Connell, P., & Cole, D. (2012). Bridging the Gap for Women Leaders: The Perfect Storm for Shattering The Glass Ceiling. International Leadership Association (ILA) Global Conference, Denver, CO
  • Lenz, K. (2012). Cultural impact of entrepreneurial influencing tactics between America and Ghana. United States Association of Small Business & Entrepreneurship. New Orleans.
  • Bryant, D. W. (2012). Exploring Approaches to Understanding the Spiritual/Religious Entrepreneur. Presentation at 2012 Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Boston, MA., August 2012.
  • Coggins, E., & Bocarnea, M. (2011). Testing Servant Leadership Theory with Cambodian Students. Presentation at the 2011 Annual Servant Leadership Roundtables, Regent University, May 2011.
  • Coggins, E. (2011). The Christian Virtues – Characteristics of Christian Followers. Presentation at the Journal of Biblical Perspectives of Leadership Roundtables, Regent University, May 2011.
  • Coggins, E. (2012). Contrasting Leadership Styles in Postexilic Judaism – A Comparative Analysis of Ezra 9:1-5 and Nehemiah 13:23-27. Presentation at the Journal of Biblical Perspectives of Leadership Roundtable, Regent University, May 2012.
  • Coggins, E. & Bocarnea, M. (2012). The Potential Impact of Servant Leadership on Followers’ Psychological Capital – A Literature Review and General Conceptual Framework. Presentation at the Servant Leadership Roundtable, Regent University, May 2012.
  • Coggins, E. & Bocarnea, M. (2012). Exploring the Relationship between Servant Leadership and Psychological Capital in Two Diverse Eastern and Western Cultures. Presentation at the 2nd Global Servant Leadership Research Roundtable, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, June 2012.
  • Holloway, J. B. (2012). Leadership Behavior and Organizational Climate: An Empirical Study in a Non-Profit Organization, presented at the 2nd Annual Mid-Atlantic Leadership Conference, Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA, March 2012.
  • Holloway, J. B. (2012). The Controversy Surrounding Emotional Intelligence, A Panel Discussion, presented at the 2nd Annual Mid-Atlantic Leadership Conference, Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA, March 2012.
  • Tonkin, T. (2011). Authentic versus Transformational Leadership: Assessing their Effectiveness on Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Followers. International Academy of Business and Public Administration Disciplines (IABPAD), 2012 Proceedings, Orlando, FL. Recipient of the International Academy of Business and Public Administration Disciplines (IABPAD) Research Award (2012) for the research study.
  • Bosch, D. A. (2011). Divine Empowered Leadership: An Intertextual Analysis of Acts 2. Presentation at the Biblical Perspectives in Leadership Roundtable, Regent University, May 13-15, 2011.
  • Bosch, D. A. (2012). The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Leader-Follower Work Value Congruence. Presentation at the Conclave for Leadership Research and Analysis, Regent University, May 11-13, 2012.
  • David Hartley (Cohort 2007). Scale Development and the Courage Intentions of the Adult Self-directed Leader, Northeastern Association of Business, Economics and Technology, October 2011.
  • David Hartley (Cohort 2007). Courage Intentions of the Adult Self-directed Leader, Autonomous Learning World Caucus, Oxford England, March 2010.
  • David Hartley (Cohort 2007). Components of Commanders Courage, Northeastern Association of Business, Economics and Technology, October, 2009.
  • Babyak, A. T. (2012). An Exploratory Investigation of Self-Directed Learning in Senegal, West Africa and its Implications for Human Resource Development. The Autonomous Learning World Caucus, University of Oxford, UK, March 12, 2012.
  • Babyak, A. T. (2012). An Unquenchable Thirst for Learning in the Desert: Senegal, West Africa. Conclave of Leadership Research and Analysis, Regent University, May 11, 2012.
  • Methany, G. (2012). The Critical and Creative Thinking Process with an HRD Perspective. The Autonomous Learning World Caucus, University of Oxford, UK, March 13, 2012.
  • Methany, G. (2012). Critical Thinking: An Empirical Examination? Presentation at the Conclave for Leadership Research and Analysis, Regent University, May 11-13, 2012.

2011 January – December

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • Rohm, R. (2011). Cross-Cultural Virtual Team Development and Motivation. International Leadership Journal.
  • Huizing, R. L. (2011). What was Paul thinking? An ideological study of 1 Timothy 2. Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership, 3(2), 14-22.
  • Sonny Mathew (Cohort 2007): “Leading Across Global Cultures through Servant Leadership.” Leadership Advance Online, XIX.
  • Winston, B., & Tucker, P. A. (2011). The Beatitudes as leadership virtues. Virtuous Journal, 2(1), Regent University, Virginia Beach, Virginia.
  • Ma, A. & Osula B. (2011). The Tao of complex adaptive systems (CAS). Chinese Management Studies, 5 (1), 94 – 110. doi: 10.1108/17506141111118480
  • Ma, A. (2010). The Effect of a Cross-Cultural Leadership Training Program on the Cultural Intelligence Score of Chinese Students, Global Studies Journal. 3(1), 213-232. Retrieved from :
  • Harrison, J.L. (2011). Female roles in leadership and the ideological texture of 1 Timothy 2: 9-15, Journal of Inner Resources for Leaders, 3(1), 1-9.
  • Harrison, J.L. (2011). Instructor leadership and student outcomes, Emerging Leadership Journeys, 4(1), 91-119.
  • Harrison, J.L. (2011). Moral global Leadership and the Seven Capital Sins: Pride vs. Humility, Annual Virtual Conference on Moral Leadership. Virginia Beach, VA: Regent University.
  • Tomlinson, J. C., & Winston, B. E. (2011). Romans 12 motivational gifts and college professors: Implications for job satisfaction and person-job fit. Christian Higher Education, 10, 45-56.
  • Huizing, R. L. (2011). The Effects of God Control on Cognitive Resource Theory. International Journal of the Academic Business World, 4(2), 55-65.
  • Huizing, R. L. (2011). The Seasons of Ecclesial Leadership: A New Pardigm. Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership, 3(1), 81-90.
  • Huizing, R. L. (2011). Leaders from Disciples: The Church’s Contribution to Leadership Development. Evangelical Review of Theology, 35(4), 333-344
  • Steven Crowther (Cohort 2008). Integral Biblical Leadership. Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership, volume 3 issue 2, pages 60-76, School of Global Leadership and Entrepreneurship Regent University, Summer 2011.

Academic Presentations

  • Rohm, F. W. (2010). 3M under James McNerney: A Case Study in Servant Leadership. 2010 CBFA Conference, October 2010.
  • Rohm, F. W. & Osula, B. (2010). Scouting and Servant Leadership. 2010 Annual Roundtables of Leadership Research and Practice, Regent University, May 2010.
  • Huizing, R. (2010). The Effects of God-control on Cognitive Resource Theory. Academic Business World International Conference & International Conference on Learning and Administration in Higher Education, 2010 Proceedings, [PGS], Nashville, TN. Received a Presentation Excellence Award and Best Paper Award.
  • Huizing, R. (2010). Mentoring together: A literature review of group mentoring. Northeastern Association of Business, Economics and Technology 33rd Annual Meeting, 2010 Proceedings, State College, PA.
  • Tucker, P. (2011, March). College Students with Learning Disabilities: The effects of Autonomous Learning Theories to Succeed: Presentation at the Autonomous Learners World Caucus Roundtable Discussion, OxfordUniversity, Oxford, England.
  • Tucker, P. (2011, April). Learner Autonomy and Human Resource Developers/Practitioners: St. Leo’s University Human Resource Management class. Dr. Kenneth Moss open forum discussion for graduates.
  • Tucker, P. (2010, May).The Beatitudes as leadership virtues: Presentation at the Servant Leadership Roundtable Forum, Regent University.
  • Tucker, P. (2010, March). A perspective on Self-Efficacious Autonomous Learners, SEAL-Team-8: Presentation at Autonomous Learners World Caucus Roundtable Discussion, Oxford, University, Oxford, England.
  • Steven Crowther (Cohort 2008). Measuring Two of the Fruits of the Spirit, Roundtable Presentation, Biblical Perspectives in Leadership Research, Regent University, May 2011
  • Steven Crowther (Cohort 2008). Humility and Leadership: Relevant Concepts from Benedict of Nursia, Conference Presentation, 2011 Virtual Conference on Moral Leadership: The Classic Virtues in Moral Leadership, Regent University, December 2011

2010 Roundtables of Leadership Research and Practice, Virginia Beach, VA

  • Mathew, Sonny (Cohort 2007). Peter’s Leadership Formation: A Biblical Proto-type for Leader Development. May 16, 2010, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA

First International Conference on the Integration of Spirituality & Organizational Leadership – February 8-10, 2007; University of Delhi, New Delhi, India:

  • Sonny Mathew (Cohort 2007). Spirituality at workplace: Changing management paradigm.”
  • Mathew, S., & Winston, B. E. (2007). Spirituality at workplace: Changing management paradigm. Integrating Spirituality and Organizational Leadership Conference, University of Delhi, India, February 8-10.

Book Chapters

  • Mathew, S., & Winston, B. E. (2007). A study of the role of spirituality in the practice of values at call centers in the U.S. and India: Contrasting the difference between dogmatic religiosity and personal spirituality to promoting universal core values in the workplace. In S. Singh-Sengupta and D. Fields (Eds.) Integrating spirituality and organizational leadership. India: Macmillian Press.

2010 January – December

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • Rohm, F. W. (2010). American and Arab Cultural Lenses. Inner Resources for Leaders.
  • Tucker, P. A. (2010, Winter). Christian Leadership and Prudence: Globally is there a connection? Journal of Biblical Perspectives on Leadership, 3(1). Regent University, Virginia Beach, Virginia.
  • Copeland, M. (2010). Benefits, Limitations and Best Practices of Online Coursework. . . Should Accounting Programs Jump on Board? American Accounting Association, 2010 Northeast Proceedings Publication.
  • Copeland, M. (2010). Marketing and Advertising for the CPA: Leading-Edge Strategies. The CPA Journal, Aug 2010.
  • Copeland, M. (2010). Values Based Leadership. In Gandolfi, F. (ed.) Leadership: Fundamentals, Concepts, and Perspectives, Koln, Germany: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. (accepted and forthcoming in Winter 2010).
  • Vondey, M. The relationships among servant leadership, organizational citizenship behavior, person-organization fit and organizational identification. International Journal of Leadership Studies, (2010). 6(1), 3-27.
  • Riesenmy, K. (cohort 2007). Physician sensemaking and readiness for electronic medicalrecords. The Learning Organization Journal, (2010) 17 (2) 163-177
  • Early, J. & Davenport, J. (Cohort 2008). Desired qualities of leaders within today’s accounting firm. CPA Journal, (2010) vol. 80:3, 59-62.
  • Copeland, M. (Cohort 2008). “Strategies for Developing Entrepreneurs: Nature or Nurture.” MBA Review, (2010). 9(4).
  • Davenport, J. (Cohort 2008). Portfolio diversification: where it goes wrong. Disclosures Journal, (2010) Vol. 23 (4), 18-21.
  • Steven Crowther (Cohort 2008). Implications of Integral Theory for Contemporary Leadership, Leadership Advance Online, volume XX, School of Global Leadership and Entrepreneurship Regent University, December 2010.

2009 January – December

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • Copeland, M. (Cohort 2008). “Marketing and Advertising for the CPA: Leading-Edge Strategies.” The CPA Journal, Aug 2010.
  • Copeland, M. (Cohort 2008). “HR Strategies in Seemingly Adverse Economic Times.” HR Review, (2009). 9(5), pp. 48-53.
  • Copeland, M. (Cohort 2008). “An Entrepreneurial Mindset: The Essential Component for a Competitive Edge.” MBA Review, (2009). 8(7), pp. 32-36.
  • Copeland, M. (Cohort 2008). “The Impact of Authentic, Ethical, Transformational Leadership on Leader Effectiveness.” Southern Management Association 2009 Proceedings Publication
  • Marshal, J. (Cohort 2009). Comparison of Pashtun and American Values: Origins and Effects. Joint Center for Operational Analysis Journal, (2009). 11 (3), 1-5.
  • Davenport, J. & Early, J. (Cohort 2008). The power-influence dynamics in a consultant/client relationship. Journal of Financial Service Professionals, (2010). 64 (1), 72-75.
  • Daniel Keebler (Cohort 2008). “Online Teaching Strategy: A position Paper” Journal of Online Learning and Teaching 5 (3) 546-549.
  • Daniel Keebler (Cohort 2008). “Metaphors Used As Imagery to Describe Organizations” International Leadership Journal February 2010 (in-press)
  • William Lamb (Cohort 2008). “Marketing in a Downturn: Leadership Strategies.” Effective Executive: The Icfai University Press, July 2009 (90), pp. 29-33. (with Dr. Paul Carr).
  • Daniel Keebler (Cohort 2008). “Baby Boomer Generational Impact on Human Resource Theory.” Human Resource Management.
  • Brian Carroll (Cohort 2008). “Making Decisions God’s Way.” National Men’s Ministries.
  • Mary Kay Copeland (Cohort 2008). “HR strategies in seemingly adverse economic times: Lead and change.” HRM Review, April 2009 issue (special edition).
  • Steven Crowther (Cohort 2008). “Organizational Learning and Organizational Leadership: Some Paramount Considerations for the Global CEO.” Global CEO, volume VIII (12), pp. 21-24. (with Dr. Paul Carr)
  • Matthew P. Earnhardt (Cohort 2007). “The successful expatriate leader in China.” Graziadio Business Report, 12(1).
  • Matthew P. Earnhardt (Cohort 2007). “Identifying the key factors in the effectiveness and failure of virtual teams.” Leadership Advance Online, XVI.
  • Andrew Ma (Cohort 2008). “Comparison of the origins of altruism as leadership value between Chinese and Christian cultures.” Leadership Advance Online, XVI.
  • Joy A. Jones (Cohort 2008). “Gender dissimilarity and leader-member exchange: The mediating effect of communication apprehension.” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 2(1).
  • William Lamb (Cohort 2008). “Danger ahead: Five road signs of abusive leadership.” MinistryToday, January/February 2009, p. 36.
  • William Lamb (Cohort 2008). “Power over pretense.” MinistryToday, March/April 2009,p. 22.
  • Thomas J. Norbutus (Cohort 2008). “Acts 2: The divine empowerment of leaders.” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 2(1).
  • Gregory Okaiwele (Cohort 2008). “John 21: An exegetical study of leadership within the Mediterranean context and the 21st century.” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 2(1).
  • Steven Pierce (Cohort 2008. “The impact of leaders: Economic crisis.” Having Church Ministries, March/April 2009,pp. 12-13 & 16.
  • Lisa M. Renz (Cohort 2008). Organizations as Culture and Psychic Prisons. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 2(1).
  • Dennis C. Rittle (Cohort 2006). “Talent management through leadership: Some profound considerations for the human resources practitioner.” In G. P. Sudhakar (Ed.), Global talent management: New perspectives. Hyderabad, India: Icfai University Press. (with Dr. Paul Carr)
  • Jake Stum (Cohort 2008). “Kirton’s adaption-innovation theory: Managing cognitive styles in times of diversity and change.” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 2(1).
  • Jon Tomlinson (Cohort 2004). “The Great Commission: Discipleship and followership.” Inner Resources for Leaders, 2(1).
  • Tucker, P. A., & Carr, P. B. (2009, October). Empowering women: Promoting women to leadership positions in global organizations. HRM Review 9(10). The ICFAI University Press.
  • Tucker, P. A., & Carr, P. B. (2009, November). Change management: A perspective on behaviors. Global CEO 9(11). The ICFAI University Press.
  • Tucker, P. A., & Carr, P. B. (2009, December). Developing emotional intelligence: An interpersonal process in leadership positions. MBA Review. The ICFAI University Press.

Academic Presentations

2010 Roundtables of Leadership Research and Practice, Virginia Beach, VA

  • Copeland, M. (2010). Benefits, Limitations and Best Practices of Online Coursework. . . Should Accounting Programs Jump on Board? May 19, 2010, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA
  • Vondey, Michelle (Cohort 2007). Leadership wisdom: A socio-rhetorical analysis of James 1:2-8 and 3:13-4:10. May 19, 2010, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA
  • Steven Crowther (Cohort 2008). Biblical Concepts of Leadership for the Contemporary Era. Roundtable Presentation, Biblical Perspectives in Leadership Research, Regent University, May 2009

Northeastern Association of Business Economics and Technology, 33rd Annual Meeting

  • John Bennett (Cohort 2010). “Global Business Ethics and Leadership: A Grounded Theory Approach” – October 19-20, 2010 State College, PA

21st Century Management Conference – Wilmington College

  • Porter, T., (Cohort 2007). “Are Confidence and Self-Efficacy Interchangeable: A Critical Literature Review” February 2010 Wilmington, OH

The 17th Annual Conference for the American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences

  • Davenport, J. (2009). “Leadership Style and Organizational Commitment: The Moderating Effect of Locus of Control” February 2010 Las Vegas, NV
  • Davenport, J. (2009). “The Disconnect between Portfolio Construction in the Financial Services Industry and the Principles of Modern Portfolio Theory” February 2010 Las Vegas, NV

Midwest Academy of Management 2009 Annual Conference – October 23-24, 2009; Chicago, IL

  • Michelle Vondey (Cohort 2007). “An aesthetic of imagination and creativity for leaders.”
  • Tracy Porter (Cohort 2007). “A New Leadership Perspective”

The 17th Annual National Conference for the Institute of Behavioral and Applied Management

  • Davenport, J. & Early, J. (2009). “Retirement Benefits and Organizational Commitment: The Employer/Employee Disconnect” October 2009 Washington, DC (Selected Best Paper of the Division)
  • Tracy Porter (Cohort 2007). “Positive Organizational Behavior in Human Resource Development: The Role of Confidence”

Fifteenth Annual National African-American Student Leadership Conference (NAASLC), January 16-17, 2009; Rust College, Holly Springs, MS:

  • Thomas Adams & Maurice Buford (Cohort 2007). “The Audacity of leadership: 21st century strategies to transform a nation.” (panelists)

Second International Conference on the Integration of Spirituality & Organizational Leadership – February 9-12, 2009; University of Delhi, Pondicherry, India:

  • Vivian Petties (Cohort 2007). Good governance: A Socio-rhetorical analysis applied to corporate responsibility.”

Liberty University Society of Human Resource Management Chapter Conference, February 26, 2009; Liberty University, Lynchburg, VA:

  • Robert Van Engen (Cohort 2007).Embracing a biblical worldview in human resource development for an improved global perspective.” (panelist)

Society of Industrial Organizational Psychology and Industrial/Organizational Organizational Behavior 30th Annual Conference, February 27 – March 1; Chicago, IL:

  • Kelly Riesenmy (Cohort 2007). “The moderating role of follower identification in the relationships between leader and follower visionary leadership”

Tobias Center’s 2009 Multi-Sector Leadership Forum – March 5-7, 2009; Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN:

  • Ronald Cook (Cohort 2007). “Authentic leadership: What does it look like? A brief examination of Lincoln’s leadership.”
  • Yolonda Sales (Cohort 2007). “Investigations into potential causes and solutions for female attrition in science and technology: The Role of leadership and organizational culture.”

Women and Spirituality Symposium – March 12 – 14, 2009; Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH:

  • Funmi Akinyele (Cohort 2008). “Understanding Yoruba and Latin American Women experiences in Christianity (The good, bad, and ugly).”
  • Tracy Porter (Cohort 2007). “Jesus as leader: A sacred texture analysis of Philippians 2: 5-11.”
  • Catherine Self (Cohort 2005). “Incarnational leadership as reflected in St. Clare’s third letter to Agnes: A sensory-aesthetic study.”

Alliant International University’s Student Leadership Conference, March 18, 2009; San Diego, CA:

  • Kathryn Adamson (Cohort 2007). “Leadership through a cultural lens.”

The Global Business Development 11th Annual Conference, March 22-25 2009; Las Vegas, NV:

  • Sharon Norris (Cohort 2007). “A grassroots emergent strategy of global human research development: Social network ties, relationship.”

Georgia Association of Special Programs Personal and South Carolina Council of Educational Opportunity Program Personnel’s 36th Annual Spring Training Conference, March 31 – April 3 2009; Savannah, Georgia:

  • Tonya F. Mack (Cohort 2007). “Spring forward… Providing access for student success.”

Virginia Community College System New Horizons Annual Conference, April 1-3, 2009; Roanoke, VA:

  • Kelly Gillerlain (Cohort 2007). “Successful online teaching strategies.” (panelist)

Second Annual Women in Leadership Forum, April 8, 2009; Atlantic Cape Community College, Mays Landing, NJ:

  • Joy A. Jones (Cohort 2008). “Leadership and gender stereotyping: Two faces of the double bind.”

Midwest Decision Sciences Institute Conference, April 16 – 18, 2009; Miami University, Oxford, OH:

  • Tracy Porter (Cohort 2007). “The global culture within Midwest banking: A case study of leadership competencies.”

Higher Ground Leadership Summit, April 24-25, 2009; Biola University, La Mirada, CA:

  • Richard S. Franklin (Cohort 2006). “Developing self-efficacy to enhance ministerial effectiveness: A spiritually-based approach.”
  • Richard S. Franklin (Cohort 2006). Directed and hosted the “Higher Ground Leadership Summit” academic symposium with students and faculty from Regent University, Biola University, Azusa Pacific University, and Fuller Seminary participating. HGLS is a scholarly forum dedicated to the study of integrating biblical faith, organizational studies, and leadership studies as well as to developing emergent scholars.

2008 September – December

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • Thomas Adams (Cohort 2007). “Impact of prayer on the relationship between supervisory support and employee’s perception of workplace equity.” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(2).
  • Waldo Best (Cohort 2007). “Grace from the U.S. Government: The moral hazard problem.” Regent Global Business Review: Global Business Brief, 2(3), p. 1.
  • Steven Crowther (Cohort 2008).”The spirit of service: Reexamining servant leadership in the Gospel of Mark.” Inner Resources for Leaders, 1(3).
  • Matthew P. Earnhardt (Cohort 2007). “Testing a servant leadership theory among United States military members.” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(2).
  • Loventrice Farrow (Cohort 2007). “The experiences of minority women leaders as mentees in U.S. organizations.” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(2)
  • Rick Franklin (Cohort 2006). “Developing next generation leaders: Christian universities answer the call.” Cover article in December 2008/January 2009 edition of Outcomes published by Christian Leadership Alliance.
  • Kelly Gillerlain (Cohort 2007). “Strategic blunders are not necessarily failures.” Effective Executive, 83-86. September 2008. (with Paul Carr).
  • Mark E. Hardgrove (Cohort 2006). “The Christ hymn as a song for leaders.” Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership, 2(1), pp. 19-31.
  • William Hunsaker (Cohort 2006). “Servant leadership: A cross-cultural biographic look at leaders as martyrs.” Korea Review of International Studies, 11(1), 51-68.
  • Laurie McCabe (Cohort 2005). “Jesus as agent of change: Transformational and authentic leadership in John 21.” Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership, 2(1), pp. 32-43.
  • Kirk Mensch (Cohort 2004). “Military leader development and autonomous learning: Responding to the growing complexity of warfare.” Human Resources Development Quarterly, 19(3). (with Tim Rahschulte, 2008 Ph.D. alumnus)
  • R. Bruce Moore (Cohort 2005). “Business values affect a business’s priorities.” Idaho Business Review, 29(43), p. 3F; September 15, 2008, focus guest column.
  • Sharon E. Norris (Cohort 2007). “An examination of self-leadership.” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(2).
  • Kelly Rouse Riesenmy (Cohort 2007).
    • “The moderating role of follower identification in the relationship between leader andfollower visionary leadership.” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(2).
    • “Mergers and acquisitions: Some paramount concerns for the human resourcedevelopment practitioner.” HRM Review, 14-19. (with Paul Carr)
  • Dennis C. Rittle (Cohort 2006).
    • “Streamlining rich media communications in a non-profit organization: Makingmeetings meaningful.” Journal of Business and Leadership: Research, Practice, &

      Teaching, 4(1).

    • “Talent management or
    • leadership: Some profound considerations for the humanresources practitioner.” HRM Review, 8(10). (with Paul Carr)
    • “Foremost considerations for effective leadership within diversified top managementteams.” Global CEO Journal, 8(5), pp. 29-33. (with Paul Carr)
  • Jon Tomlinson (Cohort 2004). “Of chaos theory and universal coverage.”
  • Bud West (Cohort 2007). “An overview of asynchronous online learning.” In M. Khosrow-Pour (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology (2nd ed.), Volume VI, pp. 2948-2952. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. (with Mihai Bocarnea)

Academic Presentations

4th Annual Business and Leadership Symposium – September 29-30, 2008; Fort Hays State University, KS

  • Dennis C. Rittle (Cohort 2006). “Streamlining rich media communications in a non-profit organization: Making meetings meaningful.”

Midwest Academy of Management 2008 Annual Conference – October 2-4, 2008; St. Louis, MO

  • Valerie Arguello (Cohort 2007), Waldo Best (Cohort 2007), and Loventrice Farrow (Cohort 2007). “Informal communications in organizations: The grapevine.”
  • Michelle Vondey (Cohort 2007). “Effect of follower self-concept and self-determination on organizational citizenship behavior from a servant leadership context.”
  • Ronald Cook (Cohort 2007). “Implications of social constructivism for leaders.”

Southern Management Association 2008 Meeting, Doctoral Student Consortium – October 29-November 1, 2008; St. Pete Beach, FL

  • Roger Givens (Cohort 2007) received a $500 stipend from the SMA to attend the Annual Doctoral Consortium.

Northeastern Association of Business Economics and Technology, 31st Annual Meeting – October 30-31, 2008; State College, PA

  • Tracy Porter (Cohort 2007). “An exploration of the relationship between motivation and the intention to stay in a higher education program.”
  • David Hartley (Cohort 2007). “Closing the loop: Assurance of learning and organizational learning in business education.”

Christian Business Faculty Association, November 6-9, Indianapolis, IN

  • Jeff Hale (Cohort 2003).
    • “A philosophical inquiry into the meaning of leading organizations in chaotic timesthrough an application of Ricoeur’s interpretation theory to John’s apocalypse.” (first

      chapter of his dissertation selected for presentation in CBFA’s Dissertation


    • “Virtual teaching through asynchronous dialog: A self-evaluated experience.”

American College Unions International (ACUI) – November 7-9, 2008; Springfield, MO

  • Alina Lehnert (Cohort 2005). “Maximizing strengths based development for your staff, students and yourself.”

International Leadership Association Conference – November 12-15, 2008; Los Angeles, CA

  • Jay Gary (Cohort 2004). “Assessing Wilber’s model of integral leadership.”
  • Alina Lehnert (Cohort 2005). “Facilitating leadership: A discussion of effective educational tools and tactics that develop 21st century leaders.”
  • Melissa McDermott (Cohort 2004). “Culture and leadership in transition: Comparing perceptions of cultural values, cultural practices, and leadership preferences across generations.”
  • Jan Spencer (Cohort 2006). “Spiritual leadership and St. Francis: Integrating ancient insights with contemporary practice for greater productivity.”

2008 May – August

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • G. R. Bud West (Cohort 2007). “An alternative method to investigate organizational effectiveness: An adaptation and expansion of Robert Terry’s model,” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(1).
  • John P. Smith, II (Cohort 2007). “Acts 2: spirit-empowered leadership,” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(1).
  • Michael Patrick (Cohort 2004). “The leadership aesthetics of Saint Francis of Assisi,” Inner Resources for Leaders, 1(2).
  • Kelly Riesenmy (Cohort 2007). “Mergers and acquisitions,” HRM Review, August 2008. (with Paul Carr)
  • Michelle Vondey (Cohort 2007). “Follower-focused leadership: Effect of follower self-concepts and self-determination on organizational citizenship behavior,” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(1).
  • Robert B. Van Engen (Cohort 2007). “Metaphor: A multifaceted literary device used by Morgan and Weick to describe organizations,” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(1).
  • Roger J. Givens (Cohort 2007). “Transformational leadership: The impact on organizational and personal outcomes,” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(1).

Academic Presentations

Annual Roundtables of Contemporary Research & Practice – May 16-17, 2008, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA

  • Catherine Self (Cohort 2005).
    • “Incarnational leadership as reflected in St. Clare’s third letter to Agnes: A sensory-aesthetic study.”
    • “The leadership of Jesus: A literature review and research proposal.”
  • David Wright (Cohort 2005). “The leadership of Jesus in the succession process of the disciples: A dual focus of servanthood in small groups.”
  • Dennis Rittle (Cohort 2006). “Managing the conflict from within: A spiritual model.”
  • G. R. Bud West (Cohort 2004).
    • “Servant leadership and organizational outcomes: Relationships in United States andFilipino higher educational settings.” (with Mihai Bocarnea)
    • “Implications for leadership in the evaluation of Scripture: An ideological review ofMatthew 8:5-13.”
  • Jan Spencer (Cohort 2006). “Peter: A phenomenology of leadership.”
  • Jane Waddell (Cohort 2005). “Is emotional intelligence related to servant leadership attribution?”
  • Jody Hirschy (Cohort 2007). “Servant leadership: A case study of Jamaica Link Ministries.”
  • Joel Baldomir (Cohort 2007). “Servant leadership as a model for unifying first and second generation Chinese American churches.”
  • Louis Morgan (Cohort 2005).
    • “Beyond serving others: Continual self-sacrifice as normative Christianity.”
    • “The admonitions of St. Francis: Implications for servant and transformationalleaders.”
  • Matthew Earnhardt (Cohort 2007). “Testing a servant leadership theory among United States military members.”
  • Randy Poon (Cohort 2006). “Emotional intelligence and engagement – Exploring definitions and the relationship between the constructs.”
  • Vivian Petties (Cohort 2007). “A biblical perspective on women in leadership: A fresh look at I Timothy 2:8-15.”
  • William Hunsaker (Cohort 2006). “Spiritual leadership in a South Korea cultural context.”

First Global Servant Leadership Research Roundtable – July 9-11 2008, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

  • G. R. Bud West (Cohort 2004). “Servant leadership constructs as antecedents of organizational commitment and job satisfaction in the Philippines.” (with Mihai Bocarnea and Dioscoro P. Marañon)

Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organisations – 5-8 August, 2008, Cambridge University, Cambridge, United Kingdom

  • Jan Spencer (Cohort 2006). “Knowledge, culture, service, and “The next”: An excursion forward into neo-organizational structures.”