Skip navigation

Regent Research Roundtables

Regent Research Roundtables

From the Editors

Dr. Kathleen Patterson and Dr. Steve Firestone


Welcome to the Proceedings of the 2023 Regent Research Roundtables. In addition to presentations of empirical studies, the Roundtable format allows presenters to discuss new concepts, possible future research topics, consulting methods, new teaching methods, and panel discussions of topics that are of interest to our academic communities. The topics are wide-ranging in content and delivery, and we trust you find nuggets of truth, things to think on, and lessons for your own research, leadership, followership, and organization.

NOTE: All authors own responsibility for APA and/or formatting.

Mapping Future Frontiers for Women in Ecclesial Leadership: A Fresh Appraisal of 1 Timothy 2:11-15

Paul J. Palma, Ph.D.

Roundtable: Biblical Perspectives

The passage at the center of the contemporary debate regarding women in ministry is 1 Timothy 2:11–15. Many female seminarians pursuing their call to the pastorate face opposition from professors, peers, and church members. A fresh appraisal of this text suggests that exegetical integrity is not at odds with sparing the female pastor her emotional distress. This paper builds on scholarly readings of the passage that challenge the traditional assumption banning women from governing pastoral church offices, underscoring the promise of a middle-ground approach for advancing the gender roles discussion. The argument begins by examining the historical context of the evangelical gender debate and proceeds with an illumination of the passage’s background and a verse-by-verse analysis. It closes with constructive suggestions in light of pertinent leadership models.

Power Play and Decision Making: King David and Absalom

Oluwatoyin O. Olanrewaju

Roundtable: Biblical Perspectives

Steussy (1994) declared the story of King David and Absalom as “a tale about the exercise of power” (p. 218). In the power play between King David and Absalom, the latter exploited the former’s weak position to sway the Israelites’ political will favorably. Scholars proffered different reasons but could not decipher the reason for the overwhelming national resentment against David during this period (Weingreen, 1969, p. 263). However, one reason Absalom became the tipping point for the rebellion was Absalom’s resentment of Tamar and Amnon incident (2 Sam. 13:19-22) due to the inaction of King David to discipline Amnon and reconcile with Absalom, giving room to Satan to use Absalom (McIndoe, 2003). This paper studied the impact of decision making (action and inaction) on the acquisition or cessation of power. It shows that weakened character weakens resolve to take decisive steps, and the inaction could be fatal for the organization (nation), emphasizing that others suffer when leaders do not resist the seduction of power (Fast et al., 2012).

Keywords: power play, decision making, King David, Absalom, adverse effects of inaction

Relational Leadership Theory Informed by John 11:17-46

Britta Anderson

Roundtable: Biblical Perspectives

This paper addressed relational leadership theory through the exploration of John 11:17-46. Specifically, it explained what relational traits can be seen in the biblical text that may be applied to relational leadership theory and the implications for the leader and follower interaction. The pericope was analyzed with socio-rhetorical analysis, including inner texture, intertexture, and sacred texture review. The research found that Jesus in John 11:17-46 exhibited relationship-building characteristics with his followers. He engaged in interpersonal interactions, acted intentionally, and employed purposeful leadership to influence change. The leader–follower dynamic in the Scripture may be harnessed to enhance relational leadership theory in the way relational connections were built, how others were influenced, and the way the audience was motivated for future change. Limitations in the research included analysis of only one section of the New Testament. Further evaluated text may have provided additional or deeper insight from Scripture that could be applied to relational leadership theory.

Keywords: relational leadership, followership, leader-member exchange, Christian leadership, Johannine

Toward a Model of Shepherd Leadership: Ecclesial Office or Function?

Michelle G. Segundo

Roundtable: Biblical Perspectives

This paper employs a meta-analytic process to assess 27 articles published in the Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership (JBPL) to determine emerging patterns on the subject of shepherd leadership. The results yield similar patterns of shepherd leadership when compared to servant leadership; however, several articles distinctly describe shepherd leadership beginning with a specific call from God requiring a more assertive, individualistic role from the shepherd leader than that of the more team-oriented, accommodating servant leader. The articles further conflicted when attempting to place the shepherd leader as an ecclesial office or as a function of the church. Considering the overlapping roles of the shepherd leader as both an office and function, this paper will focus on how shepherd leadership can fill an ecclesial office while simultaneously functioning under the shepherd leader model as the body of Christ fulfilling the great commandment and the great commission.

Keywords: shepherd leadership (SL), servant leadership, shepherd, sheep, pastor

Organizational Change – Inspirational Leadership: A Case Study in the Effective Leadership of Philippine President Corazon Aquino

Michelle G. Segundo

Roundtable: Followership

Although change can be a painful process, it is necessary for growth. The success of change greatly depends on how leadership responds to the change and communicates the change to followers. Corazon Aquino, the first female Filipino president, had an arduous task ahead of her after assuming the presidency from former murderous dictator, Ferdinand Marcos. Aquino embraced the challenge to bring change not just politically but personally to her fellow countrymen. Aquino, being personally victimized by Marcos’s corruption, as her own husband was assassinated, realized she had to win the hearts of her followers not for selfish motives but to restore hope and trust to the people as their president and as a follower of Christ. Aquino led her country through positive change using her servant leadership style of placing her followers’ needs above her own as well as living out her Christian virtues of integrity, honesty, consistency, dependability, transparency, and authenticity, ultimately calling for leaders to consider the spiritual influence they have on followers to produce change that will remain.

Keywords: organizational change, autocratic leadership servant leadership, spiritual leadership, spirituality, martial law

The Cost of Discipleship: Surrendering ALL

Jamie Wright (McKinney)

Roundtable: Followership

As Christian leaders to change the world, we are called to a higher standard and to be the voice for the silent. Part of being a disciple of Christ is knowing how to die to our flesh, pick up our cross following the path God has provided, and genuinely surrender to the ways of the Lord. This paper provides an exegetical study of Matthew 10 and covers the meaning of discipleship. This paper examines servant leadership and transformational leadership, for as a disciple of Christ, we as Christian leaders must know how to serve and be the hands and feet of Jesus.

Keywords: servant leadership, Matthew 10, discipleship, transformational leadership, followership, answering the call

Back to the Future: A Metaphorical Analysis of Organizations as a Time-Traveling DeLorean

Michelle G. Segundo

Roundtable: Human Resource Development

Metaphor generates new meaning for organizations by providing a deeper understanding of organizational identity, organizational life, and its day-to-day processes (Cornelissen, 2005). Metaphor offers a new perspective to an organization by comparing elements of one experience to another, creating powerful insights, and elevating the importance of certain structural dimensions and practices within the organization as it relates to its environment and unforeseen situations (Morgan, 2006). As organizational leaders seek ways to maximize their strengths and minimize their weaknesses, they often reflect on past practices that inform current strategic planning for future success. The DeLorean, as a time-traveling vehicle from the popular 1985 film, Back to the Future, serves as an ideal metaphor for organizations evolving and adapting as open systems that refer to the past for future organizational vision, planning, and successful implementation. The purpose of this analysis is to exposit the role of the DeLorean as an organizational metaphor, as organizations reflect on past practices, operate in the present, and plan for the future as a complex adaptive system.

Keywords: complexity theory, complex adaptive system, organizational metaphor, DeLorean, time travel, Back to the Future

Courage to Act with Authenticity and Transparency for Sustainable Social Value: Compassion with Boundaries vs. Narcissism

Alina Wreczycki
Chad Newton

Roundtable: Human Resource Development

This research grounded in Tajfel’s (1978) and Tajfel and Turner’s (1979) social identity theory was to qualitatively analyze responses from 7 participants to answer 3 research questions whether they (a) agreed with Churchill’s definition of courage as cited by Fairfax (2007), (b) found courage to act with authenticity and transparency for sustainable social value supported by Wreczycki’s (2021) model, and (c) agreed that (a) and (b) in conjunction with compassion with boundaries were effective modalities of civil disobedience against narcissism. Liamputtong and Ezzy’s (2005) qualitative research format and Bernard’s (2011) qualitative coding were used as methods. All participants agreed that (a) Churchill’s definition of courage, (b) Wreczycki’s (2021) sustainable value model, and (c) compassion with boundaries were effective modalities of civil disobedience against narcissism. One participant enhanced the research by providing Eastern philosophy’s perspective on civil disobedience. Another participant cited traits exemplified by Jesus Christ in the Beatitudes. Another participant pointed to directing self-compassion to the narcissist within. Further research was recommended to study the effect of courage to act with authenticity and transparency for sustainable social value grounded in Wreczycki’s (2021) sustainable value model and supported by compassion with boundaries on the covert and overt narcissism in organizational settings. This study also amplified the role of narcissism as an integral part of the human condition that needed to be effectively managed for balanced personal growth and development within the personal and organizational contexts.

Keywords: Authenticity, compassion with boundaries, courage, narcissism, sustainable social value, transparency

Faith, Trust, and Transformation: A Christian Retrospective on Psychological Safety and Cultural Evolution

Dr. Jenipher D. Cornelius, DSL, MBA

Roundtable: Human Resource Development

Psychological safety, rooted in trust and open communication, has emerged as a pivotal element in workplace culture in recent decades. This paper examines the evolution of psychological safety from its early stages in the 1960s to its current prominence and future trajectory, while considering its implications through a Christian perspective. Workplaces initially operated under hierarchies that deterred open dialogue and innovation. However, over the past 20 years, organizations recognized the impact of psychological safety on employee well-being, engagement, and performance. This shift, demonstrated by Google’s Project Aristotle, emphasized its role in fostering highperforming teams. Psychological safety aligns with Christian principles of love, compassion, and servant leadership, creating safe environments mirroring biblical teachings. It significantly enhances employee well-being, engagement, and performance, enabling teams to learn and grow effectively.

Future workplace trends, including inclusion, ethical leadership, crisis resilience, and purpose-driven cultures, further highlight the synergy between psychological safety and Christian values.

This paper illustrates how psychological safety, interwoven with Christian principles, shapes workplace cultures by promoting trust, unity, and empathy. As organizations move forward, psychological safety will remain pivotal in creating environments conducive to open communication, ethical decision-making, and alignment with shared objectives, echoing timeless biblical teachings.

Keywords: psychological safety, trust, biblical principles, teams, highly effective teams, impact, culture

Instruments of Connecting: A Phenomenological Study of a Melkite Priest’s Online Learning Experiences from an HRD Perspective

Chad H. Newton

Roundtable: Human Resource Development

This study involved a phenomenological inquiry into a Melkite priest’s experiences with online learning during the lockdown of 2020. His particular catholic community experienced significant challenges unlike the ones experienced in Latin Rite parishes or Protestant churches because of the geographical rarity of Melkite churches in the Western world. The research involved the case study method, phenomenology, in vivo coding, a semi structured interview, deductive analysis based on the 10 laws of learning acquisition, and the use of confirmation validity. The results generated five insights for scholars to consider from a consultative standpoint: (a) the ancient idea of telos received emphasis in the participant’s mind from an ontological perspective, (b) self-motivated learning received the most emphasis for online catechesis, (c) the pedagogical philosophy of education held the most use during the lockdown, (d) passive laissezfaire leadership must change to an active style within the Melkite Church, and (e) the participant insisted on the creation of a virtual interface with the global world as a key for the online delivery of Melkite education. Future research recommendations included multiple types of quantitative analyses and a multiple case study analysis performed on data collected from other Melkite clergy in different locations.

Keywords: phenomenological, Melkite, reliability, online learning, Byzantine, in vivo, virtual, interface, acquisition, Orthodox, catechesis

Organizational Culture Assessment

Allison S. Farr

Roundtable: Human Resource Development

Organizational culture, embedded in how work gets done, enables or disables an organization from reaching desired successes. This assessment aims to examine the current and desired culture of a small, privately owned consulting organization. The Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) results show that the current and desired culture align from an employee perspective, but changes are needed to reach the desired goals. We present recommendations to promote aligned cultural dimensions, including the preference for a clan culture while shifting toward a market culture.

Keywords: culture, organizational culture, OCAI, consulting

A Review of Five Scriptural-Based Quantitative Measurements Useful for Organizational Leadership Studies: A Research Note

Bruce E. Winston

Roundtable: Organizational Leadership

In this research note, I describe five scriptural-based quantitative measures: (a) a singlescale New Testament-based Organizational Spirituality – Leader that measures employees’ perception of organizational spirituality culture by rating the frequency of observance of culture-related behaviors of the participant’s leader; (b) a single-scale New Testament-based Organizational Spirituality – Climate that measures employees’ feeling/sensing of the organizational spirituality culture, which measures climate by rating the frequency of feeling/sensing of organizational spirituality cultural values; (c) a seven-scale instrument that measures employees’ self-reported frequency of behaviors aligned with each of the seven motivational gifts from Romans 12; (d) a seven-scale instrument to measure employees’ perception of their leader’s seven beatitudes; and (e) a nine-scale instrument to measure employees’ perception of their leader’s behaviors of each of the nine fruit of the Spirit. I present the creation of the instruments, their scale reliability Cronbach’s alpha coefficient scores, and future research possibilities.

Keywords: scriptural-based, scales, reliability, future research

Exemplary Followership: A Characterization of an African-American Sorority

Selené Hudson Brent

Roundtable: Organizational Leadership

This exploratory non-experimental quantitative study aimed to characterize the followership behaviors of Lambda Alpha Zeta Sorority (pseudonym) and determine if there is a difference among the generational cohorts within the membership. In predominantly African-American sororities, membership can be extended to women at the collegiate level and well after graduation, thus creating an organization with women of all ages and intrinsic values, beliefs, and behaviors. This study applied the concepts of Kelley’s (1992) exemplary followership model and generational cohort theory to examine the similarities and differences between age groups within Lambda Alpha Zeta Sorority. Kelley’s Followership Questionnaire and a short demographic survey were used to obtain data from 178 sorority members. Descriptive statistics generated a profile of the participants. The results indicated that the sorority centralized around two of the five followership categories defined by Kelley: pragmatist and exemplary. Multivariate analysis of variance and analysis of variance procedures were used but found no significant correlation between the differences in generational cohorts and their followership behaviors. Although studies on followers have been explored in the workplace, information is scarce regarding how generational diversity impacts the dynamics of fraternal groups. This study provides insight into opportunities for organizational leaders to enhance followership training by focusing on principles to move followers from pragmatist to exemplary. Furthermore, the results of this study add to the gap in the literature on generational cohort theory and exemplary followership.

Keywords: generational characteristics, like-minded, critical thinking, active engagement

Organizations as Potpourri

Oluwatoyin O. Olanrewaju

Roundtable: Organizational Leadership

This paper reviews the metaphor literature and concludes with the value and application of a new metaphor, the potpourri. “The use of metaphor implies a way of thinking and a way of seeing” (G. Morgan, 2006, p. 3). According to G. Morgan (2006), metaphor partially distorts because while it is accurate in aspects of the compared items, there are areas where the metaphor is inappropriate. Hence, G. Morgan posited that though organizational theory as a metaphor partially distorts, researchers can gain valuable complementary and competing insights from the metaphors while building on the strengths of each unique perspective. According to the second definition of The Britannica Dictionary (Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., n.d.), potpourri is a collection of related or unrelated items, which could be a musical performance involving jazz, folk, blues, and rock music or a book containing different stories on the family, food, and religion. The potpourri metaphor says that many other metaphors exist simultaneously within an organization with their attendant designs, structures, boundaries, and environment despite the overall metaphor type of the organization. So, a potpourri organization manifests different designs, structures, and boundaries. Therefore, the potpourri metaphor shows G. Morgan’s position that metaphors give researchers complementary and competing potpourri of related and unrelated items insights while aligning their strengths within an organization.

Keywords: potpourri metaphor, organizational design, organizational structure, organizational boundary

Spiritual Formation for Emerging Young Adults in the Ecclesial Context

Tara Antoinette Birkett-Bramble

Roundtable: Organizational Leadership

Spiritual formation is vital to the church’s growth and future. Matthew 28:19–20 reminds us of the great commission and Christ’s expressed agenda for his beloved to the disciples (Aniol, 2017; New King James Version [NKJV], 1982/2011). Christ commanded that Christian leaders make disciples; lead, guide, and nurture believers to carry on the gospel message; and live out sound doctrine according to the biblical values given to us in the word of God (Aniol, 2017). Christian leaders should encourage the development of Christian character and biblical virtues, focusing on eternity as their goal (Gula, 1996). The word of God instructs Christian leaders to encourage holy living and remind emerging leaders of the benefits thereof (Aniol, 2017; NKJV, 1982/2011, 1 Pet. 1:16). Young adult emerging leaders must be granted the attention new believers receive in respect to establishing a foundational understanding of who they are becoming as a child of God (Gula, 1996) and a representative and servant of God. This discussion addresses the process, the outcome through adversity, and the result of a self-assured, God-ordained identity as a servant.

Keywords: emerging young adult, spiritual formation, spiritual development

The Perceived Relationships Between Servant Leadership and Organizational Commitment in the Southeastern and Florida Conference Seventh-day Adventist Churches in Jacksonville, Florida

Gladness Mtango

Roundtable: Organizational Leadership

This study focused on the relationships between followers’ perception of servant leadership and their organizational commitment, including differences in the perception of servant leadership and independent group commitment. I aimed to analyze the relationships and differences in servant leadership perceptions and commitment between the Southeastern and Florida Seventh-day Adventist Conference Churches in Jacksonville, Florida (Conferences 1 and 2). The study answered four research hypotheses, where H1 and H2 asked whether there was a relationship between followers’ perception of their leaders as servant leaders and their organizational commitment between conferences 1 and 2, while H3 and H4 asked whether there was a difference in followers ‘perception of their leaders as servant leaders and whether there was a difference in followers’ organizational commitment between Conferences 1 and 2. The results of the data analysis for Research Hypothesis 1 suggest a positive and statistically significant relationship between servant leadership and organizational commitment. For Research Hypothesis 2, the data analysis does not show a statistically significant relationship between servant leadership and commitment. Research Hypothesis 3 showed no difference in servant leadership perceptions, and Research Hypothesis 4 showed no difference in followers’ organizational commitment between the two samples. These study results will help to encourage the presence of servant leadership and organizational commitment in Conferences 1 and 2 and guide the future direction of servant leadership and organizational commitment research and praxis.

Keywords: servant leadership, commitment, church organizations

The Resilience of Women Leaders

Nicole Stallings Parker

Roundtable: Organizational Leadership

This study explored the coping skills, beliefs, values, and leadership styles that cultivate and build resilience in women leaders. This study was conducted to understand how women leaders build endurance during adversity. The data examined in this study answer the research question: Why is resilience important for women leaders in the workplace? The findings from this phenomenological study reflect the emerging theories that show resilience is essential to women leaders in the workplace because they are directly impacted by the following cluster values: attitude, beliefs, commitment, determination, fortitude, intentions, desire to overcome, perspective, relentlessness, and self-regulation.

Keywords: Resilience, Women Leaders, Workplace, Adversity, Leadership

“U” Matter Leadership Development Model: Developing “U” for Purpose Fulfillment – Effective Leadership From the Inside Out

Dr. Lakeisha Walker, LCMHC, CTRP

Roundtable: Professional Coaching

There is an unspoken expectation for individuals who are in leadership roles to display positive actions and to magically obtain the skillsets to create a high-performance culture. This article explores the utilization of the “U” Matter Leadership Development Model to take a deep look at the leader’s inner being, which directly impacts their leadership actions. Based on consulting reviews with staff members and leaders, a few of those unspoken expectations are effective communication, building healthy relationships, establishing trust, and being consistent. As a Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor, it is easy to understand how low self-concept, irrational thinking, past traumatic experiences, unhealthy patterns, and a lack of emotional intelligence reduce a leader’s ability to lead well. This is an evidence-based, self-regulatory, universal model that aims to separate the leader (“U”) from leadership behaviors and demonstrate the effectiveness of the leadership’s actions once the leader transforms thought processes, increases healthy living standards, creates emotional stability, and aligns their daily actions with their leadership purpose.

Keywords: leadership development, trust, emotional intelligence, trauma, purpose

Coaching in the Mental Health Gap

Dr. Lisha T. Wallace

Roundtable: Professional Coaching

There is a gap evident in the world as far as mental health is concerned. The availability of mental health professionals combined with the ability to prevent a mental ailment has created a pending mental health crisis. Coaching in the mental health gap is a multifaceted approach to a mental health problem set. Combining tools from mental health counselors and techniques with mental health coaches and consultants provides a new model for alleviating and preventing a mental health crisis. While counselors utilize various therapeutic tools to assist a client on the reactive side of mental health, coaches and consultants at The Bindu Institute explore tools such as self-care assessments to assist the population on the preventative side. By approaching the problem set from both avenues, the pending mental health crises could be crises no more.

Keywords: mental health, coaching, consulting, counseling, self-assessment, self-care, The Bindu Institute

Coaching Up: Concept and Implementation Between First- and Second-Level Leaders

John R. Plastow

Roundtable: Professional Coaching

Coaching becomes a critical activity that must be tailored for each unique circumstance, relationship, authority level, and end-in-mind desired result. Many times the coaching is between an executive and a team member lower on the hierarchy; sometimes there is a supervisory function while relationally more like peers; and the most unique relationship, upon which this method primarily focuses, is between the senior leader and the second-level leader, which involves the concept of “coaching up.” This requires an evolved relationship built on trust, relentless loyalty, and the absence of personal agenda. Coaching up is defined as the ability to influence the viewpoints and actions of a higher-ranking leader by the second-level leader.

Keywords: coaching, executive, organizational

Introducing the Ministry Coaching Readiness Assessment: A Faith-Based Organizational Instrument

Dr. Sally V. Fry
Dr. Diane M. Wiater

Roundtable: Professional Coaching

The Ministry Coaching Readiness Assessment (MCRA) is an instrument designed to evaluate an organization’s readiness to implement or grow a coaching initiative. We have developed this new assessment to evaluate the readiness of faith-based organizations for coaching. Previously available assessments gauging an organization’s readiness for coaching were solely focused on secular organizations. Coaching is a key leadership development tool and provides a basis for developing leaders at all levels in ministry. The MCRA considers the essential criteria for healthy and thriving ministries to assess the current ministry conditions. Faith-based organizations would benefit from developing a coaching culture that provides a proactive measure to support ministry leaders. The benefits or return on investment (ROI) of coaching include improved work relationships, increased confidence, enhanced communication skills, higher employee engagement, reduced procrastination, increased goal attainment, improved well-being, and greater self-awareness. Research studies and reports demonstrate the positive ROI of coaching in various contexts. The MCRA is a comprehensive tool that assesses readiness in values and beliefs, cultural support, structural readiness, leadership readiness, participant readiness, resource allocation, and sustainability, making it a valuable resource for faith-based organizations seeking to enhance their effectiveness and positively impact Kingdom work by embracing coaching as a vital component of their leadership development strategy.

Keywords: ministry, coaching, readiness, assessment, ROI, leadership development, sustainability, faith-based

Significance of Self-Awareness in Predicting and Fostering Success

Dr. Guyla J. Greenly

Roundtable: Professional Coaching

This paper highlights the crucial role of self-awareness, a core aspect of emotional intelligence, in predicting and nurturing success. It emphasizes how self-awareness acts as a cornerstone for personal and professional accomplishments, exploring both its indicators and the risks associated with its absence. The transformative advantages of heightened self-awareness on one’s life and career are also discussed. The paper concludes by providing practical suggestions, offering individuals a roadmap to kickstart their self-awareness journey and seamlessly integrate the topic into their coaching practices. These insights aim to clarify the significance of self-awareness and provide actionable steps for individuals and coaches to harness its power for success.

Keywords: self-awareness, coaching, emotional intelligence, success

Disruptive Technologies in a World of Chaos and Opportunity: AI, Quantum Computing, and other Advances in Technology

Rodney B. Woods

Roundtable: Foresight

This journal paper investigates the transformative potential of disruptive technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) and quantum computing in an era characterized by both turbulence and opportunity, stressing the criticality of strategic foresight for executives. While posing profound implications for traditional business models, these technologies also herald unparalleled possibilities. With remarkable data processing and problem-solving capacities, AI offers revolutionary applications across the healthcare and finance sectors. Conversely, its ethical and regulatory problems necessitate careful navigation. Meanwhile, quantum computing, though embryonic, promises to drastically reshape complex problem-solving and engender breakthroughs in fields like cryptography and material science, albeit at the cost of disrupting existing security norms. This article emphasizes the necessity of executives adopting a strategic foresight perspective to anticipate and mitigate these technologies’ disruptive impacts while harnessing their innovative potential. The discussion highlights the critical role of informed decision-making and proactive planning in fostering a robust ecosystem that supports responsible innovation and sustainable technological progress. By adopting a forward-looking, adaptive approach, executives can ensure organizational resilience and competitiveness in a rapidly transforming technological landscape.

Keywords: strategic foresight, artificial intelligence, quantum computing

Foresight, Forecasting, and Fiction: Directed Fiction as a Foresight Approach

Timothy X. Merritt

Roundtable: Foresight

This work explores a creative fusion of strategic foresight, forecasting, and storytelling (Dator, 2009). It begins by likening writing prompts to Metaculus (2023) questions and details the author’s journey from short stories to multipath adventure novels. It explains how strategic foresight and forecasting work together, explaining their distinct roles in understanding the future. It also addresses the challenge of incorporating complex economic factors into fiction using Metaculus-conditioned pair questions. These questions become writing prompts for each chapter, leading to multiple plotlines with varying outcomes, from miraculous to catastrophic. This work introduces directed fiction as a powerful bridge between foresight and forecasting, combining qualitative depth and quantitative precision, utilizing real-world data and community-driven insights to create dynamic narratives that allow readers to explore potential future events within real predictions. This innovative approach promises to shape future narratives and enhance our ability to navigate today’s uncertainties.

Keywords: strategic foresight, futures studies and foresight, future studies, foresight, foresight and scenario planning, fiction, fiction novels and short stories, science fiction, futurism, alternative futures, speculative fiction

Future-Centric Mindset Shifts: Strategic Foresight and Systems Thinking to Improve Micro- to Macro-Level Outcomes in the 2020s and 2030s

Aria Jones, DSL

Roundtable: Foresight

This paper explores the topic of strategic foresight and how its application can enable crucial future-centric mindset shifts across micro- and macro-levels. Strategic foresight is defined as the ability to anticipate potential futures and their implications through techniques like horizon scanning and scenario planning. Strategic foresight’s history and growing importance, emphasizing systems thinking, is discussed. Individual, team, organizational, and macro-level mindset shifts required to thrive in today’s volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA) environments are observed. At the personal level, shifting from reactive to proactive perspectives and linear to dynamic thinking is covered. Moving from siloed actions to collaborative solutions is addressed for teams and departments. Organizations must transition from short-term reactivity to long-term proactivity, from knowing to learning. Macro-level perspectives require considering interconnected challenges rather than single issues. The interrelatedness and interdependencies from micro- to macro-levels are illuminated. Two key strategic foresight tools—the futures wheel and causal loop diagrams (CLDs)—are presented at a high level as easy-to-use methods to enact strategic foresight. The futures wheel allows branching out implications of ideas, while CLDs illustrate feedback relationships. The paper concludes with actionable takeaways centered around practicing systems thinking, thinking the unthinkable, anticipating disruptions using strategic foresight methods and tools, and sharing strategic foresight broadly. Overall, the research argues that strategic foresight cultivates crucial future-centric mindsets and enhances future readiness, which can significantly improve outcomes when applied across micro- to macro-levels, especially in today’s VUCA world.

Keywords: strategic foresight, systems thinking, future-centric mindset, mindset shifts, futures thinking, disruption management, strategy, learning, adaptation

A Review of Servant Leadership Qualities From Esther 4:1-17, 5:1-8, 7:1-7, and 8:1-15

George K. Nti

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

This article reports a study of servant leadership from Esther 4:1-17, 5:1-8, 7:1-7, and 8:1-15 through the framework of Barbuto and Wheeler’s (2006) servant leadership questionnaire. I give specific attention to aspects of altruistic calling, emotional intelligence, wisdom, persuasive mapping, and organizational stewardship within the perspective of servant leadership. Further exploration of altruism, emotional intelligence, applying knowledge, persuasion, and stewardship aspects of servant leadership raises the consciousness of how in the person of Esther, having others’ interests at hand, serving others, helping others with emotional healing, anticipating consequences of decisions, offering compelling reasons for others to do things, and encouraging others to have community spirit exist. An appreciation and understanding of servant leadership and its relevance in 21st-century leadership rings from Esther’s example.

Keywords: leading through stewardship, biblical examples of wisdom, persuasive leadership, emotional healing in leadership, a study of Esther

Continuing the Mission: Servant Leadership Modeled by the Proverbs 31 Woman and Applied as a Soldier and Veteran

Bobbi Y. Cumpston

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

Servant leadership began with Robert Greenleaf in 1970. Discussions over the definition, constructs, and measures continue today. The standardized description of servant leadership is servant first, and then leader, but the constructs differ with time and research. In addition, measurements of the successful application of servant leadership have adapted as the concepts of servant leadership have been redefined and expanded. One example of servant leadership is the Proverbs 31 woman, who demonstrates servant leadership through her heart and actions. Her characteristics include love, altruism, faith, and wisdom. Her actions demonstrate a spirit of service combined with leadership abilities in her family, household, and community. This paper proposes that the Proverbs 31 woman is an example and definition of servant leadership with a practical application through an Army veteran’s leadership experience both in service and after retirement.

Keywords: servant leadership, military, practical example, leadership development

Servant Leadership: How Has it Shaped the Last 20 Years and Where is it Going?

Dr. Joycelynn Green

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

This article provides a synopsis of the history of servant leadership and its revolution within the past two decades and decades to come. The idea of leadership is rooted in ancient philosophical and religious traditions (Aldulaimi, 2019). Conversely, the concept was popularized in the 20th century by Robert K. Greenleaf, who explored and promoted this leadership philosophy through his writings and lectures. The idea of servant leadership is conceived in the biblical teachings where the Messiah pioneered servant leadership as the perfect way to lead the followers. According to Qiu and Dooley (2019), in ancient times, the idea of servant leadership was traced to ancient China when the Confucian philosophy was established. Nevertheless, in the ancient world other regions also promoted servant leadership as in Greece, for example, when Socrates and Plato described leaders as those dedicated to their communities’ wellbeing. However, these ancient views take a decontextualized approach to leadership that does not focus on using power but on gaining influence through serving. This article highlights the historical background of servant leadership, its key characteristics with measurement tools, and the findings of relevant studies conducted over the last 20 years. In the study conceptual model, servant leaders use their motivation to lead with a need to serve and display servant leadership. Personal characteristics and culture are positioned alongside the motivational dimension. Servant leadership is established through the empowerment and development of people. Nonetheless, servant leadership has significantly transformed in the last 20 years.

Keywords: servant leadership, leadership, followers

Striving to Thriving: Servant Leadership in Entrepreneurial Growth

Joshua J. Clark

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

The arduous demands of entrepreneurship lead to a high rate of business failure in the early stages of development. A critical factor in their failure to thrive is the founder’s willingness, or lack thereof, to adapt roles to fit the organizational needs. Research has identified the stages of small businesses and the organization’s needs within these stages. Many professionals recognize a significant problem in transitioning from mere survival to success. For leaders to transition, the founder needs a significant shift in responsibility and involvement. With this shift, growth is likely. This paper aims to solve this problem by addressing several components of this shift. The founder must remove themselves as the primary manager of tasks to a manager of people; they must move from the doer to the CEO. By looking at historical accounts of the Greek and Roman empires, leaders can draw valuable information for making such a shift. The Greeks operated in dispersed, autonomous, and highly individualized city–states. Each location had individual governance. In turn, the Romans had a centralized, controlled, and singular rule over the empire. Their temples, dedicated to their gods, resemble their governing authority. The Greek temples were spread out, each in dedication to a particular god. These gods had singular domains, often resembling the local people’s characteristics. The Romans had the Pantheon—the home of all the gods. For a god to be seen as legitimate, its presence must be in the Pantheon. The Greeks were decentralized; the Romans centralized. This approach led to the Romans ultimately conquering the Greeks. For entrepreneurs looking to leap from surviving to thriving, emulating the Roman’s approach within strategy and design is beneficial. Such an approach is seen with Apple. By intentionally developing the strategy and design in a unified approach, entrepreneurs are equipped to make the leap to success. However, to do so, leaders must become a servant to the organization and the people it serves. By offering themselves to others, the founder can equip and uplift the leadership team to transition into their new roles. With a new design and strategy for the organization, responsibilities will shift. The founder’s new role is to first serve others in making the shift and then to continue serving through organizational growth. For leaders to move from surviving to thriving, they need a change in their roles and responsibilities. This shift will take place by serving others and integrating this approach into the strategy and design of the organization.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Servant Leadership, Strategy, Organizational Design, Small Business

The Case for Servant Leadership Executive Peer Advisory Groups Successfully Leading Innovation in an Organization

Dr. Jeffery S. Doolittle
Dr. Jay Hawthorne

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

Executive leadership is facing a time of significant challenge and complexity. Numerous sociological and technological advances are driving the complexity, making it necessary for leaders to discover solutions to meet new challenges. This paper sets out to review the value of executive peer advisory groups (EPAGs), the theoretical symbiotic relationship between servant leadership and EPAGs, and the associated competitive advantage for leaders and organizations. There is no serious question about the need for better leadership development. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the most successful and creative organizations employ the best leaders. EPAGs are powerful but often untapped leadership development modalities. Evidence suggests that EPAGs are a more efficient model for developing vital leadership skills, including effective active listening, emotional intelligence, and employee engagement. In a peer advisory group, participants exchange roles from leader to follower as needed so as to serve one another. This article considers what leaders might do to gain a competitive advantage in an uncertain world. Our premise is based on peer-reviewed evidence arguing that a community of servant leaders, created through the formation of a servant-leaderfocused EPAG, accelerates the character development of servant leaders. Leadership behaviors guide actions, but a leader’s character determines how and if the leader acts. Servant leadership development from peers accelerates the learning cycle by developing vital cognitive, behavioral, and emotional capacities. Character and community hold the key to unlocking the competitive advantage through the symbiotic relationship in the EPAG.

Keywords: executive development, peer advisory groups, community, character, servant leadership

Successfully Leading Innovation in an Organization

Viewu Dei-Tutu

Roundtable: Transformative Innovation

Innovation is the fuel that keeps an organization running in today’s volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous environment. Therefore, it is imperative that organizations fully understand the concept of innovation and learn how to allocate resources to maximize its benefits. This paper looks at the importance of innovation in today’s highly competitive and unpredictable global economy and how organizations can leverage it. It highlights the importance of an organization’s culture and focuses on the role its leadership can play in the innovation process. For an organization to be at the forefront of innovation, it is necessary that its leaders fully understand their role in the process. This paper outlines the characteristics of an innovative leader in an organization. It further discusses the key attributes a leader must consistently exhibit for all stakeholders to actively participate in the ideation and development of new products and services. With an innovation mindset, an organization’s leadership can effectively promote innovation internally and make the organization relevant, competitive, and profitable in its marketplace.

Keywords: Innovate, Leadership, Culture

An Advancing Profession: Teams, Trends, and Technology in Coaching: Chair Narrative Reflections on the 2022 Regent University School of Business and Leadership Professional Coaching Roundtable

Dr. Diane M. Wiater

Roundtable: Professional Coaching

This article highlights insights from three live panel discussions about professional coaching presented at the Regent University School of Business and Leadership 2022 Annual Roundtables. Ten presenters from this event are featured in this reflective narrative. The live panels provided an opportunity for all professionals who recorded presentations to have a voice in the live element of the roundtables. These panel discussions advanced the professional coaching conversation, as presenters included research and ideas from recorded presentations. The panel content was collaborative, engaging, and authentic. My reflection of this event is intended to expand the professional coaching field as a whole.

Keywords: coaching, development, organizational, leadership, teams, global

An Exploration of Team Coaching: Coaching Through Psychological Safety and Trust with Teams

Kelly M. G. Whelan

Roundtable: Professional Coaching

With 80% of organizations operating in teams, team coaching is quickly being recognized as a way for teams to significantly impact those they serve. Psychological safety in teams is paramount to this success and is established when team members feel valued, wanted, accepted, and heard. When the collective body is psychologically safe, trust and powerful team learning is the outcome. As teams learn to operate in a state of psychological safety, they become more than high-performing teams, they become confident, high-value teams that create transformation and impact (CVTI) for their stakeholders. This paper outlines the difference between individual, group, and team coaching and psychological safety and trust. Further, this paper offers practical application for coaches and teams to generate psychological safety through agreements, processes, and systems.

Keywords: psychological safety, trust, team coaching, high-value teams, transformation, impact

Virtual Coaching is Inevitable and Effective

Dr. Jeffery S. Doolittle

Roundtable: Professional Coaching

The world has changed and the hybrid workplace with work-from-home opportunities has shifted in-person meetings and events to virtual. Technology enables individuals and teams to work collaboratively remotely. As the world changes, professional coaching has changed and will need to continue to change. Both coaching professionals and their clients have adapted to the circumstances of the times, with more and more utilizing technology tools for coaching sessions. Virtual coaching is a technology facilitated partnership between a coach and a client to maximize the client’s personal and professional potential. Virtual coaching differs from traditional face-to-face coaching by offering added convenience, service, and support benefits, such as accessibility, rapid response to needs, affordability, access to resources, and evaluation.

Thoughtfully incorporating virtual coaching has many positive impacts, but that does not mean it is without challenges. It is best to assess the situation, coach/client, and context to determine its best use. Coaching does not have to be face-to-face to be personalized and effective. A skilled coach with virtual coaching competencies can effectively utilize virtual technology to achieve lasting results.

Keywords: virtual, coaching, competencies, leadership

Charles Spurgeon and Followership

Lance Croy

Roundtable: Followership

The paper examines the exemplary followership of Charles Spurgeon while pastoring at the Metropolitan Tabernacle. It may appear odd at first to ascribe followership attributes to such a high-profile leader, but Spurgeon’s correspondence between himself and the deacons displayed courageous followership behaviors. Followership is a mutual reciprocation of communication, compensation, and collaboration that concurrently forms and re-forms between both parties, furthering the organization’s primary cause. Over the last few years, the Christian industrial complex has seen the downfall of many of its most prolific figures. Given the pitfalls of power many leaders face, the need to study exemplary followership is critical. The paper’s methodology is a bounded case study in the field of pragmatic qualitative research utilizing primary (autobiographies), secondary (biographies), and tertiary sources (followership theory). Additionally, Spurgeon’s sermons underwent syntactic concordancing to determine what the Prince of Preachers thought and taught about leadership. The paper’s underlying theme is that Christian leadership is paradoxically followership, and Spurgeon’s life exemplified it.

Keywords: Charles Spurgeon, followership, qualitative research, case study, biography

Followers Ready for Leadership as Demonstrated by St. Mary and St. Josephine

Jane R. Caulton

Roundtable: Followership

This presentation explores the link between Chaleff’s (2009) courageous followership model and Kellerman’s (2007) diehard and Kelley’s (1988, 2008) star performer models as demonstrated through the lives of Mary, mother of Jesus, and Josephine Bakhita, canonized in the year 2000. As shown through a sacred texture analysis, these female followers exemplify characteristics that lead to preparation for higher levels of organizational responsibilities (Hersey et al., 1979; Robbins, 2004, 2010; Schermerhorn, 1997). The study is a contribution to research on females as followers.

Keywords: star performer, diehard, follower, sacred texture, courageous follower, Chaleff, Kellerman, Kelley, St. Mary, Bakhita, St. Josephine

Followers’ Independent Critical Thinking and Active Engagement for Collocated vs. Virtual Work Teams

Kellie Playter

Roundtable: Followership

There is a gap in the research on followership in the virtual space. As such, this study explored the levels of active engagement (AE) and independent critical thinking (ICT) between collocated followers who work in a traditional office setting alongside coworkers and followers who work entirely virtual and rely on technology to connect, make decisions, and accomplish tasks. Current research has indicated that there are both strengths and limitations to virtual teams. However, it is often found to be more challenging to be as engaged and display ICT as a member of a virtual team. This study employed Kelley’s (1992) Followership Scale to determine the difference between followers’ AE and ICT to determine how most followers are classified in these different contexts and explored whether there are differences by gender. Followers who work in either virtual or collocated teams were recruited through online social media platforms. The survey results indicated no significant difference between collocated and virtual followers for AE or ICT; both types indicated they were exemplary followers. There was also no significant difference for gender, although that was expected for ICT, even though COVID-19 and childcare responsibilities have impacted more women. This study can contribute to this body of research, or lack thereof, by helping people better understand exemplary followership within different types of work arrangements to find out where the differences are and offer tools for organizations to develop followers who work in these spaces (Finlayson, 2021).

Keywords: followership, independent critical thinking, active engagement, collocated
teams, virtual teams

Servant Leadership Through Selfless Sacrifice: An Examination of John 10:7-18, 13:1-20, and 21:15-19

Johann Acuña & Derrick Bledsoe

Roundtable: Followership

Leadership is essential in the church of Jesus Christ, however the term itself is ambiguous. This paper will argue that leadership should be understood through the agency of a vice-regent to the Lord Jesus, and thus subject to His power, truth, and authority, such that the leader is merely subject to what Christ has commanded. A careful examination of John 10:7-18, 13:1-20, and 21:15-19 demonstrates that leaders should adopt a slave mentality and submit to Christ’s commands, love their Lord, and express their love to Christ through shepherding His sheep as they themselves follow Him.

Keywords: Vice-regency; leadership; followership; Christian leadership; John; shepherd; slave; servant leadership; feet-washing; sacrifice; sacrificial leadership

Leadership and Culture: What Difference Does it Make?

Michelle G. Segundo

Roundtable: Global Consulting

Culture is a complex, multilevel, and multidimensional phenomenon consisting of visible and invisible traits that directly and indirectly influence people and behavior (Aymin & Korabik, 2010). As culture is embedded into the way people think and live, it also significantly influences leaders who in turn influence employees and organizations as a whole. Leaders attempting to conduct business on a global level and lead teams crossculturally, must not only have an understanding of diverse cultures but must also appreciate core cultural values to lead effectively. Hofstede’s (1980b) four dimensions of cross-cultural leadership: (a) power distance; (b) masculinity; (c) individualism; and (d) uncertainty avoidance contributed to House’s (1993) twenty-year, cross-cultural GLOBE research project asserting that certain leadership styles such as transformational, servant, and autocratic were optimal leadership methods in certain cultures. The purpose of this paper is to explain how culture affects leadership and how certain leadership theories (transformational, servant, and autocratic) are applicable to certain cultures (Latin American, Confucian Asian, and Anglo) based on their dimensional scores.

Keywords: transformational leadership, servant leadership, autocratic leadership, crosscultural leadership

Managing Today’s Employees for Business Success

Melody Avery Cazort

Roundtable: Global Consulting

It is common knowledge that our social, economic, wellness, cultural, and especially sense of security are in an unprecedented era. Fear thrives in the environment as people suffer losses from COVID, mass shootings, housing, inflation, and a pending war. Thus, people changed; they have merged from working at a brick and mortar location or they are new members of “The Great Resignation”. The purpose of this article is to explore the current situation, meet the emerging values, and provide recommendations from a consulting perspective for success. To recruit and retain employees, mid-level and senior managers must offer more for a successful enterprise. Motivating employees, whether in the workplace or remotely, increase productivity for success. To assure the latest information for the paper, research only derives from December 2021 (revised in 2022) and 2022. The paper concludes with recommendations to leaders on how to encourage productivity by adapting to employees. A goal is a positive organizational culture fulfilling employees’ current needs, thus creating more success for business today.

Agility in the Age Of Amalgamation and the Role of HRD

Alina Wreczycki

Roundtable: Human Resource Development

It appeared that the contemporary organizational environments undergo rapid amalgamations stemming from the necessity to alter business processes to realize maximum effectiveness and efficiency. It was also apparent that high-intensity rivalry in this dynamic global setting marked by uncertainty called for expeditious decision making that necessitates agility. While being expeditious within the context of this research meant the ability to combine velocity and effectiveness, agility applied to human condition reflected an individual’s level of resilience to quickly embrace the speed and the implications of change for amalgamation and sustainability. It was hypothesized that resilience necessitated the presence and the active involvement of an intellectually curious adult learner based on (a) the need to know, (b) the learners’ selfconcept, (c) the role of learners’ experiences, (d) readiness to learn, (e) orientation toward learning, and (f) motivation (Knowles et al., 2015) to be committed to life-long learning also known as the andragogy learning and self-development to acclimate to rapidly changing and amalgamating environments. Agility appeared to be the framework of organizations that focused on not only developing and sustaining technical competencies through human resources development (HRD) based on training and knowledge transfer, but creative and critical reasoning empowered by compassion and collaboration. HRD in short was perceived as the training and development of a company’s personnel. While HRD could be delivered in a formal fashion such as training and training transfer into the existing or evolving processes for retention and sustainability, fostering agility appeared to call for the informal aspects of HRD such as coaching and mentorship to create and sustain a workforce of enthusiastic adult learners. This research involved analyzing qualitative data from four participants—two males and two females—to examine how closely their perception of agility matched the working definition presented and what traits they attributed with agility. Further inquiry examined the application of agility as interpreted by the participants into the organizational environments as they interacted with other firms to amalgamate and to incorporate changing conditions while doing business and their views on the role of HRD in sustaining agile and amalgamating organizations.

Keywords: agility, amalgamation, andragogical model

Building a National Kingdom Business Culture Through Integrated Discipleship and Entrepreneurship for the Youth: Lessons From Rwanda

Richard L. Miller & Patrice Habinshuti

Roundtable: Kingdom Business

Christian research has revealed that one effective and sustainable way to transform people and nations is through business from the heart or kingdom business. Koshal (2008) noted that kingdom businesses are businesses started by Christians that pursue a multiple strategy—(a) profitability and sustainability and (b) job creation and income generation—and affirm that such businesses help make both an economic, as well as a spiritual, impact in developing countries. As Rae (2005) affirmed, exposure to entrepreneurship education and training delivers orientations to the cognitive features and skills necessary for initiating and managing entrepreneurial ventures. In the same way, efficient prior discipleship and transformation training is believed to inculcate kingdom business principles (Miller, 2012). This paper outlines the process of building a national kingdom business culture in developing countries through equipping youth to run kingdom businesses by integrating discipleship and entrepreneurship in high school teaching. The process has been developed by the authors and tested in Rwanda for over a decade (2012-2022).

Keywords: kingdom business, entrepreneurship, discipleship, youth, Rwanda

Business by the Stomach, Head, or Heart

John E. Mulford

Roundtable: Kingdom Business

This exploratory paper posits a typology of business thinking and behavior, draws logical implications of how each type would think and behave, and suggests how business results might differ under the three patterns of thinking and behavior. The paper draws on a biblical analysis of human nature to classify thinking and behavior into three categories: (a) stomach—controlled by the flesh, (b) head—controlled by the intellect unsubmitted to God, and (c) heart—controlled by the Holy Spirit. As defined here, stomach and head are manifestations of man’s sinful nature, whereas heart represents thinking and behavior led by the Holy Spirit. Scripture supports the description of each category; however, are the categories non-overlapping descriptors of reality that exhaust all possibilities of thinking and behavior in business? Are those categories useful for understanding and guiding thinking, behavior, and results in business? Further research is required to answer these questions.

Keywords: kingdom business, business as mission, theology of business, marketplace ministry, faith at work, Christian worldview and business

Heart, Soul, and Mind: Basis for Spiritual Transformation for Kingdom Business

Richard L. Miller

Roundtable: Kingdom Business

In Waking the Dead, Eldredge (2003) wrote, “The story of your life is the story of the long and brutal assault on your heart by the one who knows what you could be and fears it” (p. 34). Therefore, if you are seeking to be transformed to the image of Jesus, Get ready for the battle! This paper records the results of various courses of study and investigations conducted by Richard Miller to determine the effectiveness of selected change agents with the ultimate goal of identifying change agents and processes to enhance biblical, spiritual growth in believers. Miller (1992) reported the positive change in soil quality from adding various levels of nutrients. This project also proved beneficial as a learning vehicle to conduct research. Miller’s (2003) doctoral dissertation reported the results of a correlation study to evaluate the change in spiritual traits using scripture verses as change agents. The results of this study led to the development of a seminar titled Tools for Transformation (TFT; Miller, 2004), which uses Scripture verses as the change agents to enhance spiritual development in believers. The TFT seminar was beta tested with a group of 15 believers over 6 months, which confirmed the hypothesis that ingesting scripture verses increases spiritual development. The TFT seminar was adapted for use in Rwanda as a joint effort between Richard Miller and Patrice Habinshuti and was titled Rwanda Kingdom Entrepreneurship Caravan.

Keywords: heart, soul, mind, zone of congruence, transformation

Abraham Lincoln: A Wise and Just Servant Leader Motivated by Natural Law Principles, Faith, and Virtue

Jacqueline A. Faulhaber

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

One can hardly doubt the servant leader’s contribution toward a more just society. Well-researched are the virtuous qualities of the servant leader. Not as well explored are the steadfast convictions and principled beliefs driving the servant leader’s reasoning. This paper explores Abraham Lincoln’s conviction of beliefs and steadfast principles primarily noted in his 1860 Cooper Union speech through the lens of natural law theory that serves as a foundation for his servant leadership style. It further asserts in companion to virtue in the servant leader is the principled belief in justice and unity that contributes to a just and flourishing civil polity for all. It is hopeful that this study of Lincoln’s servant leadership, rooted in natural law, could benefit society in improving race relations, just public policy making, and just public leadership.

Keywords: Abraham Lincoln, natural law, servant leadership, virtue

Nelson Mandela: Leading in Volatile and Uncertain Environments

Joycelynn Green

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

The purpose of this article is to make it possible for leaders to have a better understanding of the overarching idea of servant leadership as well as the qualities that define servant leaders. An examination of Nelson Mandela’s style of leadership is used as a model to better comprehend the notion of servant leadership as described by Robert Greenleaf. Greenleaf is widely regarded as the person who pioneered the idea of servant leadership. This report aims to discuss the significance of servant leadership from the perspective of one of the greats in a turbulent and unpredictable environment with base points on leading through service, remembering servant leadership is a choice, and leading with servant leadership. Compassion, respect, and sacrifice are just a few of the components that are essential to the servant-leadership style of leadership. An examination of Mandela’s leadership style as that of a servant leader offers a context within which servant leadership can be better understood, while also attempting to determine whether or not leadership in today’s world exhibits attributes that are characteristic of servant leadership.

Keywords: servant leadership, leadership, characteristics

Beyond Traditional Risk Management: Integrating Horizon Scanning and Strategic Risk Prioritization

Dr. Rodney B. Woods

Roundtable: Strategic Foresight

This journal article examines current efforts to merge horizon scanning and risk prioritization methodologies to comprehend emerging concerns better and classify them as either risk-related problems to be resolved or strategic opportunities to be exploited. Continuing to concern governments and global enterprises is the lack of correlation between data on developing challenges and credible strategic decisions. As demands for time and money expand, these obstacles are expected to intensify. Gathering insights would guide strategic choices at every level of the firm. Efforts to merge horizon scanning and risk prioritization using a qualitative weight of evidence framework is one method for developing a systematic procedure. This strategy detects all potential signs of future change with a significant influence on risk-stratified strategic missions and underlying values. Moreover, this approach supports the investigation of elements beyond the control of organizations, understanding that resilience is contingent upon the adaptability of management methods and the readiness to deal with various unforeseen events. I will also examine how leaders may utilize this framework to develop an excellent strategic plan with consistency. Last but not least, there will be proposals for future improvements to bolster trust in using horizon scanning for risk-stratified strategic planning.

Keywords: futures, horizon scanning, prioritization, risk, strategic decision-making

The Value of Servant-leadership in Sodexo

Jeffery S. Doolittle

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

This essay explores the servant-leadership theory and the value it brings to the complex and globally diverse workforce of Sodexo, the global leader in the business services and supplies industry. The discussion includes a servant-leadership literature review, Sodexo’s servant-leadership journey, servant-leadership across cultures, leadership dilemmas, and a business case for servant-leadership. Servant-leadership is a globally relevant leadership approach built on dimensions such as love, humility, and service. While cross-cultural differences influence different ways of considering leadership and service or exceptions and rules, servant-leadership connects differences in discovering solutions for organizational dilemmas. The benefits of servant-leadership extend beyond solving problems to include both expected benefits such as improved performance and productivity, and unexpected benefits such as organization citizenship behavior and intrinsic motivation. Sodexo, the global leader in the business services and supplies industry, demonstrates the value of servant-leadership in achieving strategic goals in a complex organization.

The Impact of Servant Leadership on Racism in Society

Tamara R. Morton

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of racism in society and offer solutions by the impact of servant leadership. The development of racism and the present circumstances today call for change to bring healing and justice. Biblical principles can be applied to combat racism, along with servant leadership, to reflect the love of God for the entire world. The Old Testament and the New Testament confirm the message of Christ to bring good news to all people. Servant leadership can foster service to others, move society toward community, and build trust (Reinke, 2004). Many scholars have studied the theory of servant leadership, and the contribution of research can engage the issue of racism. The attributes and characteristics of servant leaders implemented can result in justice for all and transform communities. The humility of servant leaders puts the leader as a servant and embraces the differences of others to show compassion to those they serve (Northouse, 2019). The impact of servant leadership empowers the oppressed and brings forth freedom. As a result, action steps can be taken by utilizing awareness and perception, demonstrate acceptance and empathy, exemplify altruism and love, and build community and trust (Greenleaf, 1977 and Patterson, 2003).

Servant, Leader, Prosecutor: A Servant Leadership Training Program for Prosecutors

Tabitha B. Anderson

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

The criminal justice system is currently under direct scrutiny to implement change. Specifically, prosecutors are accused of bearing responsibility for mass incarceration, disparate sentences, and unethical conduct. While all attorneys are subject to a code of ethics and professional responsibility, prosecutors bear additional competing duties and discretion. They must seek justice, represent the interests of victims, defendants, and the community, satisfy competing interests of stakeholders, comply with ethical mandates, moral responsibilities, professionalism, discretion, and personal aspirations. Both seasoned and inexperienced prosecutors must balance these competing duties, burdens, and responsibilities. While they receive extensive legal training, they receive no leadership training. Prosecutors are, by definition, leaders within the criminal justice system and their communities. Servant leadership is a successful model for prosecutors because it mirrors the multiple duties of a prosecutor to put the needs, development, and wellbeing of others first with the goal of producing servant leaders in others. A servant leadership training program teaches prosecutors to manage their competing interests, discretion, and professional fatigue through the ideals and behaviors of servant leadership. It is not intuitive. It must be taught.

Servant Leadership and Conflict Management in the Faith-Based Organization

Michelle G. Segundo

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine how servant leaders manage conflict in faith-based organizations (FBOs). Data was collected through the qualitative method of semi-structured interviews with two servant leaders who serve in executive leadership positions in their faith-based organizations located in South Texas. The interviews were conducted utilizing the video conference application, Zoom, as requested by the participants in accordance with their Covid-19 safety measures. The first cycle coding of both participants’ responses revealed 60 codes with 806 frequencies, sharing 26 first cycle codes (Appendix). The second cycle of coding produced five themed clusters reflecting the participants’ shared values of (a) communication; (b) biblical standards; (c) vision; (d) unity; and (e) empowerment when managing conflict in their FBOs (Table 2, Table 3). This phenomenological study places the servant leader in managing group conflict within a faith-based organizational (FBO) context allowing the servant leader to connect with the FBO’s biblical foundation and incorporate SL attributes (Table 1) that complement the faith foundation of the organization. Although the literature reveals that leaders exhibiting specific servant leadership qualities (Table 1) have a positive impact in both minimizing and managing conflict in the FBO, the existing research incorporating all three factors of SL, FBOs, and conflict management was limited validating the necessity for this study and its outcomes that will provide help to servant leaders attempting to manage conflict in a faith-based organizational context.

Nurturing a culture of hope in leaders and organizations in globally turbulent times

Karen Cerff

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

This article supports the extended theoretical model initially developed by Patterson (2003), encompassing the seven virtuous constructs of love, humility, altruism, vision, trust, empowerment and service, extended by Winston (2003) to include a circular motion, demonstrating the leader’s service that results in a continuous circular motion by positively affecting the followers’ Agapao love, commitment, self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation and altruistic attitudes towards their leaders. Cerff and Winston (2006) included the cognitive theory of hope emanating from the field of positive psychology (Shorey & Snyder, 1997) in the conceptual model, as a virtuous construct that is an outcome of both the leader’s Agapao love and the follower’s Agapao love. Recent marketplace research indicates deliberate initiatives to nurture hope in leaders that continue to influence both leaders and followers in organizations with positive ripple effects in contrast to the erosion of hope. This article will present empirical research that validates the inclusion of hope in the servant leadership model and the pivotal value of hope during turbulent times for leaders and followers alike.

An Exploration of Successful Global Entrepreneurial Innovation Leadership Attributes and Behaviors

Jeffery S. Doolittle

Roundtable: Human Resource Development

This viewpoint paper aims to identify the entrepreneurial leadership behaviors and attributes associated with successful entrepreneurial innovation to guide global business considerations. As designed, the insights covered will lead to the transformation of society and workplaces by applying proven innovation thought leadership. This paper combines a contemporary exploration of the literature on leadership with insights on national culture to develop more nuanced understandings of key entrepreneurial innovation leadership behaviors and attributes within multicultural and national contexts. The literature on entrepreneurial innovation leadership behaviors and attributes underpinned with insights on national culture provides more nuanced understandings of how leaders can appropriately adapt their leadership approach to transform an increasingly diverse and complex workplace and society. This helpful insight that may assist decision-makers in developing innovation leadership and transform global organizations. This paper offers a contemporary review of innovation leadership behaviors and attributes underpinned within a national cultural context.

Repurposing the Purpose of Higher Education in the Post-Pandemic World

Chad H. Newton

Roundtable: Human Resource Development

The purpose of this study pertained to an exploration of a senior professor’s experiences during the immediate shift from traditional classroom teaching to fully online teaching during the pandemic in 2020. A primary goal of this research involved a purposeful focus on the experiences of a senior faculty member from a phenomenological perspective. The implications of this study included several suggestions: (a) opportunities for applying the laws of learning acquisition associated with human resource development (HRD), (b) exploring the participant’s experiences that occurred during the immediate change from traditional lecture halls to online teaching, and (c) the need for developing traditional professors in the practice and application of Knowles’s theory of andragogy. This study incorporated the phenomenological method of research design and interpretation of the findings, and it used four additional methods of interpretation and analysis: (a) IPA, (b) case study method, (c) the laws of learning acquisition described by Gilley, Eggland, and Gilley (2002), and (d) in vivo coding with an emphasis on personal narratives that emerged during the semi-structured interview. The findings included several insights for reflection and perspectives about the future of professorship in the post-pandemic world. In particular, the professor’s statement about repurposing higher education in the postpandemic world held considerable value for insight generation.

Shipyard Industry Succession: A Case Study Analyzing Supervisor Developmental Programs

Charles Hulse

Roundtable: Human Resource Development

The purpose of this case study is to explore the organizational phenomenon of leadership development. It is important to note that this case study is specific to GC1’s leadership development program and the work environment it has been designed around. This research is a qualitative phenomenological study that analyzed the data collected from the interviews of three participants; 1) one who completed the program, 2) one who is currently active in the program, and 3) one who just started the program. Data were analyzed utilizing the descriptive coding technique. This case should only be viewed as a preliminary study designed to answer the question- what are private sector organizational developmental programs producing? More managers or leaders for the shipyard industry?

Human Resources Development and Group Cohesion During Technological and Management

Alina Wreczycki

Roundtable: Human Resource Development

Based on Turner and Tajfel’s (1986) social identity theory of intergroup behavior and Arrows et al.’s (2000) group dynamics, this work explored the relationship between human resources development (HRD) and group cohesion during technological and management changes. The exegesis for this study occurred at Matthew 5:3-12, which provided traits conducive to support group cohesion during management and technological shifts. Robbins’ (1996) inner texture as part of the socio-rhetorical analysis was used to exegete traits from Matthew 5:3-12 (NIV). It was hypothesized that HRD during times of technological changes called for managers to function as situational leaders who inspired and motivated group members to attend training for knowledge transfer into the succeeding organizational processes for sustainability while safely idling the existing procedures. While there appeared to be synergies between Turner and Tajfel’s (1986) social identity of intergroup behavior theory and group cohesion during management and technological changes, it became evident that the balance between HRD and group cohesion was critical and predominately placed in the hands of the manager as an effective leader. The traits that emerged from the participants’ narratives on the relationships with the retired and succeeding managers using Saldana’s (2013) were compared to the exegeted set from Matthew 5:3-12 (NIV). While the traits of the retired manager were consistent with the pericope, those of his successor were not.

Utilizing horizon scanning to attain timely awareness in a future of uncertainty

Rodney B. Woods

Roundtable: Strategic Foresight

The article aims to help leaders understand Horizon Scanning and its benefits in addressing unforeseen challenges arising from various calamities and emergencies in a world of increasing uncertainty. Leaders armed with the necessary tools and resources will be able to create a focused vision, clear identity, and secure future for their organization. Furthermore, the swiftness of their response will indicate a sense of urgency and significantly define their leadership, positively impacting their stakeholders. Therefore, the appropriate application of Horizon Scanning is crucial to business success both now and in the future.

Beyond Strategy and Design: Gaining a competitive advantage in an uncertain world

Jeffery S. Doolittle

Roundtable: Global Consulting

Leadership is facing a time of significant challenge and complexity. Numerous sociological and technological advances are driving the complexity, making it necessary for leaders to discover solutions to meet new challenges. There is no serious question on the need for organizational strategy and design alignment. Numerous studies have demonstrated that successful organizations align their strategy and design with their unique operational environment. Although, while alignment is essential, especially during turbulent times, it is not sufficient. This article considers what leaders might do to gain a competitive advantage in an uncertain world. This author’s premise based on research: Focus on individual and organizational virtues and character. When organizations solely focus on behaviors, they fail to account for habits that can both contribute to or against organizational success. Today’s world is too chaotic not to deepen understanding of how people think, act, and feel. The addition of character and virtues holds the key to unlocking productivity, creativity, and competitive advantage. Moving beyond behaviors and focusing on the development of leadership virtues and character improves performance and provides a competitive advantage.

The Apertures of Consulting Across Disciplines

Chenille White

Roundtable: Global Consulting

The objective of this proposal is to present to practitioners the apertures of consulting across disciplines during the “Empowering Consulting Practitioners, Leaders, and Educators” 2021 Leadership Roundtable. The global pandemic resulted in unprecedented changes and challenges for society. It mandated a re-imagining and restructuring within organizations. The effects are drastic and demand new organizational solutions that adjust to the changing times. Government leaders seek to identify the needs of entities and individuals because of this catastrophic event. Leaders across diverse organizations seek to identify ways to move from survival to organizational advancement. Consultants seek to determine how to meet the needs of both the government and business leaders with strategic consulting that offers long-term solutions. This paper identifies the commonalities and divergences that contribute to the apertures in consulting. The findings reveal the leadership of the government must create systems of communication that includes the leadership of organizations and consultants. The remaining findings exist under this overarching aperture. New theories are nonexistent but merely continuations of approaches and leadership theories seen in such unprecedented conditions. A brief overview and analysis of the current challenges and apertures, emerging theories, and best practices are provided to include recommendations on how to successfully consult in the 21st century and beyond. Additional insight for a proposed case study offers an avenue for further research on how to address the apertures of consulting across disciplines.

Building the Kingdom by Tearing Down Cultural Walls: A Cross-Cultural Leadership Analysis of Jesus’ Elevation of the Despised Samaritans

Michelle G. Segundo

Roundtable: Biblical Perspectives

Organizational success depends on effective leadership whose praxis are often inexorably intertwined within the predominant culture (Dorfman, 1996). Effective leadership entails direct interaction between leaders and their followers; however, the most pervasive and lasting form of leadership happens through the indirect process of influence as the leader is able to communicate the organization’s needs and unify his followers in facilitating and fulfilling shared objectives through collective efforts (Yukl, 2013). Christ not only expected His disciples to carry out His mission, but He demonstrated leadership methods that focused their hearts and motives on loyalty to the kingdom of God rather than remaining loyal to their Judaic culture that traditionally excluded other races and cultures. Grindheim (2017) asserted that the kingdom exerts a liberating, community-shaping force as Christ’s inclusivity was countercultural to the religious tradition that often excluded people from the church and God. The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate methods of cross-cultural leadership through Christ’s personal praxis of cross-cultural leadership and more specifically, Jesus crossing cultural constraints and elevating the role of Samaritans in the New Testament thus promulgating the Great Commission (Matt. 28:18-20) reinforcing Christ’s mission of salvation, healing, restoration, empowerment, and eternal life for all mankind.

Ethical Leadership: Being Transparent in Differing Belief Systems

Gladys M. Monroe

Roundtable: Kingdom Business

Ethical leadership (EL) “motives, values, and behaviors (e.g., honesty, trustworthy, altruistic, fairness)” (Yukl and Gardner, 2020, p.231) lay the foundation for transparent communication, leading to a work environment conducive to a platform for dialogue between differing opinions. Organizational culture mirrors the expectations and values demonstrated by leaders who design the mission, objectives, and vision, but followers must meet these parameters to execute their tasks. “Being self-aware, transparent and vulnerable” (Hendrikz and Engelbrecht, 2019, p.4) are constructs that form the principled leadership scale (PLS) that lends to the leader comprehending their interaction with their followers having an impact and demonstrating humility, exhibiting inner moral character. Downe et al. (2016) assert that good governance within government organizations demonstrates a standard for ethical conduct when managers at all levels and politicians exemplify value-based attributes, which can gain public trust. Examining interaction and reaction among cohorts, experiencing comradery within a structured context, their discussion of workplace challenges, environmental work culture, and relational differences in beliefs, values, and professional roles recognized that it shaped their workplace culture. Baker and Power’s (2018) emphasis on Spiritual Capital (SC) empowers leaders to exert their beliefs and faith in the public realm bringing a stance before those who have different belief systems to recognize that Kingdom Principles have operational validity correlated to value-based doctrine. Clarity of meaning is imperative to effective communication (Konopaske et al., 2018) and accurate interpretation. The follower’s mindset is influenced and changed from self-serving to the ethical leader’s illustration of what they observe and experience.

The Regent Research Roundtables is the proceedings of the School of Business & Leadership Regent Research Roundtables that provide a forum for scholars in the field of business and leadership studies. Participants in the Research Roundtables are selected through a peer-review process. Inclusion in the proceedings follows an editorial selection process with the specific roundtable chair selecting specific articles that fit the style and structure of a proceedings document.

Editorial Staff

Dr. Bruce E. Winston
Regent University

Dr. Kathleen Patterson
Regent University

Editorial Members
Faculty, School of Business & Leadership

Dr. Debra Dean
Regent University

Dr. John Mulford
Regent University

Dr. Diane Wiater
Regent University

Dr. Steve Firestone
Regent University

Dr. Virginia Richardson
Regent University

Dr. William (Dave) Winner
Regent University

Dr. Joshua Henson
Southeastern University

Dr. Andrew Root
Regent University

Production Staff

Ms. Myrnalyn Castillo
Website Production
Regent University