An Integrative Definition of Leadership
This study addresses the problem of varied definitions of leadership and focuses on the possibility that as part of the social science tradition, the results of other leadership definitions focused only on isolated variables. A review of the leadership literature showed that parsimony may be a problem in understanding leadership. In contrast to parsimony, the study uncovered over 90 variables that may comprise the whole of leadership. The authors then proposed an integrative definition of leadership encompassing the 90 plus variables that may help researchers and practitioners to more fully understand the breadth and scope of leadership. As more research uncovers new insights into leadership, this integrative definition will need to be upgraded, and as well, this integrative definition could be used as a base for leadership development programs.
A search of the Expanded Academic Database in 2003 of published articles using the term “leadership” returned over 26,000 articles. One might wonder if we (as researchers, scholars, consultants, and leaders) were not the cause of this problem in that we have examined the parts of leadership, but not the whole. We reflected on the story of the blind men describing the elephant and the different accurate descriptions that each blind man gave, yet each was insufficient to understand the whole. How would the blind men’s descriptions change if the elephant started walking? The movement of the trunk is different than the movement of the tail which is different than the movement of legs, which is different than the movement of the side of the elephant, which is different than the movement of the ears. While the 26,000 articles talk about leadership, there seem to be a lot of blind men describing a moving elephant.
Why were we blind in our past view of leadership? Perhaps our training in research and the exploration in the social sciences caused us to miss the whole as we probed the parts. Social science research often uses reductionism in studying and understanding social phenomena, with studies focusing on relationships among selected variables. This is not a bad thing to do and has helped us understand hundreds, if not thousands, of social science concepts. However, in the case of the study of leadership, this approach has taken us away from the whole. And it is this whole that we seek to understand. This is not the first attempt to study the whole of leadership as Rost (1993) reviewed leadership definitions, only to end up with the same social science research reductionist flaw when he concluded his work with a five-point definition of leadership. Barker (2002) also reviewed the leadership definitions used to date, only to also conclude that leadership is about two things–process and behaviors. Thus, the purpose of this current presentation on a whole definition of leadership is to present a whole or complete leadership definition as it exists
Working as a team, we reviewed l60 articles and books that contained a definition, a scale, or a construct of leadership. While it is likely we did not find every document written, we stopped when we reached “saturation,” consistently finding redundant material in the literature. With each of the 160 documents containing 1 to 25 constructs, or statements, describing or defining leadership we compiled 1,000-plus constructs/statements that we categorized into 91 discrete dimensions and one labeled as miscellaneous (see the Appendix for a list of the dimensions and sources). Since each dimension represents a part of the “elephant,” we needed to assemble the dimensions back to a whole. For research, this integrative definition is problematic in that the next phase of this project required that we build an integrative model of all the dimensions and show how each element affects the others. While it is problematic in that it is difficult to deal with a model of 90+ dimensions, it is imperative that we find a way to do it. Like Kuhn’s (1996) work on scientific revolution explains–when the current paradigms do not explain the observed phenomena it is time for a different approach. Yet, even these 90+ dimensions are not sufficient to understand leadership. While many of the dimensions that occur in an integrative definition are virtuous, we have not had a clear theory of virtuous leadership–until now. To help the reader follow along with the dimensions of this integrative definition we first present the definition by itself and then follow the definition with separate sections examining each key thought in more depth. In this integrative definition we use complex and compound sentences in order to show the connectedness and interrelatedness of the concepts and dimensions.
An Integrative Definition of Leadership
A leader is one or more people who selects, equips, trains, and influences one or more follower(s) who have diverse gifts, abilities, and skills and focuses the follower(s) to the organization’s mission and objectives causing the follower(s) to willingly and enthusiastically expend spiritual, emotional, and physical energy in a concerted coordinated effort to achieve the organizational mission and objectives. The leader achieves this influence by humbly conveying a prophetic vision of the future in clear terms that resonates with the follower(s) beliefs and values in such a way that the follower(s) can understand and interpret the future into present-time action steps. In this process, the leader presents the prophetic vision in contrast to the present status of the organization and through the use of critical thinking skills, insight, intuition, and the use of both persuasive rhetoric and interpersonal communication including both active listening and positive discourse, facilitates and draws forth the opinions and beliefs of the followers such that the followers move through ambiguity toward clarity of understanding and shared insight that results in influencing the follower(s) to see and accept the future state of the organization as a desirable condition worth committing personal and corporate resources toward its achievement. The leader achieves this using ethical means and seeks the greater good of the follower(s) in the process of action steps such that the follower(s) is/are better off (including the personal development of the follower as well as emotional and physical healing of the follower) as a result of the interaction with the leader. The leader achieves this same state for his/her own self as a leader, as he/she seeks personal growth, renewal, regeneration, and increased stamina–mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual–through the leader-follower interactions.
The leader recognizes the diversity of the follower(s) and achieves unity of common values and directions without destroying the uniqueness of the person. The leader accomplishes this through innovative flexible means of education, training, support, and protection that provide each follower with what the follower needs within the reason and scope of the organization’s resources and accommodations relative to the value of accomplishing the organization’s objectives and the growth of the follower.
The leader, in this process of leading, enables the follower(s) to be innovative as well as self-directed within the scope of individual-follower assignments and allows the follower(s) to learn from his/her/their own, as well as others’ successes, mistakes, and failures along the process of completing the organization’s objectives. The leader accomplishes this by building credibility and trust with the followers through interaction and feedback to and with the followers that shapes the followers’ values, attitudes, and behaviors towards risk, failure, and success. In doing this, the leader builds the followers’ sense of self worth and self-efficacy such that both the leader and followers are willing and ready to take calculated risks in making decisions to meet the organization’s goals/objectives and through repeated process steps of risk- taking and decision-making the leader and followers together change the organization to best accomplish the organization’s objectives.
The leader recognizes the impact and importance of audiences outside of the organization’s system and presents the organization to outside audiences in such a manner that the audiences have a clear impression of the organization’s purpose and goals and can clearly see the purpose and goals lived out in the life of the leader. In so doing, the leader examines the fit of the organization relative to the outside environment and shapes both the organization and the environment to the extent of the leader’s capability to insure the best fit between the organization and the outside environment.
The leader throughout each leader-follower-audience interaction demonstrates his/her commitment to the values of (a) humility, (b) concern for others, (c) controlled discipline, (d) seeking what is right and good for the organization, (e) showing mercy in beliefs and actions with all people, (f) focusing on the purpose of the organization and on the well-being of the followers, and (g) creating and sustaining peace in the organization–not a lack of conflict but a place where peace grows. These values are the seven Beatitudes found in Matthew 5 and are the base of the virtuous theory of Servant Leadership.
The Definition in More Detail
The following sections present the definition in more detail and tie the elements of the definition to past research that is representative, but not exhaustive, of the items in Table 1.
A leader is One or More People…
The great man theory presents the case that leaders are individuals endowed with great characteristics and heroic abilities. In addition, trait theory describes individual leaders as people who have specific characteristics that help or enable the person to be a good leader. While the great man theory implies that people are somehow endowed with some “essence” of leadership, trait theory provides a base for measurable and testable characteristics such as virtues, race, gender, height, appearance, psychological factors, efficacy factors, cognitive factors, and emotional factors to name a few categories. According to Bass and Stogdill (1990) the focus of both the great man theory and trait theory is on the individual.
However, leadership may be provided by a collection of persons (Hambrick, 1987). For example, top management teams represent a group of people who complete all the tasks and processes of leadership but do so as a collective rather than an individual. Traits still apply to leadership teams according to Richard and Shelor (2002), but the literature seems to be silent on the idea of “great” theories in its application to leadership teams. Since a collective of leaders increases the complexity of the leadership process compared to a single leader, the role of traits, as evidenced in research by Carpenter (2002), becomes more important with teams than with individuals.
Who Selects, Equips, Trains, and Influences
Selects… Before employees become followers of the leader(s), it is first necessary to bring the employees into the organization. Collins (2002) posited that a key activity of great leaders is getting the right people “on the bus.” This notion of getting the right people into the organization is explained more fully by the concept of person-organization fit. Person- organization fit can be extended to virtual organizations according to Shin (2004) by examining person-environment fit rather than person-organization fit, thus, the notion of the “right” people for the organization applies whether in a virtual or physical organization.
DePree (1989), as well as Murphy (1996), emphasized the importance of selecting the right people in order to achieve organizational success in the future. This idea was emphasized and strengthened by Chamberlain (2004) in that Chamberlain called for leaders to consider the “calling” or “vocare” that the potential new employee felt and to ensure that the calling could be fulfilled in the organization. Chamberlain’s work ties the person-organization fit concept to the person-job fit concept. These two “fit” concepts are similar but exist in a sequence in that the leader must first select the employee for the organization and then decide with the employee what job is best for the employee. This latter process is what Collins (2002) referred to as getting the right people “in the right seats on the bus.”
Brown, Ledford, and Nathan (1991) along with Kristoff (1996) included the notion of values alignment, or symmetry, of the employees’ values to the organization’s values as a key element in person-organization fit. Support for this idea can be found in McGregor’s (1960) seminal work in that McGregor posited that people would expend as much energy at work as they would at play if the organizations’ values and goals were aligned with their own. It is also the responsibility of the leader according to Arnot (1999) to not allow the alignment or symmetry to become so strong that a cult-like relationship occurs between the follower and the organization.
…Equips… Leaders equip followers by providing appropriate tools, equipment, and other resources so that the followers can be successful in their completion of assigned tasks. This is theoretically defined through Bandura’s (1997) concept of self-efficacy that when moderated by the availability of resources and support of the organization becomes “means efficacy” which is part of general self-efficacy. For more detail on general self-efficacy and means efficacy, see Eden (2001) and Chen, Gulley, and Eden (2001). No matter how capable or efficacious employees/followers are, without sufficient resources it is difficult or impossible to complete the work of the organization.
…Trains… In addition to providing the necessary resources, leaders provide training for followers in order to improve the success of the followers in completing the tasks of the organization. Belasco and Stayer (1994) commented on the importance of providing training but also added the need for helping employees/followers to learn quickly. In turbulent environments such as what Vaill (1996) referred to as permanent white water, the rapid rate and lower predictability of change calls for a requisite change in skills with the speed of change as a factor contributing to overall success of the organization. Maccoby (1981) advocated continuous training not only to prepare the employee/follower for task accomplishment but as a means of increasing the person’s self-efficacy and self-esteem. This notion of improving one’s self-esteem through training was echoed by Spears and Lawrence (2002) as well as Patterson (2002) and Winston (2002).
…And Influences… When new employees have similar values (alignment and/or symmetry) as the organization, have access to the requisite resources, and have the necessary training to do their jobs well, it is not difficult to influence the employee to accomplish the task. This claim is based on the work by Hersey (1997) in which Hersey claimed that if the person is interested in doing the work and has the skills to do the work the leader only needs to direct but not manage in detail. Influence, according to Shartle (1956), as well as Hemphill and Coons (1957), is the process of moving the employee toward the shared employee/organization goals. Capezio and Moorehouse (1997) added to the idea of influence by showing that leaders cause followers to think and feel positively towards the organizations’ goals. According to Tannenbaum, Weschler, and Massarik (1961); Cribbin, (1981); and DuBrin, (1997), all influence occurs through communication whether the communication is in the form of speech, written documents, or demonstrated by behavior. However, leaders influence followers primarily through interpersonal interactions.
Although Zaleznik (1992) implied that influencing employees is a clear demonstration of the leader’s power in the organization, Whyte (1943) advocated influence should avoid the invocation of power and relative status. Both Zaleznik and Whyte may be saying the same thing in that power may refer to the power followers give leaders through the follower’s willful compliance to achieve the organization’s goals as directed by the leader. This would fit Whyte’s call to not have to invoke positional power.
One or More Follower(s) Who Have Diverse Gifts, Abilities, and Skills
As in the notion that leadership may be by one or more people, organizational followership may be by one or more people, although usually one would consider that a leader or a team of leaders would have more than one follower. The idea of a single follower is important though since leaders consider each follower according to the transformational leadership theory (Bass & Avolio, 1994) as well as the leader-member exchange theory (Scandura & Schriesheim, 1994).
…Gifts… Selecting the right people as well as placing the person in the right job requires that leaders determine the potential employees’ gifts, abilities, and skills. DellaVechio and Winston (2004) posited that the seven motivational gifts presented in the twelfth chapter of the Book of Romans in the New Testament provide a set of gifts that exist as a profile of all seven gifts in each person. Leaders would do well to select people who possess certain gift profiles such that all gifts are represented in the organization to the same extent as exists in the general population, thus giving the organization a balance of the gifts. Also, certain gift mixes align better with certain jobs than do other gift mixes, thus it is wise for leaders to assign people to jobs which are best aligned with the person’s gift mix.
…Abilities… According to the Highlands Company Ability Battery brochure, “Everyone is born with natural abilities regardless of education or experience and that by the age of fourteen the natural abilities of each individual have matured enough to be defined and measured” (Highlands Co.). The Highlands Ability Battery measures 19 natural abilities. While the seven motivational gifts show driving characteristics of the individual, natural abilities define what each person can do easily and well. In addition to the Highlands Ability Battery, the Strong Campbell Interest Battery and other batteries are available for use by leaders when assessing followers.
Darcy and Tracy (2003) emphasized the importance of understanding a person’s abilities. Darcy and Tracy’s work examined the use of vocational interest batteries along with the big five personality tests and cognitive ability tests to help understand the individual. Darcy and Tracy cautioned the user of interest batteries to be aware of social desirableness in which the person taking the battery provides responses that may not be accurate but intend to make the person look good to the test giver.
…And Skills… Pettigrew (1988) included the understanding of employees’ skills and the accurate deployment of employees based on these skills as a strategic tool of the leader. Skills are the function-related knowledge and physical skills that contribute to the success and efficiency in completing tasks.
And Focuses the Follower(s) to the Organization’s Mission and Objectives
Bass (2000) implied that transformational leaders “move followers to go beyond their own self-interests for the good of their group, organization or community, country or society as a whole” (p. 21). However, Bass later stated that servant leaders “select the needs of others as [their] [highest] priority” (p. 33). Although this seems that Bass’ comment about servant leaders might imply that the servant leader does not focus the followers’ efforts to the achievement of the organization’s mission and objectives, but it would do so if the organizations’ values and mission were in-line with the followers’ values and mission. This alignment is part of McGregor’s (1960) Theory Y and helps bridge the difference in foci between transformational and servant leadership.
Influence and persuasion are considered by Yukl (1994) as two of the primary functions of leaders. It is presumed in Yukl’s comments that the leader is influencing and persuading followers to work towards the completion of the organization’s mission and objectives. DuBrin (1997) echoed this sentiment in that, according to DuBrin, the leader causes others to act or respond in a shared direction. The presumption here is that DuBrin refers to this “shared direction” as the completion of the organization’s mission.
Since leaders, according to Sadler (1997), Nanus (1989), and Harris (1989), are action- oriented it is logical to presume that this action-orientation, or as Cox and Hoover (1992) would claim as “achievement-orientation,” would be toward the good of the organization. However, it is possible that the focus of the leader might be on self, which would be inline with agency
theory (Donaldson & Davis, 1991) that predicts leaders, acting as agents, are self-serving and seek to have the employees of the organization meet the needs of the leader. However, for the purpose of this definition of leadership, leaders who seek their own good and not the good of the organization would be classified as “bad” leaders, whereas leaders who focus on the good of the employees and the good of the organization would be classified as “good” leaders. This latter view of leaders is in keeping with the idea of leaders as stewards (Davis, Schoorman, & Donaldson, 1997) in which the leader as steward serves the needs of the organization rather than the needs of the self.
The notion of the leader focusing the followers toward the organization’s mission and objectives would include the process of strategic planning in which the leader provides guidance (Staub, 1996) and mobilizes followers to shared aspirations regarding the organization (Kouzes & Posner, 1995). According to Jacques and Clement (1994) as well as Ulrich, Zenger, and Smallwood (1999) the leader sets the purpose and direction of the organization and then, according to Shartle (1956) and Seeman (as cited in Rost, 1993) influences the followers toward a shared direction. Hemphill and Coons’ (1957) belief that leaders direct the activities of a group toward shared goals reinforce this contention.
Tannenbaum et al. (1961) along with Kotter (1990) and Syrett and Hogg (1992) implied that leaders make frequent use of communication skills to influence followers to align with the organization’s mission and work toward the accomplishment of the organization’s objectives. Heskett and Schlessinger (1996) implied that leaders seek to touch the followers’ hearts, which would fit well into the transformational leadership’s concept of idealistic influence (Bass, 2000) and Kouzes and Posner’s (1995) concept of encouraging the heart. Both idealistic influence and encouraging the heart would be accomplished through rhetoric using formal and informal communication channels.
While Crabb (1839) and Zalenik (1992) implied that the leader’s use of influence focuses on the follower’s actions and thoughts, Katz and Kahn (1978) explained that the process of influence went beyond the mechanical compliance with the routine directives of the organization. This notion of going above and beyond the call is aligned with McGregor’s (1960) notion of Theory Y in that followers commit as much energy at work as at play if the values and mission of the organization is the same as the organization. It is the effort above the minimum that leads to exemplary performance.
Causing the Follower(s) to Willingly and Enthusiastically Expend Spiritual, Emotional, and Physical Energy
…Spiritual… This part of the definition relies on McGregor’s (1960) Theory Y concept of the followers willingly expending as much energy at work as at play. In addition, recent research/discussion of spirituality at work (Milliman, Czaplewski, & Ferguson, 2003; Porth, McCall, & Bausch, 1999; Vaill, 1998, 1999) has increased the awareness of and the interest in the spiritual component of followers in organizations. The notion of spiritual, emotional, and physical energy ties to the Greek concept of the three parts of human: (a) spirit, (b) mind, and (c) body.
Burack (1999) specifically tied the importance of spirituality in the workplace to McGregor’s (1960) Theory Y and Ouchi’s (1980) Theory Z. In tying spirituality to these two theories Burack showed the importance of spirituality in the followers’ sense of achievement and
well-being, thus, tying the leader’s influence on the followers’ spirituality that leads to increased follower-innovation.
…Emotional… The leader seeks to cause the follower to expend emotional, or affective, energy toward the organization’s objectives, which is similar to what Kouzes and Posner (1990) referred to as encouraging the heart. When the follower has passion toward the completion of the organization’s objectives, the follower has greater commitment toward achieving the objectives. Recent work on hope in the organization by Avolio, Gardner, Walumbwa, Luthans, and May (2004); Reed and Winston (2005); and Winston, Bekker, Cerff, and Reed (2004) showed the importance of Snyder’s (Shorey & Snyder, 2004) hope theory to the leader-follower interaction. According to Shorey and Snyder, hope is evident in both goal-direction and pathway thinking by followers. Winston, Bekker, Cerff, and Reed (2004) added to this understanding by tying the notion of hope to followers’ desires to expend energy through the use of Vroom’s (1964/1994) expectancy in that followers consciously and specifically think about the probability of achieving a reward if the physical energy is expended and if the reward will be of real value to the follower. It is this emotional energy focused on the reward (intrinsic or extrinsic) and the belief that the reward can be achieved that helps drive the follower toward completing the organization’s objectives.
…Physical… Vroom’s (1964/1994) expectancy theory contains with it the notion of physical effort or task direction in that the follower seeks to achieve the objective through physical effort. This same notion exists in many motivational theories such as Locke and Lathan’s (1990) goal-setting theory, House’s (1996) path-goal theory, as well as, Yukl’s (1994) multiple-linkage model. Task is central to many, if not all, motivational theories in that the focus of motivation, or influence, or persuasion is to motivate followers to achieve organizational objectives.
This physical energy can and usually is done in coordination with other followers according to DuBrin (1997) and Waitley (1995) as well as Prentice (1961) who described the role of the leader as one who accomplishes a goal through the direction of human assistants by gaining collaboration among followers. While this integrative definition has over 90 elements in it, the comprehension of the definition has to see the integrated whole. For example, the marshalling of followers’ physical efforts can only be successful if the values of the organization and the followers are aligned and that sufficient training has occurred to insure adequate competence (Jaques & Clement, 1994).
In a Concerted Coordinated Effort to Achieve the Organizational Mission and Objectives.
The notion of collaboration mentioned above helps frame the leader’s efforts to achieve a concerted coordinated effort by followers. The metaphors of conductor (Wis, 2002) and jazz band leader (DePree, 1993) help explain this part of the definition. When the organization is best served by a mechanistic high degree of direction then the metaphor of conductor is appropriate in that the followers, like the members of a symphony go about their tasks in a very prescribed standard manner with all followers doing exactly what the conductor requests. But, when the organization is best served by a flexible more open style of leadership then the notion of a jazz band leader helps explain how followers go about the execution of their tasks in a manner that allows each follower to express behaviors in a manner that includes personal expression but at the same time fluidly meshing with the other followers.
Both forms of leadership produce a concerted coordinated expression of follower behaviors although each form occurs in a very different manner. While the two metaphors are extremely different the value of the metaphors could be expressed in various degrees of difference. The environment is a key element in deciding which form should be used. Stable predictable environments where opportunities are not considered important in short time frames would be more suitable for the symphony conductor metaphor whereas an environment that is unpredictable and opportunistic would be better served by the jazz band metaphor. The leader’s level of trust (Essex & Kusy, 1999; McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995) and confidence (Giblin, 1986) in the followers also would play a role in that lower levels of trust and confidence would support the symphony conductor metaphor while higher levels of trust and confidence would support the jazz band leader metaphor.
Deming (1986) posited that a major problem for leaders and organizations was each follower doing his/her best. While this seems illogical that people should not do their best it makes sense when considering the need for a concerted coordinated effort. Followers must work together in a balanced method in order to achieve the greatest collective level of effectiveness.
While individuals may not be able to perform to their individual bests, the whole of the organization achieves more when everyone works together. Systems theory contributes to the understanding of a concerted coordinated effort in that a system is a collection of integrated and coordinated processes and subsystems working in harmony to achieve stated objectives. Buzan, Dottino, and Israel (1999) as well as Daft and Lengel (1998) included in their discussions of leadership the requirement of leaders to build group synergy and a sense of unity that ties well to the notion of a concerted coordinated effort. In addition, work by Kouzes and Posner (1995), Cox and Hoover (1992), Kanter (1997), and Jacobson (2000) emphasized the idea that leaders work to foster collaboration among followers by presenting and promoting cooperative goals as well as helping followers to understand how to collaborate.
The Leader Achieves this Influence by Humbly Conveying a Prophetic Vision of the Future in Clear Terms that Resonates with the Follower(s) Beliefs and Values
Smith and Zepp (1998) along with Moldovan (1999) in their studies of Martin Luther King, Jr. compared King to Ghandi and pointed out that both leaders presented a description of the future to their followers in terms that caused followers to see both leaders as humble, yet intense about their beliefs. This is in keeping with Collins’ (2002) determination that great leaders are humble but have fierce resolve toward the organization’s vision.
Bower (1997) claimed that business CEO’s, to be effective, need to move from a management-based orientation to a leadership-based orientation in which the leader can gain trust, exercise justice, and have the confidence to be humble. Bower’s comment is more telling than is evident on the surface. Leaders need to be confident in order to be humble. This seems like a paradox in that confidence might be more logically tied to pride than to humility, but it is, in fact, a sense of confidence that removes the fear that so often prevents the leader from being humble. Little has been written on the notion of leaders and humility and is possibly why humility is a key element in the emergence of servant leadership and authentic leadership conceptual models showing up in the literature now. Avolio et al. (2004) pointed out that
“humble servants of their followers engage the deepest levels of commitment” (p. 18). Both servant leadership and authentic leadership concepts embrace the notion of humility in leaders.
Daft and Lengel (1998) posited that leaders must create an image in the minds of the followers that the followers belong to something bigger and more important than just an individual job. This can be done through the use of rhetoric and picturesque speech creating an image in the mind of the follower as to what the future could be if the followers work to achieve the described future. This is supported by both DePree (1989) and Chatterjee (1998) who stated that leaders define and express reality. Schein (1992) claimed this can be accomplished if the leader demonstrates extraordinary levels of perception as insight into the realities of the world.
By describing a preferable future (Bell, 1997) the leader can present the desired future in contrast to the present. This allows the leader to develop a sense of dissatisfaction with the present in the followers’ minds. Kanter (1996) stated that part of the role of the leader is to see new possibilities, and Kotter (1990) added to this by saying that a role of the leader is to communicate new directions to the followers. Bradshaw (1998) continued the clarification by adding that leaders enable continuous change and movement toward some desired destination. The role of the leader in this process was emphasized by Tichy and Devanna (1990) who showed that effective leaders must see themselves as change agents. Yeung and Ready (1995) added the notion of “strategic change” to the role of leaders thus emphasizing the conscious focus of the leader on the direction of change.
Change can be uncomfortable for people and to this end Murphy (1996) implied that leaders have a responsibility to heal wounds that are inflicted by change. The idea of healing will be discussed later in the definition but needs to be presented here as well in that the actions of the leader can be a contributing cause of pain, discomfort, and wounding. While it is sometimes necessary to create discomfort as a predecessor to change, the leader needs to be observant and ready to assist in the healing process.
Caroselli (2000), Taffinder (1997), Conger and Kanungo (1998), as well as Kouzes and Posner (1995) emphasized the need for the leader to challenge the status quo, both of the current state of the organization and the processes by which the organization achieves its objectives.
Ideas and concepts are sometimes best presented through the use of rhetoric, picturesque speech, metaphors, similes, and poetic language. Miles (1997), Kotter (1990), along with Tannenbaum et al. (1961) described the leader as someone who uses the communication process and rhetoric as a means of influencing followers. Heskett and Schlesinger (1996) implied that leaders need to communicate in such a manner as to touch the heart of followers. This is a characteristic of charismatic leaders according to Bass and Avolio (1994) but it is necessary that the leader use this characteristic judiciously so as to not create a corporate cult (Arnott, 1999).
Such that the Follower(s) can Understand and Interpret the Future into Present-time Action Steps.
It is important for leaders to not only speak the vision but also that followers can understand what to do in order to make the vision become a reality. This requires the followers to move the image of the vision into tactical steps that can be accomplished in the short- to medium-term. Terry (1993) and Moxley (2000) both, but in different terms, indicated that the role of the leader includes the ability to call forth authentic action by followers and to determine strategies that followers can execute in order to achieve the organization’s vision.
While little empirical research has been done on the notion of followers creating present- time action steps, conceptual writings exist from researchers such as Bennis (1989) who proposed that a role of the leader is to give direction to vision and ideas so that followers can work on achieving the vision. In addition to Bennis, Ulrich et al. (1999) called for leaders to set direction so that the vision could become a reality. Kotter (1990) and Kanter (1995) both independently called for similar leadership efforts in that the leader should establish a direction. This can best be done by helping the followers see what must be done in the short and intermediate-term through strategies and tactics to achieve the vision.
Kent, Crotts, and Aziz (2001) presented a description of the leader as one who marshals, energizes, and unifies people toward the pursuit of the vision. Beck and Yeager (2001) added to the idea of marshalling by stating that leaders need to challenge people to reach to a vision. The idea of followers actively working to achieve the vision goes beyond the concept of inspirational motivation, as described in transformational leadership, or the motivational rhetoric of charismatic leaders. Followers have to “see” the incremental steps that connect the present to the future with each follower understanding his/her individual role in the concerted coordinated effort.
In this Process, the Leader Presents the Prophetic Vision in Contrast to the Present Status of the Organization
The field of futures studies includes the concepts of past-present-future or hindsight- insight-foresight as a means of relating and connecting the past as a cause agent for the present and how present actions influence and affect the future. Futurists use the terms possible futures, probable futures, and preferable futures to help distinguish between what could occur, what might occur, and what is the desirable future. While futurists do not claim to be able to predict the future, futurists do claim that within limits, strategies and tactics can work to affect a desirable future. Environmental forces and wild card events (unanticipated climatic events) may hinder or promote the achievement of the preferable future. The leader presents the preferable future as the vision of the organization and emphasizes how the future differs from the present in order to create a sense in the followers’ minds of dissatisfaction with the present. This promotes the followers’ commitment of spiritual, emotional, and physical energy toward the realization of the vision. For, if the vision is similar to the present, there is little reason to commit energy beyond the maintenance level.
Stipek (1988), although writing about what prevents motivation rather than how to motivate, touched on the concept of showing the future as different from the present in that Stipek pointed out that people will not be motivated to work toward future goals unless there is a difference between the present and future and unless the present activities are shown as being related to the attainment of future goals. Callahan (2002) contended that it is not so much “dissatisfaction” with the present but, rather, “discontent” with the present relative to a preferred future that motivates people to behave.
Beckhard and Harris (1987) provided more depth into this notion of dissatisfaction as they used Gleicher’s model:
Dissatisfaction x Vision x First Steps > Resistance to Change
to show how dissatisfaction and vision and the clarity of action steps work collectively to reduce the resistance to change. Since Gleicher’s model uses multipliers in the right-hand side of the equation, if any of the three variables is missing then the right-hand side of the equation falls to zero, thus, showing that all three elements must be present.
And through the Use of Critical Thinking Skills, Insight, Intuition, and the Use of Both Persuasive Rhetoric and Interpersonal Communication including both Active Listening and Positive Discourse, Facilitates and Draws Forth the Opinions and Beliefs of the Followers
In prior paragraphs this integrative definition has referred to the leader’s communication skills and this current part of the definition looks at the leader’s communication skills preceded by critical thinking and logic. Although communication permeates the leader’s day-to-day behaviors it is at this point of the integrative definition that it is emphasized.
…Critical thinking skills… Critical thinking skills include the concepts of logic and reasoning the leader uses to evaluate facts, build information from facts, and hopefully, derive wisdom as to the meaning of the environmental factors. Critical thinking skills include the ability to build and discern inductive or deductive arguments, to determine if the data is qualitative or quantitative and how much reliance can be placed on any argument. Cederblom and Paulsen (1997) explained the ability to build an argument using systematic methods as well as the ability to interpret an argument and recognize how the argument was built is a key factor in superior communication.
The reason the leader needs critical thinking skills is that higher levels of critical thinking skills are predecessors to higher abilities to form persuasive arguments as presented by Cederblom and Paulsen (1997) and noted in the lives of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Ghandi by Moldovan (1999). Novelli and Sylvester (1993) contended that “Critical thinking facilitates cast problems in ways that point to non-obvious solutions” (pp. 142-143), which would precede the communication of solutions or the group-development of solutions.
…Insight… Schein (1992) emphasized the need for insight by declaring that leaders need to demonstrate extraordinary levels of perception and insight into the realities of the world. This notion was also a premise of Wadsworth (1997) who included insightful thinking in the description of great leaders. Argyris (1993) implied insight is important for leaders but not sufficient, in that, according to Argyris, double-loop learning is a problem-based method that does not rely on insight alone; yet, Argyris implied that insight is important for leaders.
Senge (1990) implied insight when he posited leaders must have the capacity to help bring forth new realities for followers. Insight is a precursor for innovation and creativity due to new understandings, or deeper understandings, of the phenomena around the leader that cause the leader to develop new approaches to problems and opportunities. The American Heritage Dictionary provides two definitions for “insight”: (a) the discovery of what was previously hidden and (b) the ability to grasp the true nature of a situation. Leaders follow the latter definition as they seek to understand the nature of things and the deeper premises and causes of systems’ behavior.
…Intuition… Intuition is similar to insight but relies on less empirical evidence. While insight determines the true nature of a situation, intuition is, according to The American Heritage
Dictionary, the act of knowing or sensing without the use of rational processes. Thus, intuition is more of a trait rather than a learned skill. However, Kerfoot (2003) would disagree with the notion that intuition is not a learned trait, although the definition and use of intuition by Kerfoot is more inline with insight. The similarity of insight and intuition leads to difficulty in working with the concepts. For example, the leader who sees the underlying nature of a situation but is unaware of the cognitive processes at work in finding the underlying nature may attribute the finding to intuition rather than insight. Intuition may be a subtle version of insight. Kerfoot and other writers such as Truman (2003) write about intuition in the nursing practice. Truman linked intuition to experience and relied on Hansten and Washburn’s (2000) definition of intuition to “define intuition as a ‘clinical sensing’ based on experience and accumulated knowledge but not always supported by logical evidence” (p. 185) that shows the similarity and differences between insight and intuition. Janesick (2001) added to the notion of the relatedness of insight and intuition by defining intuition as “a way of knowing about the world through insight and exercising one’s imagination” (p. 532), thus showing insight as a subset of intuition.
Perhaps the most researched idea of intuition comes from Jung’s psychological archetypes that form the base for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). One of the MBTI’s four dimensions is the sensing-intuition dimension. Of interest, though, little research, according to Bass and Stogdill (1990) show a preponderance of either the S or the N types among effective leaders. Jung claimed that intuition was a form of perception via the unconscious. This may possibly be a result of the 75-25% occurrence of sensing–intuition in the general population and that there are many applications for details-focused sensors in leadership as there are big picture- focused intuitionist in leadership. The focus for this integrative is that leaders need both insight and intuition to be the most effective.
…Persuasive rhetoric… Rhetoric is the process of using language effectively, and persuasive rhetoric is the process of effective persuasion. A review of the literature on leadership and rhetoric implies to the observer that rhetoric is more in the domain of political communication than general communication, and it should not be restrained to the political arena. If rhetoric is about the effective use of language and leaders use language (written, spoken, aesthetic, non-verbal, etc.), then leaders must continually engage in the practice. Gellis (2002) goes further to imply that the study of leadership should be done through a rhetorical lens.
…Interpersonal communication… Tannenbaum et al. (1961) implied leaders communicate in one-to-one or one-to-few situations. Kacmar, Witt, Zivnuska, and Gully (2003) confirmed the value of interpersonal communication in a study that showed a relationship between higher job performance and more frequent communication with the supervisor. Their study also showed lower levels of job performance with less frequent communication with the supervisor. Lee (2001) added to the breadth of the value of interpersonal communication by concluding from his study that followers in high-quality leader-member exchange relationships perceived greater fairness in distributive justice that, in turn, led to followers’ perception that communication between leaders and followers in the work groups was more cooperative.
Campbell, White, and Johnson (2003) posited that leader-follower rapport is a cause of both positive and negative interpersonal communication. To this end, this integrative definition references the positive side of interpersonal communication in that leaders, while not ignoring mass communication, must use one-to-one and one-to-few communication methods to clearly present to the follower what needs to be presented in a manner that helps the follower understand and contribute to the achievement of the organization’s objectives.
…Active listening… Active listening is the process of hearing the follower’s emotions and intent as well as the spoken words. Rutter (2003) conducted an active-listening intervention in a British boat building firm as a means of changing the leader-follower interaction that hopefully would lead to improved job performance. The results of the intervention showed that performance did increase as did the quality of leader-follower relationships.
McGee-Cooper and Trammell (1995) proposed that leaders should engage in deep and respectful listening in order to fully understand the followers’ ideas and thoughts. Deming (1986) added to this by implying that leaders should listen to followers without judging the quality or intent of the message until hearing the full message. By not passing judgment as the follower speaks, according to Michalko (2001), creativity is more likely to occur in followers.
…Positive discourse… Positive discourse, such as what Cooperrider and Srivastva (1987) proposed in their Appreciative Inquiry approach to action research helps create a positive environment in which followers can comfortably express themselves as the following quote from McManaman (2005) illustrates:
We have the power to sow a spirit of anxiety, or fear, or anger, or joy into the hearts of listeners by the words we choose to employ. Indeed, our words express an attitude that is within, and they bring a portion of that interior world of ours to those to whom they are addressed. We are, however, affected further by the quality of our words–we are either the first beneficiary or first victim of the words we utter. That is why we ought to be especially careful of the words we speak over ourselves.
Through the use of positive discourse leaders can establish an environment of joy and as McManaman noted, become the first beneficiary of the communication. Deming (1986) would concur with McManaman in that Deming declared that one of the tasks of leadership is to create joy in the workplace.
…Draws forth the opinions and beliefs of the followers… It is through active listening and positive discourse that followers feel free to express their opinions and beliefs. Followers choose to be innovative and to present/explain their innovation because followers want to. By creating an environment that is without fear, followers are willing to express themselves according to Ryan and Oestreich (1998). By creating an environment in which followers are willing to express themselves the organization benefits from the increased number of ideas and insights. Sims (2005), in a critique of Donald Trump’s leadership style on the television show The Apprentice, stated, “Effective leaders encourage followers to speak their mind; they don’t demand blind obedience.”
In addition to innovation, when the leader can draw forth the beliefs of the followers the leader can check to see the values of followers and the leader are aligned, which ties back to the earlier values alignment subsection of this integrated definition. Although leaders may not enjoy hearing dissent among followers, when leaders encourage followers to express their opinions problems in the organization can be revealed and resolved.
Such that the Followers Move through Ambiguity toward Clarity of Understanding and Shared Insight
Ambiguity occurs when there is a lack of clear direction by the leader or by the decision- making process. Eisenberg (1984) posited that ambiguity is a necessary component for creative problem solving; however, for followers to understand how to act in order to achieve the future state of the organization’s vision, it is necessary for the follower, with, or without, the help of the leader to work through ambiguity and achieve clarity of action. As part of the creative problem- solving process the followers have to resolve role ambiguity so that the employees as a whole can work in a concerted effort. This means that followers have to be comfortable with the idea of different and ever-changing roles in a volatile every changing environment, such as Vaill (1998) would call “permanent whitewater.” This becomes a systems issue when the employee’s family is included as an environmental variable and is incorporated in the idea of work-family and family-work conflict (Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985).
That Results in Influencing the Follower(s) to See and Accept the Future State of the Organization as a Desirable Condition Worth Committing Personal and Corporate Resources toward its Achievement.
The prior subsections all lead to this summative result–followers committed to working toward the accomplishment of the organization’s objectives.
The Leader Achieves this Using Ethical Means and Seeks the Greater Good of the Follower(s) in the Process of Action Steps such that the Follower(s) is/are Better off (including the Personal Development of the Follower as well as Emotional and Physical Healing of the Follower) as a Result of the Interaction with the Leader.
Syrett and Hogg (1992) implied that leaders should emphasize ethics while Stettner (2000) contended that leaders must have ethics. While it may seem that Stettner, Syrett, and Hogg may be saying the same thing, it may be essential here to infer that leaders should first have ethics and then emphasize ethics in order to increase the level of the authenticity. Crosby (1997) added to this idea of the leader’s ethics in that the leader should enforce ethical conduct in the organization. These three elements of having ethics, emphasizing ethics, and enforcing ethics tie to Ulrich et al.’s (1999) as well as Kanter’s (1995) contention that leaders need to have integrity and show that the espoused theories are the same as the practiced theories in the leader’s life.
…Seeks the greater good of the follower(s)… Transformational leadership as presented by Bass and Avolio (1994) implies that leaders lead followers to levels of higher morals. In addition, transformational leadership implies that the followers are better off with the four I’s of
(a) inspirational motivation, (b) idealized influence, (c) individualized consideration, and (d) intellectual stimulation.
Bass and Steidlmeier (1998) argued that “to be truly transformational leadership, it must be grounded in moral foundations” (abstract), and that through authentic transformational leadership “both the leader and the led are transformed–sharply changed in performance and outlook” (para 20). Of interest though is Bass’ (2000) contention that while transformational leaders seek to improve and influence the followers the leader’s motive is to benefit the organization but that in servant leadership theories the leader’s motive is to benefit the follower. Patterson (2002) and Winston (2003) both implied that servant leaders will seek the benefit of the followers even at the expense of the organization.
…As well as emotional and physical healing of the follower… The notion of healing is expressed in two forms: Spears and Lawrence (2002), who advocated physical healing possibly needed as a result of stress or a debilitating illness, and a contrast to Murphy (1996), who emphasized the role of the leader in healing wounds inflicted by change. This sentiment of healing is echoed by Kerfoot (1999), who said that “the environment in which people work must be one of healing and not anger, competition or lack of support” (p. 106). Kerfoot went on to say that for this healing environment to occur the leader must use holistic rather than mechanistic thinking. Writing about patient care facilities, Kerfoot claimed that “excellence in patient care thrives in settings where the souls of the caregivers, patients, and families can all grow” (p. 106).
Greenleaf (1970) wrote that healing is one of the ten characteristics of a servant leader, and he indicated that within the servant leadership model there is the opportunity for healing the leader and the followers of broken spirits and emotional damage. This notion of healing and restoration to health ties to transformational leadership in which both the leader and follower are better off because of the leader-follower interaction.
The Leader Achieves this Same State for Him/Herself as He/She Seeks Personal Growth, Renewal, Regeneration, and Increased Stamina–Mental, Physical, Emotional, and Spiritual– through the Leader-Follower Interactions.
This part of the definition flows logically from the prior section in that the literature cited in the prior section shows that both the leader and follower benefit from the action. While servant leadership may imply that the leader sacrifices the “self” for the follower, this part of the definition implies that the leader must also benefit from the interaction and that if sacrifice occurs, there is a balance in what is gained. This may take the form of financial or time sacrificed by the leader that in return yields gains in intrinsic rewards for the leader. Transformational leadership implies, according to Burns (1978), that both the leader and the follower lift each other to higher levels of morality and motivation.
The Leader Recognizes the Diversity of the Follower(s) and Achieves Unity of Common Values and Directions without Destroying the Uniqueness of the Person.
Terry (1993) helped support this focus on diversity by pointing out the value of deep diversity that exists across the breadth of the human community. A particularly poignant quote from Terry’s work is “Unity should give us access to diversity; it should never seek to make diversity irrelevant” (p. 5). The obviousness of diversity is all around us, and its existence is hard to ignore. Deming (1986) pointed out that people are different from each other. This seems to be a statement of the obvious but is also the crux of the problems that leaders encounter. Leaders need to first recognize that people are different and that these differences in gifts, abilities, and skills referenced earlier in this integrative definition are what provide the requisite resources for the achievement of the organization’s goals (Fitz-enz, 1997). Smith (1996) made this statement emphatically in that leaders should not only seek, but cherish diversity.
But what of diversity in values? Here is where the “yes, but…” comes into play. The definition states that there must be a unity of common values and directions. This begins with the earlier part of the definition in that leaders must select people to work in the organization whose values are aligned with the values of the organization. McDonald and Gantz (1992) referred to followers establishing a psychological attachment to the organization when the values are aligned. This integrative definition presumes that where there is a psychological attachment between leader and followers there is a tolerance for the differences other than values. Leaders have the task of using the followers’ diverse gifts, abilities, and skills to achieve the organization’s objectives without the unintended consequence of conforming to the non-value- based characteristics of the follower. This requires active management by the leader to insure that diverse followers show respect and acceptance of the followers that are different in one way or another.
The Leader Accomplishes this through Innovative Flexible Means of Education, Training, Support, and Protection
There is a difference between education and training as well as between support and protection. The leader uses all four elements to prepare followers to work towards meeting the needs of the organization while also preparing the followers for life in general.
…Education… Education is the process of gaining insight and understanding about life. Education focuses on the intellection understanding of the world around us rather than how to do tasks. In addition to this general understanding, education should also focus on critical thinking skills such that followers can engage in creative problem solving. Critical thinking skills include the ability to form the question and issue under review (Cederblom & Paulsen, 1997). Lombardo and Eichinger (1999) posited that leaders should be able to think through problems and Harung, Alexander, and Heaton (1999) added to this notion by proposing that leaders should possess excellent critical thinking skills. If leaders should possess critical thinking skills how much more effective will the whole organization be if followers possess critical thinking skills as well.
…Training… Training, in contrast to education, seeks to help the person perform tasks better–more efficiently and more effectively. Training is specific whereas education is general. Cross (1996) made an interesting, albeit provocative, distinction between education and training in that a set of parents may be glad that their daughter is engaging in sex education in school but may not be pleased to learn that their daughter is engaging in sex training in school. Education helps the employee understand “about” the topic whereas training helps the employee “do.” Training involves personal involvement and completion of actions with the goal of increasing both the effectiveness and efficiency of task completion at the end of the training session. Training may not always requires hands-on activity during the training session but would prepare the employee to engage in self-directed hands-on activity following the training session. For example, employees may receive training in how to set a computer calendar function to remind them of upcoming events, and the employee would engage in the hands-on portion after returning to his/her office and his/her own computer.
…Support… Support occurs in two forms: (a) physical/financial resources including time and (b) perceived organizational support that is more affective in nature. For the first form of support leaders must provide employees with the resources to pursue both education and training. This includes financial support for tuition, books, travel, and other requisite elements as well as sufficient time (release from work assignments) to successfully complete the education and training. This, as noted in the next section of the definition is balanced against the available resources of the organization and the value of the education/training to the organization. While it may be of benefit for an employee of a 40-employee organization to complete a bachelor’s degree in marketing, it may not be of benefit for an employee to complete a Ph.D. in marketing. The leader has the responsibility to communicate to the followers what resources are available and how the resources may be requested.
The second form of support, the affective notion of perceived organizational support (POS), as articulated by Rhoades and Eisenberger (2002) in their review of the POS literature, imply that POS is a form of social exchange in which followers ascribe human-like characteristics to the organization and presume that leaders, acting as agents/stewards of the organization, when giving promotions, pay increases, and other rewards for reasons other than externally controlled, such as unions and federal requirement, do so as a means of building goodwill and meeting the followers’ socio-emotional needs. There is reciprocity of effect here in that followers seek to meet the needs of the organizational leaders, acting as agents/stewards of the organization as well. With regard to POS and training, Wayne, Shore, and Liden’s (1997) study showed that training, when presented to followers by the leaders as a discretionary practice resulted in an increase perceived organizational support by the followers.
…Protection… Tied to the affective notion of perceived organizational support is the notion of protecting followers from external agencies, even within the organization. The leader may have to be a buffer between followers and the higher-level authorities in the organization in much the way that a military sergeant may buffer the enlisted soldiers from the officers. While in a perfect world all would work to the good of all, our organizations are fraught with demands upon the time and resources of our employees that may not be of real benefit to the employees, and it is the role of the leader to reduce the impact upon followers from outside interference.
While there are some major protection issues that leaders might face such as reducing the impact of layoffs and mergers, most of the protection issues are small events that occur on a weekly or monthly process such as reducing time wasted in meetings, asking employees to do non-value- added work, etc.
That Provide each Follower with what the Follower Needs within the Reason and Scope of the Organization’s Resources and Accommodations Relative to the Value of Accomplishing the Organization’s Objectives and the Growth of the Follower.
…Within reason… The leader examines the follower’s requests and determines what he/she can provide relative to cost/benefit relationship. For example, if an employee needs a new car to make sales calls and the sales that result from the use of the car yield less than the value of the car, the provision of the car is not a reasonable decision. The leader has an obligation to provide information to the follower regarding the reasonableness of the decision and how the leader reached the decision.
…Scope… The leader has to consider the request for resources within the scope of the organization’s operations. If providing the resource moves the organization, or contributes toward moving the organization away from the focus and scope that the organization stated as its goal, then the resource should not be given. Thus, the leader has to consider the request in light of how the resource “fits” the organization.
…Organization’s resources… Leaders must be aware of the resources that the organization has or has access to and according to Rusaw (2001) organize a wide range of resources. Bradshaw (1998) referred to this process as an “art” that the leader crafts through the process of acquiring, linking, and focusing resources on the organization’s objectives. Waitley (1995) intensified this focus by referring to leaders as “champions” of resources; however, resources for on-going operations are not the limit of the leader’s focus. Kanter (1996) suggested that leaders need to provide resources for process innovation and Fitz-enz (1997) added to this by calling on leaders to provide the resources needed for continuous improvement.
…Value of accomplishing the organization’s objectives and the growth of the follower. This part of the definition calls for the leader to weigh the value to the organization against the value to the follower. This is in contrast to the statement in the earlier section referring to cost/benefit analysis and provides the decision point that separates transactional/transformational leaders from servant leaders. Recall earlier in this document that servant leaders seek the good of the follower over the good of the organization. There may be times when the leader decides to allocate resources that do not meet the cost/benefit analysis of value to the organization, but the leader knows that the follower will gain from the experience of using the resource(s). This relates to the earlier statement in the definition that the follower and the leader must be better off because of the leader-follower interaction. However, this does mean that the leader ignores the principles of stewardship but rather that the leader carefully considers the merits of providing the resource(s) requested from all possible viewpoints.
The Leader, in this Process of Leading, Enables the Follower(s) to be Innovative as well as Self- Directed within the Scope of Individual-Follower Assignments and Allows the Follower(s) to Learn from His/Her/Their Own, as Well as Others’ Successes, Mistakes, and Failures along the Process of Completing the Organization’s Objectives.
This part of the definition looks at how the leader’s behaviors help develop followers to be more productive and self-directed.
…Innovative… Innovation is the process of taking new ideas that develop through creative processes and producing new products, services, processes, methods, etc. Since innovation only occurs at the discretion of the follower (no studies were found that indicated that innovation could be forced or coerced from followers) it seems logical that the leader must create an environment in which followers are encouraged and supported to try new ideas, thus the reference in the definition to mistakes and failures so that the follower is not afraid of taking risks. But, note in the definition that this willingness to take risks may be limited to the scope of the assigned work areas.
The notion of the need for innovation is supported by Buzan et al. (1999) who implied that an innovative workforce can help the organization distinguish itself from the rest of the industry and increase the competitive edge in the global economy. The idea of the leader needing to be creative in order to help encourage followers to be creative is endorsed by Bennis (1997) and Bennis and Goldsmith (1997) as well as Harung et al. (1999).
In addition to developing new products/services for the global marketplace, innovation can be of value in solving problems within the organization. Snyder, Dowd, and Houghton (1994) implied that the fresh ideas which emerge from brainstorming and creative thinking as well as critical thinking (Harung et al., 1999) helped solve long-standing problems and open issues in the organization. This is supported by Cox and Hoover (1992), Lombardo and Eichinger (1996), and Kanter (1995) who endorsed the idea of seeing problems from new angles as a means of increasing insight.
…Self-directed… Sims and Manz’s (1995) concept of self-leadership fits well with this part of the definition due to the followers becoming more self-reliant and more productive as they progress toward self-leadership. According to Manz and Neck (2004) self-leadership is a process in which leaders exercise self-influence to motivate and direct personal behavior in all aspects of their lives. This, in other words, creates the ultimate form of intrinsic motivation and removes the need for extrinsic rewards.
In addition to the notion of self-directed leadership, followers can and should become self-directed learners. This is one of the requirements of a learning organization in that learning occurs through individuals by individuals and shared in the organizational community. Self- directed learning, according to Knowles (1975), occurs when followers who initiate learning processes learn more and learn better than followers who wait passively for someone to teach them what they need to know and followers who initiate learning processes and see improvement as a result increase their sense of confidence and competence.
…To learn… The literature offers advice and research findings for leaders with regard to being concerned for the growth and capability of followers (Eales-White, 1998; Jacobs, 1997; Shelton, 1997; Spears & Lawrence, 2002) and encourages followers to learn (Belasco & Stayer, 1994; DePree, 1989; Syrett & Hogg, 1992). The purpose of transformational leadership’s factor of intellectual stimulation may be a step towards the overall learning of the follower (Bass & Avolio, 1994). Giblin (1986), Waitley (1995), and Deming (1986) supported the notion of both the leader and the follower achieving higher levels of knowledge.
…Mistakes and failures… McGee-Cooper and Trammell (1995) made the claim that the leader needs to create an environment in which the follower feels safe to make mistakes and to learn from those mistakes. In addition, Kanter (1995), Smith (1996), as well as Kouzes and Posner (1995) implied that followers should be allowed to learn from both mistakes and successes.
The Leader Accomplishes this by Building Credibility and Trust with the Followers through Interaction and Feedback to and with the Followers that Shapes the Followers’ Values, Attitudes, and Behaviors towards Risk, Failure, and Success.
This part of the definition builds on the prior sections and shows how credibility and trust develop/evolve rather than being required. It is the safety and comfort of credibility and trust that followers’ values can be shaped.
…Credibility… Kouzes and Posner (1993), in discussing the behavioral aspects of credibility, stated that credible leaders do what they say they will do. Jesus, in the Sermon on the Mount, called for people to make there “yes a yes and their no a no.” This is the base of credibility–to be reliable. To know that you can believe what you hear. Through repeated observations of the leader doing what he/she says that he/she will do, the follower begins to trust the leader. Trust begins in small amounts and increases over time with positive experiences and decreases over time with negative experiences.
Followers’ willingness to increase efforts toward the completion of the organization’s objectives increases as the followers’ belief that the leader will provide the offered and requisite support increases. As each experience occurs in the organization the followers evaluate the past and determine the level of faith in the leader’s future action. It is this faith that becomes trust.
…Trust… As experiences produce observations with positive, and expected, outcomes and as observations of the leader’s credibility results in greater faith in the future, outcomes of the leader’s intention to behave, the followers’ level of trust grows. Likewise, if experiences do not produce expected, credible outcomes, then the followers’ level of faith in the leader declines. Bennis (1997) admonished leaders that it is the role of the leader to inspire and generate trust, and Kouzes and Posner (1993) provided the behavioral methods for accomplishing this as leaders doing what they say they will do. In this fashion, it seems that followers “ascribe” trust to the leader as the leader “earns” the trust through repeated credible behaviors. Deming (1986) wrote that leaders create an environment that encourages trust and in doing so builds a culture in which accountability (Wood & Winston, 2005) allows for the public disclosure of the leader’s behavior and the organizational expectation of consequences to be a result of that behavior.
Sonnenberg (1994) posited that when trust is high in an organization morale is higher, turnover is lower, performance is higher, information is shared more freely, criticism is accepted more freely without retaliation and innovative ideas are more frequent. Sonnenberg cautioned, though, that trust does not come about easily. Trust must be “sought, nurtured and reinforced” (p. 14) and, he added, can be destroyed by a single negative event. Followers, who make themselves vulnerable and experience negative results, tend to reduce trust at a faster rate than they build trust.
The followers’ act of “trusting” results in condition of vulnerability for the follower just as an act of faith leaves a person vulnerable to the possibility of the faith being placed erroneously and necessitating the acceptance of the repercussions of the leader not performing as expected (credible). Gregersen (2003) assisted this connection of trust with faith and risk of negative consequences through the use of the formula: “risk = probability (of events) × the size (of future harms)” (p. 344). In this formula as the probability of negative events goes down, so does the perceived risk. As risk goes down, willingness to engage in behavior by the follower goes up.
…Shapes the followers’ values, attitudes, and behaviors towards risk, failure, and success… As the followers’ perception of the danger of failure reduces and the level of trust/faith increases the follower is willing to engage in behavior that could lead to failure, but since the outcome of the failure is minimal, the followers are willing to try. It is through this willingness to fail that followers develop and perfect innovative practices and efforts. In addition to the followers’ attitude toward failure is the followers’ attitude toward success. Success should bring celebration and joy, but humility should be evident as well. Success can bring pride and arrogance and it is the role of the leader to help shape the organization’s values and attitude toward success through the leader-follower interaction.
In doing this, the Leader Builds the Followers’ Sense of Self Worth and Self-Efficacy such that Both the Leader and Followers are Willing and Ready to take Calculated Risks in Making Decisions to Meet the Organization’s Goals/Objectives and through Repeated Process Steps of Risk-Taking and Decision-Making the Leader and Followers Together Change the Organization to Best Accomplish the Organization’s Objectives.
This part of the definition is inline with Kelley’s (1992) contention that although 20% of the organization’s success can be attributed to leaders, the remaining 80% is attributed to other factors, among which the followers rank the highest. Although Kelley does not specify the percentage of success attributed to followers, he implied that it is higher than the amount ascribed to leaders. The notion of the followers’ sense of self-worth and self-efficacy ties to the earlier portion of the definition that implies both the follower and leader should be better off for having interacted together in the leader-follower process.
…Self worth… Earlier in this definition the notion of the followers being better off because of the interaction with the leader was raised and is now carried forward in this portion. Simmons (1996) proffered that leaders seek to release intelligence, creativity, and initiative in followers. As followers see the result of their intelligence, creativity, and initiative there is an increase in the understanding by the follower of what he/she can do. When the follower suffers from a psycho-social disorder that prevents the normal process of trial-success-self worth then the leader has the responsibility to help the follower into counseling so that the follower can be restored to full functioning behavior. Under normal conditions, though, the leader seeks to bring out the best in people as supported by Rusaw (2001), who contends that leaders activate the talents in others. Taken in small increments of leaders trusting and empowering others this helps generate confidence in followers who may be frightened about the process or the responsibility and the accompanying risk of failure, according to Bardwick (1996). Belasco and Stayer (1994) commented that leaders need to coach the development of personal capabilities and in this same vein of thinking McFarland, Senn, and Childress (1993) contended that leaders seek to empower followers to become leaders in their own right.
…Self-efficacy… Bandura (1995) postulated:
People who have a low sense of efficacy in given domains shy away from difficult tasks, which they view as personal threats. They have low aspirations and weak commitment to the goals they choose to pursue. When faced with difficult tasks, they dwell on their personal deficiencies, the obstacles they will encounter, and all kinds of adverse outcomes rather than concentrate on how to perform successfully. (p. 11)
Thus, it is important for the leader to help the follower develop an accurate assessment of the follower’s self-efficacy and where the follower accurately depicts his/her inability to accomplish some task to help the follower through training and education to be better at the task.
Self-efficacy, according to Bandura (1995) is the followers’ accurate self-appraisal of capabilities and plays a role in the followers’ goal setting. Higher self-efficacy is related to higher goals set by the followers. Bandura postulated that when followers have a realistic self- worth and a realistic self-efficacy then the goals that followers set for themselves or accept from the leader will result in balanced efforts and expectations of success. However, if levels of self- worth and efficacy are beyond what the follower believes is accurate, Bandura cautioned that the follower may suffer bouts of depression.
…Take calculated risks… It is this sense of balance in self-worth, self-efficacy, trust from the leader, empowerment by the leader, provision of resources, and the willingness to accept failure should failure occur that the follower is willing to take calculated risks. The “calculation” portion of this part of the definition refers to the mental evaluation of the probability of success or failure and the gains/losses from either end state. While it is doubtful that followers actually “run the numbers” when calculating the risks there is a weighing of the positives and negatives that occurs. This process is supported in Vroom’s (1964/1994) expectancy theory as well as Ajzen and Fishbein’s (1980) theory of reasoned action.
…Repeated process steps… This part of the definition implies the leader-follower interaction is an iterative cyclic process in which each leader-follower interaction affects the next interaction. The process begins with small amounts of trust by the leader and acceptance of responsibility by the follower and if the outcome is successful then both increase the amount of trust, risk, resources, and responsibility. If the outcome is not successful then reduced amounts of trust, risk, resources, and responsibility occur. The process may go through upward and downward movements with the leader and follower watching both the short-term and long-term results.
…Leader and followers together change the organization… This portion of the definition fits well with Kelley’s (1992) concept of followership in which Kelley claimed that about 20% of the success of the organization is due to the leader and that the remainder was largely influenced by the follower, although Kelley did not venture a guess at the percentage attributable to the follower per se. The overall concept that is derived from this part of the definition is that leaders and followers work together through cyclic process steps of trust, empowerment, risk, and responsibility seeking to attain the organization’s objectives and in so doing seek to help the organization adapt to internal and outside environmental forces.
The Leader Recognizes the Impact and Importance of Audiences Outside of the Organization’s System and Presents the Organization to the Outside Audiences in such a Manner that the Audiences have a Clear Impression of the Organization’s Purpose and Goals and can Clearly See the Purpose and Goals Lived Out in the Life of the Leader.
This portion of the definition begins to move the organizational system boundaries out beyond the organization itself and includes the greater environment to include but not limited to suppliers, legislators, regulators, clients, investors, and observers.
…Outside audiences… Rhetoric and leadership was the focus of studies by Emrich, Brower, Feldman, and Garland (2001) as well as Althouse (2001) and Delgado (1999) with the emphasis on the use of rhetoric by world leaders to affect the attitudes and impressions of outside audiences about the respective organizations. In the case of these three studies the organization was a large socio-political organization, and the leader’s actions can be generalized to all organizations of any size. The leader has within his/her role the requirement to present the organization to outside constituencies. While the organization may have a public relations operations or employ the services of a contracted public relations firm the responsibility still rests on the leader. Arlene (2001), in a study of Steve Jobs at Apple computer, emphasized the use of rhetoric by charismatic leaders to manage the impressions of the audiences. While Arlene limited the discussion to charismatic leaders the idea of impression management seems to apply to all leaders in that there is some form of charisma in all leaders, albeit that some have sufficient charisma to be called “charismatic” leaders. Gardner and Avolio’s (1998) earlier work includes the notion of the leader using rhetoric to promote the organization, as a whole, to both employees and outside constituents.
…Clear impression… Earlier sections of the definition presented how the leader communicates the vision and values of the organization to the followers and in much the same way but using different means and images the leader must present the organization to the outside constituencies in such a manner that there is a clear image of the organization in the constituent’s minds. It is worth noting that impression management requires the development of a clear impression in both the good and the bad information–whether the impression is to promote the positives of the organization or to repair damage caused by negative information about the organization. During any communication event with the outside constituencies it is the leader’s responsibility to present the image of the organization.
…Lived out in the life of the leader… In Arlene’s (2001) study of Steve Jobs, Arlene points out that the promotion of the organization and the promotion of the leader seem to occur simultaneously in that the leader finds difficulty in separating self from the organization. Here is where integrity reenters the definition in that there must be alignment between what the leader says and what the leader does. In the panel discussion “Four pioneers reflect on leadership. (CEOs Max DePree, Bob Galvin and Bob Haas and educator Warren Bennis)” the four panelists listed integrity as the number one element for leaders to be aware of and to promote in themselves. von Maurik (1997) added to this by proposing that integrity be one of four competences by which leaders should be evaluated (wisdom, integrity, sensitivity, and tenacity). Although it is beyond the scope of this definition to delve into von Maruik’s work, it is interesting to note the ontological nature of the four competencies rather than the axiological or pragmatic nature of most leadership measures.
In so Doing, the Leader Examines the Fit of the Organization Relative to the Outside Environment and Shapes both the Organization and the Environment to the Extent of the Leader’s Capability to Insure the Best Fit between the Organization and the Outside Environment.
This portion of the definition focuses the role of the leader on the macro view of the organization as a whole and how it fits within the greater environment. The approach comes from the organizational ecology field of study.
…Fit of the organization… Hannan and Freeman (1989) posited that the inertia of organizations prevent organizations from adapting to changes in the environment, thus leading to the demise of organizations that no longer fit the environment or are surpassed by more competitive organizations that fit the environment better. It is because of this that leaders must continually monitor the changes in the environment and review the current and probable future organization-environment fit. Singh (1990) supported this notion of an organization being able to adapt to a changing environment and the emphasis on the learning organization shows up in Bruderer and Singh (1996) that leads to the notion that the leader is a catalyst for organizational learning, even at the macro level.
…Shapes both the organization and the environment… If the environment was not shapeable through the actions of the leader we could stop at the notion of the leader as a macro learner, but leaders of organizations can and do shape the environment through lobbying efforts aimed at shaping legislative actions as well as shaping property tax rates through the offering of incentives of employment and growth. Leaders represent the organization to the various local, regional, national, and global environments and seek to create favorable environments or minimize the effect of negative environmental changes. Hartog and Verburg’s (1997) analysis of charismatic leaders’ speeches showing how one of the effects of the rhetoric was to shape external environments support this.
The leader, then, seems to be an artist shaping both the organization and the environment within the constraints of environmental determinism, as proffered by Richardson (1995) who examined the role of highly deterministic environments on the demise of unresponsive/unaware organizations, thus the leader as an aware responsive organizational leader seeks to build both the hearth and home of the organization.
The Leader throughout each Leader-Follower-Audience Interaction Demonstrates His/Her Commitment to the Values of: (a) Humility, (b) Concern for Others, (c) Controlled Discipline, (d) Seeking what is Right and Good for the Organization, (e) Showing Mercy in Beliefs and Actions with all People, (f) Focusing on the Purpose of the Organization and on the Well-Being of the Followers, and (g) Creating and Sustaining Peace in the Organization–Not a Lack of Conflict but a Place Where Peace Grows.
This portion of the definition comes from Winston’s (2002) work on the Beatitudes, found in Matthew 5. Winston notes that the order of the beatitudes presented in Matthew 5 are in the same rank-order of leadership problems he encounters in his consulting and leadership coaching experiences. For a complete review of the values please see Winston’s (2002) complete work.
…Humility… In addition to humility being the focus of the first beatitude, Collins (2002) commented that his research showed that the “great” leaders demonstrated humility. Winston (2002) commented that humility is observed in the leader through the leader’s “teachable-ness.” Leaders in learning organizations, according to Senge (1990), seek the teachable moments in time when ideas and concepts can be taught to others. According to Winston, the same occurs for leaders if leaders are to be taught by employees.
…Concern for others… The second value is sincere concern for followers as well as for all constituencies. Regarding followers, leaders seek to provide at least a living wage, according to Winston (2002), rather than a minimum wage that may not allow the employee to have a reasonable life. This is not to imply a lavish lifestyle for all, but a minimum living wage so that followers are not required to live below the poverty level. This concern extends on to suppliers and constituents in that negotiated deals are good for all parties. Leaders demonstrate concern for others by working with employees who have personal illness or family issues that require the employee to perform at less than desired levels in the workplace, while this does not mean a perpetual sub-optimal performance but rather a tolerance and understanding of short-term impacts. Placing employees in the right job that best uses the employee’s gifts, abilities, and skills, as mentioned earlier in this definition, is another way that leaders demonstrate concern for others.
…Controlled discipline… According to Winston (2002), controlled discipline is a leadership value that is demonstrated through consistent controlled behavior that is highly predictable. Leaders seek to find the underlying causes of problems and seek solutions rather than blame and persecution. Discipline, according to Winston (2002), is needed but may more beneficially take the form of training and work-process adjustments. When leaders demonstrate the value of controlled discipline, employees are more willing to take risks since the risk of damage from failure is either lessened for easier to forecast.
…Seeking what is right and good for the organization… Winston (2002) commented that leaders demonstrate this value by not seeking their own good as one might find in agency theory but, rather, behave in ways that benefit the organization, which is more in line with Davis et al.’s (1997) stewardship theory. While leaders who exhibit this value do not shy away from receiving rewards and recognition, the rewards and recognition are always the result of the leader’s focus on the organization and on the employees rather than the leader’s focus on self-aggrandizing actions.
…Showing mercy in beliefs and actions with all people… Leaders seeking the good of the employees, as well as the organization, when making decisions about employee performance demonstrate mercy, according to Winston (2002). If leaders know the underlying causes of the behavior leaders can then make more informed decisions. Deming (1986) commented that 85% of all the problems in organizations are caused by the system with only the remaining 15% of the problems caused by people. Deming inferred, without directly stating it, that employees make mistakes either by trying to do their best at something but acting in ways that are not balanced with the rest of the organization. When failure is ultimately caused by the organization’s system, mercy must be shown to employees.
Sometimes people fail, but with support, training, work reassignment, etc. the employee can be returned to a productive successful state. This is the work of the leader in that the leader has to know the condition of the people and the reasons for performance. Employees, knowing that the leader will have mercy and controlled-discipline, are more willing to take calculated risks.
…Focusing on the purpose of the organization and on the well-being of the followers… Collins (2002) also pointed out that great leaders have a fierce resolve to do what needs to be done in and for the organization. Winston’s (2002) work illustrates that leaders who demonstrate
what Collins calls “fierce resolve” have an intense focus on the purpose of the organization. This can be tied back to the sections in this definition that look at the leader’s actions to convey the organization’s purpose to followers and seek to align the followers’ values and commitments to the organization such that followers willingly commit energy to the accomplishment of the organization’s objectives.
…Creating and sustaining peace in the organization–not a lack of conflict but a place where peace grows. This value may on first glance appear to be in the wrong location in the rank-order of the seven values. What Winston (2002) found in his study of the beatitudes is that
an environment in which peace can be created and sustained requires all the prior six values to be in place and fully practiced. Peace, or ongoing conflict resolution, can not occur, according to Winston, if the leader is not teachable in order to learn about the other parties, or is concerned about the well-being of others, or has controlled discipline in his/her action, or seeks what is good for the organization and people, or values/displays mercy or is focused on the organization.
Peace is not the absence of conflict but the successful and intentional management of tension and the resolution of conflict. According to Winston (2002), employees who work in an organization in which the leader demonstrates this value of peace indicate that they can focus more energy on the accomplishment of the organization’s objectives. Employees report less emotional trauma, less anxiety, and less depression related to work/organizational experiences.
Is the Definition Complete?
While the best summary of the prior sections would be to simply restate the definition in its compact form, we prefer to suggest that you re-read the compact definition now and see if the wholeness seems more obvious. We wrestled with the title of this document and moved through terms such as Zen and holistic as a means of showing the completeness of the definition but, at the same time, we did not want to imply that this is the end of the definition of leadership. The definition of leadership will continue to develop as scholars, researchers, and practicing leaders gain greater insight into the concept.
Aguinis, H., & Adams, S. K. R. (1998). Social-role versus structural models of gender and influence use in organizations: A strong inference approach. Group and Organization Management, 23, 414-446.
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. New York: Prentice-Hall.
Alimo-Metcalfe, B., & Alban-Metcalfe, R. J. (2001). The development of a new transformational leadership. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74(1), 1-27.
Althouse, M. T. (2001). Boris Yeltsin’s ascent to power: Rhetorical roles and the end of the Soviet Union. Communication Quarterly, 49(3), 295-309.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (2000) New York: Houghton Mifflin
Arlene, H. (2001). A dramaturgical analysis of charismatic leader discourse. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 14(3), 253-265.
Argyris, C. (1993). Education for leading-learning. Organizational Dynamics, 21(3), 5-17. Arnot, D. (1999). Corporate cults: The insidious lure of the all-consuming organization. New
Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Walumbwa, F. O., Luthans, F., & May, D. R. (2004). Unlocking the mask: A look at the process by which authentic leaders impact follower attitudes and behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 15, 801-823.
Bandura, A. (Ed.) (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.
Barach, J. A., & Eckhardt, D. R. (1996). Leadership and the job of the executive. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Bardwick, J. (1996). Peacetime management and wartime leadership. In F. Hesselbein, M. Goldsmith, R. Beckhard, The leader of the future. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 131-140.
Barker, R. A., (2002). On the nature of leadership. Lanham: University Press of America.
Barnes, T. (1996). Kaizen strategies for successful leadership: How to take your organization into the future. London: Pitman Publishing.
Bass, B. M., & Stogdill, D. (1990). The handbook of leadership. New York: The Free Press.
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1991). The multi-factor leadership questionnaire. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Bass, B. M., & Steidlmeier, P. (1998). Ethics, character, and authentic transformational leadership. Retrieved February 5, 2005, from the Center for Leadership Studies, School of Management Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York.
Bass, B. M. (2000). The future of leadership in learning organizations. Journal of Leadership Studies, 7(3), 18-40.
Batten, J. D. (1989). Tough-minded leadership. New York: Amacom.
Beck, J. D., & Yeager, N. M. (2001). The leader’s window: Mastering the four styles of leadership to build high-performing teams. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Pub.
Beckhard, R., & Harris, R. (1987). Organizational transitions. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Belasco, J. A., & Stayer, R. C. (1994). Flight of the buffalo: Soaring to excellence, learning to let employees lead. New York: Warner Books.
Bell, W. (1997). Foundations of futures studies (Vol. 1). New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
Bellows, R. M. (1959). Creative leadership. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bennett, J. L. (2001). Trainers as leaders of learning. Training and Development, 55, 43. Bennis, W. (1989). On becoming a leader. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing.
Bennis, W. (1997). Managing people is like herding cats. Provo, UT: Executive Excellence Publishing.
Bennis, W., & Goldsmith, J. (1997). Learning to lead: A workbook on becoming a leader.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Bennis, W. G., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The strategy for taking charge. New York: Harper and Row.
Bergmann, H., Hurson, K., & Russ-Eft, D. (1999). Everyone a leader: A grassroots model for the new workplace. New York: Wiley.
Bernard, C. I. (1938). Functions of the executive. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Bhal, K. T., & Ansari, M. A. (2000). Managing dyadic interactions in organizational leadership.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Birch, P. (1999). Instant leadership. London: Kogan Page.
Blanchard, K. (1996). Turning the organizational pyramid upside down. In F. Hesselbein, M. Goldsmith, & R. Beckhard, The leader of the future. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Blank, W. (1995). The 9 natural laws of leadership. New York: Amacom. Bogardus, E. (1934). Leaders and leadership. Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc.
Boles, & Davenport, H. W. (1975). Introduction to educational leadership (Revised Ed.). New York: Harper and Row.
Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (1991). Leadership and management. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Bower, M. (1997). Developing leadership in a business. The McKinsey Quarterly, 4, 4-17.
Bradford, D. L., & Cohen, A. R. (1984). Managing for excellence: The guide to developing high performance in contemporary organizations. New York: Wiley.
Bradshaw, P. (1998). 4×4 leadership and the purpose of the firm. New York: Haworth Press. Bridges, W. (1996). Leading the de-jobbed organization. In F. Hesselbein, M. Goldsmith, & R.
Beckhard (Eds.), The leader of the future. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Brown, D. E., Ledford, Jr., G. E., & Nathan, B. R. (1991). Hiring for the organization, not the job. Academy of Management Executive, 5(4), 35-51.
Bruderer, E., & Singh. J. V. (1996). Organizational evolution, learning, and selection: A genetic- algorithm-based model. Academy of Management Journal, 39(5), 1322-1349.
Burack, E. H. (1999). Spirituality in the workplace. The Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(4), 280-291.
Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
Bushe, G. R. (2001). Clear leadership: How outstanding leaders make themselves understood, cut through the mush, and help everyone get real at work. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black.
Buzan, T., Dottino, T., & Israel, R. (1999). The brainsmart leader. Brookfield, VT: Gower. Cain, H. (1998). Leadership is common sense. New York: Lebhar-Friedman Books.
Callahan, G. (2002). Economics for real people: An introduction to the Austrian school. Ludwig von Mises Institute.
Campbell, D. P. (1990). The Campbell work orientations surveys: Their use to capture the characteristics of leaders. In K. E. Clark & M. B. Clark, Measures of leadership. West Orange, NJ: Leadership Library of America, Inc.
Campbell, K. S., White, C. D., & Johnson, D. E. (2003). Leader-member relations as a function of rapport management. The Journal of Business Communication, 40(3), 170-194.
Capezio, P., & Morehouse, D. (1997). Secrets of breakthrough leadership. Franklin Lakes, NJ: Career Press.
Caroselli, M. (2000). Leadership skills for managers. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Carpenter, M. (2002). The implications of strategy and social context for the relationship between top management team heterogeneity and firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 23(3), 275-284.
Cartwright, D. & Zander, A. F. (1953). Group dynamics. Evanston, IL: Harper and Row. Cederblom, J., & Paulsen, D. W. (1997). Critical reasoning (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Chamberlain, G. L. (2004). The evolution of business as a Christian calling. Review of Business,
Chatterjee, D. (1998). Leading consciously: A pilgrimage toward self-mastery. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Chelladurai, P., & Saleh, S. D. (1980). Dimensions of leader behavior in sports: Development of a leadership scale. Journal of Sport Psychology, 2, 34-45.
Chemers, M. M. (1997). An integrative theory of leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Chen, G., Gully, S. M., & Eden, D. (2001). Validation of a new general self-efficacy scale
Organizational Research Methods, 4(1), 62-83.
Clark, K. E., & Clark, M. B. (1990). Measures of leadership. West Orange, NJ: Leadership Library of America, Inc.
Clawson, J. G. (1999). Level three leadership: Getting below the surface. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Cohen, W. A. (1990). The art of a leader. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Collins, J. (2002). Good to great: Why some companies make the leap… and others don’t. New York: HarperBusiness.
Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. A. (1998). Charismatic leadership in organizations. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Conger, J. A. (1992). Learning to lead. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Cooperrider, D. L., & Srivastva, S., (1987). Appreciative inquiry in organizational life. In R. W. Woodman & W. A. Pasmore (Eds.), Research in organizational change and development (Vol. 1, pp. 129-169). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Corbin, C. (2000). Great leaders see the future first: Taking your organization to the top in five evolutionary steps. Chicago: Dearborn.
Covey, S. (1996). Three roles of the leader in the new paradigm. In F. Hesselbein, M. Goldsmith, & R. Beckhard (Eds.), The leader of the future (pp. 149-160). San Francisco: Jossey- Bass.
Cox, D., & Hoover, J. (1992). Leadership when the heat’s on. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Crabb, G. (1839). English synonyms. In J. C. Rost (Ed.). (1993), Leadership for the twenty-first century. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Cribbin, J. J. (1981). Leadership strategies for organizational effectiveness. New York: Amacom.
Crosby, P. B. (1997). The absolutes of leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Cross, J. (1996). Training vs. education: A distinction that makes a difference. Bank Securities Journal. Retrieved April 12, 2005.
Daft, R. L., & Lengel, R. H. (1998). Fusion leadership: Unlocking the subtle forces that change people and organizations. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Danzig, R. J. (1998). The leader within you: Master 9 powers to be the leader you always wanted to be. Hollywood, FL: Lifetime Books.
Darcy, M., & Tracy, T. J. G. (2003). Integrating abilities and interests in career choice: Maximal versus typical assessment. Journal of Career Assessment, 11(2), 219-237.
Davis, J. H., Schoorman, F. D., & Donaldson, L. (1997). Toward a stewardship theory of management. Academy of Management Review, 22(1), 20-47.
De Vries, R. E., Roe, R. A., & abd Taillieu, T. C. B. (1998). Need for supervision: Its impact on leadership effectiveness. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 34(4), 486-501.
Deal, T. E., & Kennedy, A. A. (1982). Corporate cultures: The rites and rituals of corporate life.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Delgado, F. (1999). The rhetoric of Fidel Castro: Ideographs in the service of revolutionaries.
Howard Journal of Communications, 10(1), 1-14.
DellaVecchio, D. (2000). Development and validation of an instrument to measure motivational gifts. Dissertation Abstracts International, AAT 9994178.
DellaVecchio, D., & Winston, B. (2004). A seven-scale instrument to measure the Romans 12 motivational gifts and a proposition that the Romans 12 gift profiles might apply to person-job fit analysis. Unpublished manuscript, Regent University, Virginia Beach, Virginia.
Deming, W. E. (1986). Out of crisis. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Engineering Study.
DePree, M. (1989). Leadership is an art. New York: Doubleday. DePree, M. (1993). Leadership Jazz. New York: Dell.
Dinkmeyer, D., & Eckstein, D. (1996). Leadership by encouragement. Delray Beach, FL: St.
Donaldson, L., & Davis, J. H. (1991). Stewardship theory or agency theory: CEO governance and shareholder returns. Australian Journal of Management, 16(1), 49-64.
Donelly, J. H., Ivancevich, J. M., & Gibson, J. L. (1985). Organizations: Behavior, structure, processes. Plano, TX: Business Publications, Inc.
Donnithorne, L. R. (1994). The west point way of leadership: From learning principled leadership to practicing It. New York: Currency Doubleday.
Drucker, P. (1997). The organization of the future. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Dubinsky, A. J., Yammarino, F. J., & Jolson, M. A. (1995). An examination of linkages between personality characteristics and dimensions of transformational leadership. Journal of Business and Psychology, 9, 315-335.
DuBrin, A. J. (1997). 10-minute guide to effective leadership. New York: Macmillan Spectrum/Alpha Books.
Eales-White, R. (1998). How to be a better leader. London: Kogan Page.
Eden, D. (2001). Means efficacy: External sources of general and specific subjective efficacy. In
M. Erez, U. Kleinbeck, & H. Thierry (Eds.), Work motivation in the context of a globalizing economy (pp. 73-86). Mahwah, NJ: Lawerence Erlbaum Associates.
Edinger. L.J. (1967). Political leadership in industrialized societies. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Eisenberg, E. M. (1984). Ambiguity as strategy in organizational communication.
Communication Monographs, 51(September), 227-242.
Emrich, C. G., Brower, H. H., Feldman, J. M., & Garland, H. (2001). Images in words: Presidential rhetoric, charisma, and greatness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46(3), 527-560.
Engle, E. M., & Lord, R. G. (1997). Implicit theories, self-schemas, and leader-member exchange. Academy of Management Journal, 40(4), 23.
Engstrom, T. (1976). The making of a Christian leader. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
Essex, L., & Kusy, M. (1999). Fast forward leadership: How to exchange outmoded practices quickly for forward-looking leadership today. London: Prentice Hall.
Fairholm, M. R., & Fairholm, G. (2000). Leadership amid the constraints of trust. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 21, 102-109.
Fairhom, G. W. (2001). Mastering inner leadership. Westport: Quorum Books.
Farling, M. L., Stone, A. G., & Winston, B. E. (1999). Servant leadership: Setting the stage for empirical research. The Journal of Leadership Studies, 6, 49-72.
Fitz-enz, J. (1997). Survey from Saratoga Institute. In D. Ulrich, J. Zenger, & N. Smallwood (Eds.). Results-based leadership. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Fortune, D., & Fortune, K. (1987). Discover your God-given gifts. Grand Rapids, MI: Chosen Books.
Four pioneers reflect on leadership. (CEOs Max DePree, Bob Galvin and Bob Haas and educator Warren Bennis). (1998). Training & Development, 52(7), 38-42.
Gabris, G., Grenell, K., Ihrke, D. & Kaatz, J. (2000). Innovation at the local level: Some Effects of administrative leadership and board behavior. Public Productivity and Management Review, 23(4), 486-494.
Gardner, W. L., & Avolio, B. J. (1998). The charismatic relationship: A dramaturgical perspective. Academy of Management Review, 23(1), 32-58.
Gastil, J. (1997). A definition and illustration of democratic leadership. In K. Grint (Ed.), Leadership: Classical, contemporary, and critical approaches (pp. 155-178). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gellis, M. (2002). Leadership, rhetoric, and the polis. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, 32(3), 199-208.
Gibb, C. A. (1954). Leadership. In G. Lindzey (Ed.), Handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2, pp.
877-920). Cambridge, MA: Adison-Wesley.
Giblin, L. (1986). How to have confidence and power in dealing with people. New York: Prentice-Hall.
Gratton, L., Hope-Hailey, V., Stiles, P., & Truss, C. (1999). Linking individual performance to business strategy: The people process model. Human Resource Management, 38(1), 17- 31.
Greenhaus, J. H., & Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources of conflict between work and family roles.
Academy of Management Review, 10, 76-88.
Greenleaf, R. K. (1970). The servant as leader (an essay). Greenleaf Organization.
Greenleaf, R. K., & Beasley, H. (Ed.), Beggs, J. (Ed.), & Spears, L. C. (Ed.). (2003). The servant leader within: A transformative path. New York: Paulist Press.
Gregersen, N. H. (2003). Risk and religion: Toward a theology of risk taking. N. H. Gregersen.
Zygon, 38(2) 344-374.
Grint, K. (2000). The arts of Leadership. Oxford [UK]; New York: Oxford University Press. Hambrick, D. C. (1987). The top management team: key to strategic success. California
Management Review, 30(1), 88-108.
Handy, C. (1992). 21 ideas for managers: Practical wisdom for managing your company and yourself. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Handy, C. (1996). The new language of organizing and its implications for leaders. In F. Hesselbein, M. Goldsmith, & R. Beckhard, (Eds.), The leader of the future. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Hannan, M. T., & Freeman, J. (1989). Organizational ecology. Boston: Harvard University Press.
Hansten, R., & Washburn, M. (2000). Intuition in professional practice: Executive and staff perceptions. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 30(4), 185-189.
Harris, P. R. (1989). High performance leadership: Strategies for maximum productivity.
Glenview, IL: Foresman.
Hartog, D., & Verburg, R. M. (1997). Charisma and rhetoric: Communicative techniques of international business leaders. The Leadership Quarterly, 8(4), 355-391.
Harung, H. S., Alexander, W. B., & Heaton, D. (1999). Invincible leadership: Building peak performance organizations by harnessing the unlimited power of consciousness.
Fairfield, IA: Maharishi University of Management.
Hemphill, J. K., & Coons, A. E. (1957). Development of the leader behavior description questionnaire. In R. M. Stogdill, & A. E. Coons, (Eds.), Leader behavior: Its description and measurement. Columbus: Ohio State University, Bureau of Business Research.
Hersey, P. (1997). The situational leader. Escondido, CA: Center for Leadership Studies. Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. (1988). Management of organizational behavior. Englewood Cliffs,
NJ: Prentice Hall.
Heskett, J., & Schlesinger, L. (1996) Leaders who shape and keep performance-oriented culture.
In F. Hesselbein, M. Goldsmith, & R. Beckhard, (Eds.), The leader of the future: New visions, strategies, and practices for the next era. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Hesselbein, F., Goldsmith, M., & Beckhard, R. (Eds.). (1996). The leader of the future: New visions, strategies, and practices for the next era. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Hocking, D. (1992). Spiritual gifts. Orange, CA: Promise Publishing Company.
Hollander, E. P. (1978). Leadership dynamics: A practical guide to effective relationships. New York: Free Press.
Hosking, D. M. (1988). The skills of leadership. In J. G. Hunt et al. (Ed.), Emerging leadership vistas. Lexington, MA: Lexington Press.
House, R. J., & Baetz, M. L. (1979). Leadership: Some empirical generalizations and new research directions. In B.M. Staw (Ed.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 1). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
House, R. J. (1996). Path-goal theory of leadership: Lessons, legacy, and a reformulated theory.
Leadership Quarterly, 7(3), 323-352.
Humphrey, W. S. (1987). Managing for innovation: Leading technical people. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Jacobs, M. B. (1997). Reality leadership. Indianapolis, IN: Performance Press.
Jacobs, T. O., & Jaques, E. (1990). Military executive leadership. In K. E. Clark, M. B. Clark, (Eds.), Measures of leadership. West Orange, NJ: Leadership Library of America, Inc.
Jacobson, R. (2000). Leading for change: How to master the 5 challenges faced by every leader.
Jaques, E., & Clement, S. D. (1994). Executive leadership: A practical guide to managing complexity. Arlington, VA: Casan Hall.
Janesick. V. J. (2001). Intuition and creativity: A pas de deux for qualitative researchers.
Qualitative Inquiry, 7(5), 531-540.
Kacmar, K. M., Witt, L. A., Zivnuska, S., & Gully, S. M. (2003). The interactive effect of leader- member exchange and communication frequency on performance ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(4), 764-773.
Kanter, R. (1996). World-class leaders: The power of partnering. In F. Hesselbein, M. Goldsmith, & R. Beckhard, (Eds.), The leader of the future. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kanter, R. (1997). Rosabeth Moss Kanter on the frontiers of management. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Kaplan, S. (2000). Human nature and environmentally responsible behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 56, 491.
Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations. New York: John Wiley. Kelley, R. (1992). The power of followership. New York: Currency.
Kent, R. L., & Moss, S. E. (1990). Self-monitoring as a predictor of leader emergence.
Psychological Reports, 66, 875-881.
Kent, T., Crotts, T., & Aziz, A. (2001). Four factors of transformational leadership behavior.
Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 22(5), 221-229.
Kerfoot, K. (1999). From mechanical to integrated organizations: The leader’s challenge.
Nursing Economics, 17(2), 106.
Kerfoot, K. (2003). Learning intuition–less college and more kindergarten: The leader’s challenge. (On Leadership). Dermatology Nursing, 15(6), 567-569.
Knowles, M. S. (1975). Self-directed learning. A guide for learners and teachers. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall/Cambridge.
Koontz, H., & Weihrich, H. (1990). Essentials of management. New York: McGraw-Hill. Kotter, J. P. (1990). A force for change: How leadership differs from management. New York:
Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (1993). Credibility: How leaders gain and lose it, why people demand it. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (1995). The leadership challenge: How to keep getting extraordinary things done in organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kristoff, A. (1996) Person-organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, and implications. Personnel Psychology, 49(1), 1-50.
Kuhn, T. (1996). The structure of scientific revolutions (3rd ed.). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Laub, J. A. (1999). Assessing the servant organization: Development of the servant organizational leadership assessment (SOLA) instrument. Digital Dissertations: Florida Atlantic University.
Lee, J. (2001). Leader-member exchange, perceived organizational justice, and cooperative communication. Management Communication Quarterly, 14(4), 574-589.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Lombardo, M., & Eichinger, R. (1999). Learning agility. In D. Ulrich, J. Zenger, & N. Smallwood, (Eds.), Results-based leadership. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Maccoby, M. (1981). The leader: A new face for American management. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Manz, C. C., & Neck, C. P. (2004). Mastering self-leadership: Empowering yourself for personal excellence (3rd ed.). New York: Prentice-Hall.
Martin, J. (2001). Organizational behaviour. London: Thomson Learning.
Maxwell, J. C. (1993). Developing the leader within you. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers. McCaulley, M. H. (1990). The Meyers-Briggs type indicator and leadership. In K. E. Clark, &
M. B. Clark, (Eds.), Measures of leadership. West Orange, NJ: Leadership Library of America, Inc.
McCaulley, M. H., & Lombardo, M. M. (1990). Benchmarks: An instrument for diagnosing managerial strengths and weaknesses. In K. E. Clark, & M. B. Clark, (Eds.), Measures of leadership. West Orange, NJ: Leadership Library of America, Inc.
McFarland, L. J., Senn, L. E., & Childress, J. R. (1993). 21st century leadership: Dialogues with 100 top leaders. New York: Leadership Press.
McGee-Cooper, A., & Trammell, D. (1995). Servant-leadership: Is there really time for it? In L. Spears, (Ed.), Reflections on leadership: How Robert K. Greenleafs theory of servant- leadership influenced today’s top management thinkers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill. McLean, J. W., & Weitzel, W. (1992). Leadership-magic, myth, or method? New York:
Melrose, K. (1995). Making the grass greener on your side: A CEO’s journey to leading by serving. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.
McDonald, P., & Gandz, J. (1992). Getting value from shared values. Organizational Dynamics, 20(2), 64-79.
McManaman, D. (2005). Divine providence and the power of our words. Retrieved January 31, 2005.
Meyer, P. J., Houze, R., & Slechta, R. (1998). Bridging the leadership gap. Arlington: Summit Pub.
Michalko, M. 2001. Cracking creativity. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press.
Mileham, P., & Spacie, K. (1996). Transforming corporate leadership. Washington, DC: FT Pitman Publishing.
Miles, R. H. (1997). Leading corporate transformation: A blueprint for business renewal. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Milliman, J., Czaplewski, A. J., & Ferguson, J. (2003). Workplace spirituality and employee work attitudes: An exploratory empirical assessment. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 16(4), 426-447.
Moldovan, R. (1999). Martin Luther King Jr.: An oral history of his religious witness and his life. Lanham, MA: International Scholars Publications.
Moloney. M. M. (1979). Leadership in nursing: Theory, strategies, action. St. Louis: Mosaby. Montgomery, B. L. (1961). The path to leadership. London: Collins.
Moore, B. V. (1927). The May conference on leadership. Personnel Journal, 6, 124-128.
Moxley, R. S. (2000). Leadership and spirit: Breathing new vitality and energy into individuals and organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Munroe, M. (1997). Myles Munroe on leadership: Inspirational insights for the frontline leader.
Lanham, MD: Pneuma Life Publishing.
Murphy, E. C. (1996). Leadership IQ: A personal development process based on a scientific study of a new generation of leaders. New York: John Wiley.
Naisbitt, J., & Aburdene, P. (1990). Megatrends 2000: Ten new directions for the 1990’s. New York: Morrow.
Nanus, B. (1989). The leader’s edge: The seven keys to leadership in a turbulent world. Chicago: Contemporary Books.
Napolitano, C. S., & Henderson, L. J. (1998). The leadership odyssey: A self development guide to new skills for new times. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Novelli, L., Jr., & Sylvester T. S. (1993). The context for leadership in 21st-century organizations: A role for critical thinking. American Behavioral Scientist, 37(1), 138-139.
Oakley, E., & Krug, D. (1994). Enlightened leadership: Getting to the heart of change. New York: Simon & Schuster.
O’Connor, C. A. (1997). Successful leadership in a week. Hauppauge, NY: Barron’s. Olmstead, J. A. (2000). Executive leadership: Building world-class organizations. Huston:
Ouchi, B. (1980). Theory Z. New York: Doubleday.
Patterson, K. (2002). Servant leadership theory. Dissertation Abstracts International, AAT 3082719.
Pettigrew, A. (1988). The management of strategic change. New York: B. Blackwell.
Pfeffer, J. (1977). The ambiguity of leadership. The Academy of Management Review, 2(1), 104- 112.
Pigors, P. J. W. (1935). Leadership or domination? Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.
Plachy, R., Plachy, R., & Froelich, R. (1987). When I lead, why don’t they follow? Bonus Books. Porth, S. J., McCall, J., & Bausch, T. A. (1999). Spiritual themes of the ‘learning organization.’
Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(3), 211-220.
Prentice, W. C. H. (1961). Understanding leadership. Harvard Business Review, 39(5), 143.
Quinn, R. E. (1988). Beyond rational management: Mastering the paradoxes and competing demands of high performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Rauch, C. F., & Behling, O. (1984). Functionalism: Basis for an alternate approach to the study of leadership. In J. G. Hunt, Hosking, Schrieshiem, & Stewart (Eds.), Leaders and managers international perspectives on managerial behavior & leadership. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.
Reed, M., & Winston, B. (2005). Towards a deeper understanding of hope and leadership.
Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 12(2), 42-53.
Reeve, J. (1995). Motivating others: Nurturing inner motivational resources. New York: Allyn and Bacon.
Resources, tips and tools to make change happen fast! (2001). ChangeMentor, 1(3).
Rhoades, L., & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: A review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 698-714.
Richard, O. C., & Shelor, R. M. (2002). Linking top management team age heterogeneity to firm performance: Juxtaposing two mid-range theories. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 13(6), 958-974.
Richardson, C. (1844). New dictionary of the English language. In J. C. Rost, (Ed.). (1993),
Leadership for the twenty-first century. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Richardson, B. (1995). The politically aware leader: Understanding the need to match paradigms and planning systems to powerful, ‘turbulent fields’ environments. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 16(2), 27-35.
Roberts, W. (1990). Leadership secrets of Attila the Hun. New York: Warner Books. Rost, J. C. (Ed.). (1993). Leadership for the twenty-first century. Westport, CT: Praeger. Rusaw, A. C. (2001). Leading public organizations: An interactive approach. Fort Worth:
Harcourt College Publisher.
Russell, R. F. (2001). The role of values in servant leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 22, 76-84.
Russell, R. F., & Stone, A. G. (2002). A review of servant leadership attributes: Developing a practical model. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23(3), 145-157.
Rutter, K. A. (2003). From measuring clouds to active listening. Management Learning, 34(4), 465-280.
Ryan, K. D., & Oestreich, D. K. (1998). Driving fear out of the workplace: Creating the high- trust, high-performance organization. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Sadler, P. (1997). Leadership. London: Kogan Page in association with Coopers & Lybrand. Sashkin, M., & Burke, W. W. (1990). Understanding and assessing organizational leadership. In
K. E. Clark, & M. B. Clark, (Eds.), Measures of leadership. West Orange, NJ: Leadership Library of America, Inc.
Scandura, T. A., & Schriesheim, C. A. (1994). Leader-member exchange and supervisor career mentoring as complementary constructs in leadership research. Academy of Management Journal, 37(6), 1588-2002.
Schein, E. H. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey- Bass.
Schriesheim, C. A., Tolliver, J. M., & Behling, O. C. (1978). Leadership theory: Some implications for managers. MSU Business Topics, Summer, 35.
Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday/Currency.
Shartle, C. L. (1956). Executive performance and leadership. New York: Prentice Hall.
Shelton, K. (1997). Beyond counterfeit leadership: How you can become a more authentic leader. Provo, UT: Executive Excellence.
Shin, Y. (2004). A person-environment fit model for virtual organizations. Journal of Management, 30(5), 725-743.
Shorey, H. S., & Snyder, C. R. (2004). Hope as a common process in effective leadership. Paper presented at the UNL Gallup Leadership Institute Summit, June 10-12, 2004.
Simmons, M. (1996). New leadership for women and men: Building an inclusive organization.
Brookfield, VT: Gower.
Sims, H. P. (2005). Trump’s management style should be fired. Retrieved January 21, 2005.
Sims, H. P., & Manz, C. C. (1995). Company of heroes: Unleashing the power of self-leadership.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Singh, J. V. (Ed.). (1990). Organizational evolution: New directions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Smith, K. (1996). Taking charge of change: 10 principles for managing people and performance. Reading, MA: Perseus Books.
Smith, K. L., & Zepp, I. G., Jr. (1998). Search for the beloved community: The thinking of Martin Luther King, Jr. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press.
Snyder, N. H., Dowd, J. J., & Houghton, D. M. (1994). Vision, values, and courage: Leadership for quality management. New York: Free Press.
Sonnenberg, F. (1994). Trust me … trust me not (overcoming the cynicism of employees and customers). Journal of Business Strategy, 15(1), 14-16.
Spears, L. C., & Lawrence, M. (2002). Focus on leadership: Servant-leadership for the twenty- first century. New York: Wiley.
Staub, R. E. (1996). The heart of leadership: 12 practices of courageous leaders. Provo, UT: Executive Excellence Publications.
Stettner, M. (2000). Skills for new managers. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Stipek, D. (1988). Motivation to learn: From theory to practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Stogdill, R. M. (1974). Handbook of leadership: A survey of theory and research. New York: Free Press.
Syrett, M., & Hogg, C. (1992). Frontiers of leadership: An essential reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Taffinder, P. (1997). The new leaders: Achieving corporate transformation through dynamic leadership. London: Kogan Page Limited.
Tannenbaum, R., Weschler, I. R., & Massarik, F. (1961). Leadership and organization: A behavioral science approach. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Tead, O. (1935). The art of leadership. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Terry, R. W. (1993). Authentic leadership: Courage in action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Tichy, N. M., & Devanna, M. A. (1990). The transformational leader: The key to global competitiveness. New York: Wiley.
Timpe, A. D. (1987). Leadership. New York: Facts on File.
Truman, P. (2003). Intuition and practice (nursing knowledge). Nursing Standard, 18(7), 42-43.
Tyagi, P. K. (1985). Relative importance of key job dimensions and leadership behaviors in motivating salesperson work performance. Journal of Marketing, 49(3), 76-86.
Ulrich, D., Zenger, J., & Smallwood, N. (1999). Results-based leadership. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Vaill, P. B. (1996). Learning as a way of being: Strategies for survival in a world of permanent white water. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Vaill, P. B. (1998). Spirited leading and learning: Process wisdom for a new age. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Vaill, P. B. (1999). The spirit of leadership: Liberating the leader in each of us. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Vaughn, L. R. (1997). A new look at leadership: Charting a course for the 21st century. San Antonio, TX: New Life Christian Center.
von Maurik, J. (1997). Beyond management competences: Pointers for future leadership development. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 18(6-7), 312-315.
Vroom, V. (1964/1994). Work and motivation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Wadsworth, W. J. (1997). The agile manager’s guide to leadership. Bristol, VT: Velocity Business Pub.
Waitley, D. (1995). Empires of the mind: Lessons to lead and succeed in a knowledge-based world. New York: Quill.
Waldman, D. A., Ramirez, G. G., House, R.J., & Puranam, P. (2001). Does leadership matter? CEO leadership attributes and profitability under conditions of perceived environmental uncertainty. Academy of Management Journal, 44(1), 134-143.
Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M., & Liden., R. C. (1997) Perceived organizational support and leader- member exchange: A social exchange perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 40, 82-111.
Whetten, D. A., & Cameron, K. S. (1983). Organizational effectiveness: A comparison of multiple models. New York: Academic Press.
White, R. P., Hodgson, P., & Crainer, S. (1996). The future of leadership: Riding the corporate rapids into the 21st century. Washington, D.C.: Pitman Publishing.
Whyte, W. (1943). Street corner society: The social structure of an Italian slum. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Wilson, C.L., O’Hare, D., & Shipper, F. (1990). Task cycle theory: The processes of influence.
In K. E. Clark, & M. B. Clark, (Eds.), Measures of leadership. West Orange, NJ: Leadership Library of America, Inc.
Wilson, J. M., George, J., Wellins, R. S., & Byham, W. C. (1994). Leadership trapeze: Strategies for leadership in team-based organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Winston, B. E., Bekker, C., Cerff, K, & Reed, M. R. (2004). Hope and faith as possible factors in the implementation of strategic plans. Unpublished manuscript, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA.
Winston, B. E. (2002). Be a leader for God’s sake. Virginia Beach, VA: Regent University- School of Leadership Studies.
Winston, B. (2003, October 16). Extending Patterson’s servant leadership model: Coming full circle. Regent University School of Leadership Studies Servant Leadership Research Roundtable. Retrieved February 5, 2005.
Wis, R. M. (2002). The conductor as servant leader. Music Educators Journal, 89, 17. Wood, A., & Winston, B. (2005). Toward a new understanding of leader accountability:
Defining a critical construct. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 11(3), 84-94.
Yeung A., & Ready, D. (1995). Developing leadership capabilities of global corporations: A comparative study of eight nations. Human Resource Management Journal, 34(4), 529- 548.
Yukl, G. A. (1994). Leadership in organizations (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Zaleznik, A. (1989). The managerial mystique: Restoring leadership in business. New York:
Harper & Row.
Zaleznik, A. (1992). Managers and leaders: Are they different? Harvard Business Review, 70, 2.
Zigarelli, M. (2001). The ‘fruit of the spirit’ managers: What do they do and how can I become one?
Zigarelli, M. (2002). Cultivating Christian character. Xulon Press.
|1. Encouragement||Encourage the heart (LPI Leadership Practices Inventory; Kouzes & Posner, 1995) Support (Ragins, 1989) Cheerlead, support, and encourage more than judge, criticize, and evaluate (Blanchard, 1996) Provide encouragement needed for continuous improvement (Fitz-enz, 1997) Encourage and reinforce (Wilson, George, Wellins, & Byham, 1994) Improves self-encouragement and mental skills (Dinkmeyer & Eckstein, 1996)|
|2. Risqué||Takes risks (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998; Bradford & Cohen, 1984; Wilson, O’Hare, & Shipper, 1990) Risk taker (KA-I; Shaskin & Burke, 1990) Ability to take risks (Cain, 1998) Make tough decisions (Cain, 1998) Seize opportunities (Bradfore & Cohen, 1984) Making and taking risks—creating opportunity (Taffinder, 1997) Seizing chances when presented (Cox & Hoover, 1992) Personal risk (Conger & Kanungo, 1998) Experiments and takes risks (Yeung & Ready, 1995) Take initiative beyond job requirements (Bergman, Hurson, & Russ-Eft, 1999)|
|3. Active||Fast (Cox & Hoover, 1992; Kanter 1995) Participate actively (Kent & Moss, 1990)|
|4. In front||Be first (Cox & Hoover, 1992) Symbolize company to the outside world (Deal & Kennedy, 1982) Enhance the company’s image (Heskett & Sclesinger, 1996) To go before (Richardson—New Dictionary of the English Language, 1844) A guide (Buzzan, Dottino, & Israel, 1999; Cox & Hoover, 1992; DePree, 1989; Edinger, 1967; Naisbitt & Aburdene, 1990; Richardson—New Dictionary of the English Language, 1844; Rost, 1993) Conductor (Richardson—New Dictionary of the English Language, 1844) Represent the organization (Plachy, 1987) Control actions (Cox & Hoover, 1992)|
|5. Feedback||Provide feedback (Staub, 1996) (SMP) Giving feedback (Dinkmeyer & Eckstein, 1996) Focus on strengths (Dinkmeyer & Eckstein, 1996) Provide specific and frequent feedback to improve team performance (Kanter, 1995) Remain open to criticism (Gastil, 1997) (Smith, 1996) (Kanter, 1995) Advocates feedback (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998) Observe themselves-feedback (Smith, 1996)|
|6. Trust||Build trust (Kouzes & Posner, 1995) Builds trust by reducing fear (Ryan & Oestreich, 1998) Trust subordinates (Smith, 1996) Trust associates (Smith, 1996) About trust (Bennis & Goldsmith, 1997) Trust (Ulrich, Zenger, & Smallwood, 1999; Wilson, George, Wellens, & Byham, 1994) Trusting staff to deliver (Essex & Kusy, 1999) Inspires trust (Bennis, 1997) Generates trust (Bennis, 1997) Develops trust across a network of constituencies (McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995) Creates an environment that encourages trust (Deming, 1986)|
|7. Flexible||Flexible (Kanter, 1997) Flexible about people and organizational structure (Maccoby, 1981) Conceptual flexibility (Heskett & Sclesinger, 1996) Principled flexibility (Staub, 1996)|
|8. Inform||Information sharing (Daft & Lengel, 1998; McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995) Share information (Bergman, Hurson, & Russ-Eft, 1999) Inform every employee (Barnes, 1996)|
|9. Brings people together||Creating connections (Daft & Lengel, 1998) Partnerships (Daft & Lengel, 1998) Perceives others as part of the same whole rather than as separate Goal for people to feel a sense of belonging to something bigger and more important than just an individual job (Daft & Lengel, 1998) Possess willingness and ability to involve others (Schein, 1992) Elicit participation (Schein, 1992) Ability to convince others—including those you cannot interact with face- to-face to support you (Sadler, 1997) Helps people to see themselves as components in a system (Deming, 1986) Connects people to the right cause (Murphy, 1996) Create enthusiastic support for the goals of the business (Fitz-enz, 1997) Strategic alignment (Heskett & Sclesinger, 1996) Break down barriers (Shelton, 1997) Partnership building (Essex & Kusy, 1999) (Daft & Lengel, 1998) Feels personal value comes from mentoring and working collaboratively with others (McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995)|
|10. Togetherness||Reduce barriers by encouraging conversations (Daft & Lengel, 1998) Break down barriers between departments/people (Shelton, 1997) Encourage openness (Bradford & Cohen, 1984) Promote openness (Barnes, 1996) Synergizes stakeholders (Murphy, 1996) Seeks synergy (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998) Build group synergy (Buzzan, Dottino, & Israel, 1999) Builds an sense of unity (Daft & Lengel, 1998)|
|Sees similarities rather than differences (Daft & Lengel, 1998) Common ground (Daft & Lengel, 1998) Sense of community based on what people share (Daft & Lengel, 1998) Always says we rather than me (Vaughn, 1997) Building community (Spears & Lawrence, 2002)|
|11. Clarity||Increase clarity and agreement (Bushe, 2001) Refine our perception of what we aspire (Chatterjee, 1998) Perceives-defines-expresses reality (DePree, 1989) Demonstrate extraordinary levels of perception and insight into the realities of the world (Schein 1992) Clear objectives (Cox & Hoover, 1992)|
|12. Lead the way||Formulate and define purpose (Bernard, 1938) Leaders are in front of those they lead (Grint, 2000) The head of the firm (Fairholm, 2001) Knows where it is going (Munroe, 1997) Focused (Kanter, 1997) Determination (Cox & Hoover, 1992; Meyer, House, & Slechta, 1998; Snyder, Dowd, & Houghton, 1994) Determines where business is going with broad internal and external objectives (Timpe, 1987)|
|13. Coordination and collaboration||Concerned with transformation of doubts into cooperation (Long, 1963) Foster collaboration by promoting cooperative goals (Kouzes & Posner, 1995) Collaborators (Cox & Hoover, 1992; Kanter, 1997) Brings out people’s abilities to coordinate (Jacobson, 2000) Gets people to move along with him/her and each other with competence (Jaques & Celment, 1994) Causes others to act or respond in a shared direction (DuBrin, 1997) Champions of cooperation-understanding-knowledge (Waitley, 1995) Collaborative and interdependent (McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995) Coordinator (Quinn, 1988) Advocate partnering and collaboration as preferred styles of behavior (Fitz- enz, 1997) Understands benefits of cooperation and losses from competition (Deming, 1986) Build collaborative relationships (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998)|
|14. Builds teams||Build trust (Kouzes & Posner, 1995) Build teams (Bradford & Cohen, 1984; Crosby, 1997; Ulrich, Zenger, & Smallwood, 1999) Build self-managing teams (Bridges, 1996) Team builders (Ragins, 1999; Snyder, Dowd, & Houghton, 1994) Build a team spirit (Harung, Alexander, & Heaton, 1999) Build relationships with people (O’Conner, 1997)|
|15. Achieves||Achievement (Donnithorne, 1994; Stogdill, 1950) Makes things happen (Harris, 1989; Nanus, 1989; Sadler, 1997) To cause progress (Cox & Hoover, 1992)|
|A tool to achieve results (Olmstead, 2000) Achievement orientation (Cox & Hoover, 1992)|
|16. Creative||Creative (Bennis & Goldsmith, 1997) Creative and innovative ability of work force will help their company break away from the pack and remain competitive in global economy (Buzan, Dottino, & Israel, 1999) Creative thinking (Harung, Alexander, & Heaton, 1999) Creativity indefinitely (Buzan, Dottio, & Israel, 1999) Is an original (Bennis, 1997)|
|17. Innovative||Innovate (Bennis, 1997) Develop fresh ideas to long-standing problems and open issues (Snyder, Dowd, & Houghton, 1994) Innovating (Bennis & Goldsmith, 1997) High level of innovation (Cox & Hoover, 1992)|
|18. Fresh Thinking||Think in new and fresh ways (Lombardo & Eichinger, 1997) Brings the organization out of the box (Jacobson, 2000) Capacity of a human community-people living and working together to bring forth new realities (Senge, 1990) Initiating (Bennis & Goldsmith, 1997) Developing perceptual alternatives (Dinkmeyer & Eckstein, 1996) Open mind that welcomes the novel and unusual ideas (Schein, 1992) Ignite innovation (Corbin, 2000) Meet the challenge of oneself to improve (Lombardo & Eichinger, 1997) Make improvements continuously (Barnes, 1996) Greatest effort and most insightful thinking (Wadsworth, 1997) Conceptual skills (Bennis, 1997) Uses intuition and foresight to balance fact-logic-proof (McGee-Cooper & Trammel, 1995) Stays current with emerging trends (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998)|
|19. Problem- solver||Solve problems that arise (Murphy, 1996) Acknowledge problems openly (Barnes, 1996) Urge consideration of counterintuitive alternatives (Lombardo & Eichinger, 1997) Avoids role of chief problem-solver (Smith, 1996) Sound analytical and problem-solving skills (Cox & Hoover, 1992) Make decisions that solve problems (Bergman, Hurson, & Russ-Eft, 1999) Initiation of acts that result in consistent pattern of group interaction directed toward solution of mutual problems (Hemphill, 1949)|
|20. Customer||Exhibit strong customer orientation (Yeung & Ready, 1995) Focus on customers (Barnes, 1996) Visualize the business through the customers eyes (Heskett & Sclesinger, 1996) Respond to customer needs (Bergman, Hurson, & Russ-Eft, 1999)|
|21. Character||Character that inspires (Montgomery, 1961) Character (Bennis, 1997; Danzig, 1998; Donnithorne, 1994) Emotional stability (Auguinis & Adams, 1998)|
|Demonstrates personal character (Ulrich, Zenger, & Smallwood, 1999)|
|22. Plans/guides/ directs||Provide guidance (Staub, 1996) Mobilize to shared aspirations (Kouzes & Posner, 1995) Sets purpose/direction (Jaques & Clement, 1994; Kotter, 1990; Ulrich, Zenger, & Smallwood, 1999) Influence shared direction (Seeman, 1960; Shartle, 1956) Establishes direction (Conger, 1992) Directing activities of a group toward shared goals (Hemphill & Coons, 1957) Development of a clear and complete system of expectations (Batten, 1989) Act in ways that results in others acting or responding to a shared direction (Shartle, 1956) Process of arranging a situation (Bellows, 1959) Articulate strategy (Yeung & Ready, 1995) Giving direction (Jacobs & Jaques, 1990; Mileham & Spacie, 1996) Sets the purpose or direction (Jaques & Clement, 1994) Direct and command (Cox & Hoover, 1992) Sets clear and agreed goals (Eales-White, 1998) Set standard of performance (Deal & Kennedy, 1982) Planning and organizing (Managerial Practices Survey) Regulate the course (Rost, 1993) Call forth authentic action in response to issues (Terry, 1993) Determine strategy (Moxley, 2000) Make things happen (Harris, 1989; Nanus, 1989; Sadler, 1997) Bias toward action (Bennis, 1997) Employs dynamic planning (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998)|
|23. Understands skills of followers||Knows the work of subordinates (Donnithorne, 1994) Skillful deployment of personal qualities (Pettigrew, 1988) Takes responsibility for knowing-understanding-enabling the creative people in the organization (DePree, 1989) Discover-unleash-polish diverse gifts (DePree, 1989)|
|24. Is a guide||Guide and structure collective behavior patterns (Edinger, 1967) Guide the organization (Wadsworth, 1997) Guides a traveler/hand that leads/head that conducts (Crabb, 1839) Guide a group to consensus (Naisbitt & Aburdene, 1990) Guide group in a beneficial direction or valuable destination (Wadsworth, 1997) To guide (Cox & Hoover, 1992; Richardson, 1844) Guide the workforce so they feel valued (Buzan, Dottino, & Israel, 1999) Guide organization to new levels of learning (DePree, 1989)|
|25. Deals with change in organizations||Course of action is changed (Bogardus, 1934) Work in systems that are trying to change (Vaill, 1998) See new possibilities (Kanter, 1995) To take charge to make things happen (Sadler, 1997) Seek change (Sadler, 1997) Coping with change (Kotter, 1990)|
|Communicates new direction (Kotter, 1990) Influence planned change (Harris, 1989) Build bridge to positive and productive change (Meyer, Houze, & Slechta, 1998) Help organizations adapt to change (Jacobson, 2000) Helps individuals, departments, and organizations adapt to change (Jacobson, 2000) Enable continuous change and movement toward some desired destination (Bradshaw, 1998) Identify themselves as change agents (Tichy & Devanna, 1990) Promote change (Wilson, George, Wellins, & Byham, 1994) Manage changes required to realize the vision (Bergman, Hurson, & Russ- Eft, 1999) Leaders change first (Change Mentor, 2001) Serve as a catalyst and manager of strategic change (Yeung & Ready, 1995) Willingness to change (Greenleaf, R. K., edited by Beazley, Beggs, & Spears, 2003) Institutionalizes change (Harris, 1989) Propensity for instituting change (McLean & Weitzel, 1992) Manage change (Ulrich, Zenger, & Smallwood 1999) Involve others in planning, introducing, implementing and integrating change (Change Mentor, 2001) Heal wounds inflicted by change (Murphy, 1996) Make change happen and work as change agent (Schein, 1992) Embraces change (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998) Coordinating leadership tasks in change cycles (Crosby, 1997) Embraces change (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998) Enlarges capacity for change (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998)|
|26. Group interaction||Directing group activities (Halpin & Winter, 1952, Hemphill, 1949) Acts that help the group achieve objectives (Cartwright & Zander 1953) Group functions (Cartwright & Zander 1953) Assist a group (Boles & Davenport 1975) Build self-managing project teams (Bridges, 1996) Moving a group in a direction through mostly noncoercive means (Kotter, 1990) Build teams (Bradford & Cohen, 1984; Ulrich, Zenger, & Smallwood 1999) Promote teamwork (Wilson, George, Wellins, & Byham, 1994) Get everyone to pull together (Bradford & Cohen, 1984) Directing and coordinating activities of others (Bhal & Ansari, 2000) Fuse together two or more groups or philosophies-producing unity (McLean & Weitzel, 1992) Create a unified will to pursue direction (Kent, Crotts, & Aziz, 2001) Build group synergy (Buzan, Dottino, & Israel, 1999) Support team effort (Bergman, Hurson, & Russ-Eft, 1999) Create work teams (Barnes, 1996) Support the team even during a loss (Kanter, 1995)|
|27. Unifies||Mutual stimulation (Pigors, 1935) About joining and coming together (Daft & Lengel, 1998) Attract to persuade (Richardson, 1844)|
|28. Deals with performance||Monitors and reviews performance (Eales-White, 1998) Deal with incompetence (Smith, 1996)|
|29. Is an example||Humility (Collins, 2002) Fierce resolve (Collins, 2002) Is a Models for followers (Munroe, 1997) Be an example (Covey, 1996) A model (Covey, 1996) Go ahead of (Cox & Hoover, 1992) Show the way (Cox & Hoover, 1992; Richardson, 1844) Guide (Cox & Hoover, 1992; DePree, 1989; Edinger, 1967; Naisbitt & Aburdene, 1990; Wadsworth, 1997) Create a path (Cox & Hoover, 1992; Hesselbein, Goldsmith, & Beckhard, 1996) Deals with own discouragement as one way of modeling (Dinkmeyer & Eckstein, 1996) Provide role models (Deal & Kennedy, 1982) Model the way (Kouzes & Posner, 1995) Mentor (McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995; Quinn, 1988) Show the way to induce to follow (Richardson, 1844) Leads by example (Vaughn, 1997) Models values (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998)|
|30. Servanthood||Serves (Farling, Stone, & Winston, 1999; Laub, 1999; Russel, 2001; Munroe, 1997) Motivated by desire to serve others (McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995) Helpful individuals (Jacobson, 2000) Are generous and magnanimous (Smith, 1996) Do unto others-serve (Smith, 1996)|
|31. Persuade||Impress will on those led (Moore, 1927) Make people like it (Titus 1950) Persuasion (DuBrin, 1997; Hollander 1978; Spears & Lawrence, 2002)|
|32. Empowerment||Share power and control (Maccoby, 1981; Schein, 1992; Ulrich, Zenger, & Smallwood, 1999) Empower and engage employees (Covey, 1996) Not fear the strengths in subordinates (Drucker, 1997) Releases intelligence, creativity and initiative of others (Simmons, 1996) Activating talents of others (Rusaw, 2001) Concern for empowerment (Shelton, 1997) Influences people to think-feel-take positive action to achieve goals (Capezio & Moorehouse, 1997) Empower each individual team member to take actions that are needed to achieve vision (Beck & Yeager, 2001) Transfers ownership of work to those who execute the work (Belasco & Stayer, 1994)|
|Create an environment of ownership (Belasco & Stayer, 1994) Empower others to do their best (Yeing & Ready 1995) Empowers others to be leaders (McFarland & Senn, 1993) Effective delegation by setting goals and trust staff (Essex & Kusy, 1999) Empowers all to win (McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995) Create more autonomy and participation so workers have control (Harris, 1989) Enable others to act (Kouzes & Posner, 1995) Leaders are exhilarated by identifying and enhancing their people’s strengths (Batten, 1989) Delegation (Ragins, 1989) Distributes responsibility (Gastil, 1997) Enable every employee (Barnes, 1996)|
|33. Challenge the status quo||Challenges the status quo diplomatically (Caroselli, 2000) Challenges the status quo positively (Caroselli, 2000) Challenging the process (Kouzes & Posner, 1995) Does not maintain the status quo (Conger & Kanungo, 1998) Challenge the norm (Taffinder, 1997) Go beyond the status quo (Taffinder, 1997) By confronting and challenging the status quo-searches for opportunities (Yeung & Ready, 1995) Busts the bureaucracy (Shelton, 1997) Breaks down hierarchy (McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995) Maintain a sense of outrage (willing to take the heat and pressure from above to correct wrongs) (Smith, 1996)|
|34. Power||Power to influence thoughts and actions of others (Zalenik, 1992) Power over decision-making process of community life (Lowery, 1962) Ability to use power effectively (Koontz & Weiheich, 1990) Ability to use power in a responsible manner (Koontz & Weiheich, 1990) Power (Ragins, 1989) Exert power through dignity (Heskett & Sclesinger, 1996) Personal power (Fairholm, 2001) Share power (Maccoby, 1981; Ulrich, Zenger, & Smallwood, 1999; Schein, 1992) Participative approach to management and willingness to share power (Maccoby, 1981) Power of the authority of the office (Deming, 1986) Power of knowledge (Deming, 1986) Power of personality (Deming, 1986) Induce obedience, respect, loyalty, and cooperation (Moore, 1927) Position of authority (Olmstead, 2000)|
|35. Technical||Technical competence (Bennis, 1997; Hinkin & Tracey, 1994; Smith, 1996) Technology foresight (Heskett & Sclesinger, 1996) Comfortable with advanced technology (Bennis, 1997) Advance technology transfer and venturing (Harris, 1996) Display technical skills (Bergman, Hurson, & Russ-Eft, 1999)|
|36. People- oriented||Identify, evoke, and use the strengths of all resources in the organization-the most important of which is people (Batten, 1989) Relational (Edinger, 1967) Interpersonal (Moloney, 1979; Schriesheim, Tolliver, & Behling, 1978) Interpersonal interaction (Schriesheim, Tolliver, & Behling, 1978) Read and understand others (Staub 1996) Skill in building relationship with others (O’Connor,1997) Generates confidence in people who were frightened (Bardwick, 1996) Concern for well-being (Shelton, 1997) Focus on relationship (Humphrey, 1987) Friendly (Kanter, 1997; Tyagi, 1985) Reciprocal relationship (Kouzes & Posner, 1995) Caring (Maccoby, 1981) Focus on interpersonal interactions to increase organizational effectiveness (Schriesheim, Tolliver, & Behling, 1978) Responsibility to represent followers needs and goals they want to achieve (Plachy, 1987) About people (Bennis & Goldsmith, 1997; Maccoby, 1981; Mileham & Spacie, 1996) Knowing people are the primary asset of any organization (Buzan, Dottino, & Israel, 1999) Engage the whole person (Corbin, 2000) Emotional side of directing organizations (Barach & Eckhardt, 1996) Interpersonal skills (Hinkin & Tracey, 1994) Sensitivity to members needs (Conger & Kanungo, 1998) Treats with respect (Tyagi, 1985) Change people’s physical state of being (Blanchard) Create emotion by generating certainty in people who were vacillating (Bardwick, 1996) Concerned with what others are doing (Grint, 2000) Helps people see themselves (Deming, 1986) People skills (Bennis, 1997) Understands people (Deming, 1986) Sensitive to what motivates others (McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995) Guide workforce so they are valued as part of the team (Buzan, Dottino, & Israel, 1999) Believe in people (Tichy & Devanna, 1990) Nurturing humane organizations and communities (Crosby, 1997) Support individual effort (Bergman, Hurson, & Russ-Eft, 1999) Guidance (Wilson, George, Wellins, & Byham, 1994) Nurture the right relationship processes (Barnes, 1996) Studies results with the aim to improve his/her performance as a manager of people (Deming, 1986) Humanity (Napolitano, & Henderson, 1998) Tries to discover who—if anybody—is outside the system and in need of special help (Deming, 1986)|
|Take care of people (Smith, 1996) Thank people (Smith, 1996) Appreciate people (Smith, 1996) Recognize people (Smith, 1996) Recognition (SMP) Show compassion (Bergman, Hurson, & Russ-Eft, 1999) Nurture the leader-follower relationship (emotional) (Smith, 1996)|
|37. Diversity||Richness of deep diversity—that will lead to deeper unity (Terry, 1993) Confronts diversity at every turn (Terry, 1993) Reaches across boundaries (Terry, 1993) Understands that people are different from each other (Deming, 1986) Fully utilize people regardless of race, gender, ethnic origin, or culture (Fitz- enz, 1997) Seek and cherish diversity (Smith, 1996)|
|38. Self||Control actions (Cox & Hoover, 1992) Improves self-encouragement and mental skills (Dinkmeyer & Eckstein, 1996)|
|39. Independent||Work well alone (Handy, 1989)|
|40. Facilitator||Facilitator (Naisbitt & Aburdene, 1990; Quinn 1988) Facilitates by asking questions, drawing people out to guide group to consensus (Naisbitt & Aburdene, 1990)|
|41. Culture||Ability to act in a manner conducive to responding to and arousing emotion (Koontz & Weihrich, 1990) Promote culture (Wilson, George, Wellins, & Byham, 1994) Serve as a catalyst and manager of culture change (Yeung & Ready, 1995) Integrate different cultures, sectors, and disciplines (Drucker, 1997) Build or create culture (Schein, 1992) Maintain and support the culture (Schein, 1992) Posses skills in analyzing cultural assumptions (Schein, 1992) Consciously promote a clearly articulated, stimulating culture (Fitz-enz, 1997) Protect culture from perils of crisis (Murphy, 1996) Listening to followers without judgment increases followers’ creativity (Michalko, 2001) Creates an environment that encourages trust, freedom, and innovation (Deming, 1986)|
|42. Environmen- tally aware||Environmental sensitivity (Conger & Kanungo, 1998) Make sense of happenings in their world that otherwise would not make sense (Pfeffer, 1977) Aligns assets and skills of the organization with the opportunities and risks presented by the environment (Timpe, 1987) Ability to block out the unnecessary and concentrate on the necessary (Cain, 1998) Are expected and perceived to make contributions to social order (Hosking, 1988) Demonstrates uncompromising environmental responsibility (Kanter, 1995)|
|43. Training||Concern for growth (Shelton, 1997) Promote training and development (Syrett & Hogg, 1992) Maximizes the capability of people to fulfill purpose (Jacobs, 1997) Coach the development of personal capabilities (Belasco & Stayer, 1994) Encourages others to learn quickly (Belasco & Stayer, 1994) Deliberately causing people-driven actions in a planned fashion (Crosby, 1997) Coach people (Vaughn, 1997) Willing to teach skills (Smith, 1996) Develop followers (Eales-White, 1998) Guide the organization and people to new levels of learning and performance (DePree, 1989) Concerned with self-development and the development of others (Maccoby, 1981) Commitment to growth of people (Spears & Lawrence, 2002) Promotes continuous learning (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998)|
|44. Communi- cation||Provide a system of communication (Bernard, 1938) Influence through communication (Tannenbaum, Weschler, & Massarik, 1961) Influence exercised in a situation and directed through the communication process (Tannenbaum, Weschler, & Massarik, 1961) Frequency of communication tied to job performance (Kacmar, Witt, Zivnuska, & Gully, 2003) Articulate vision-values-strategy (Yeung & Ready, 1995) Align people by communicating (Kotter, 1990) Frequently communicate (Syrett & Hogg, 1992) Unshakeable commitment to communication (Essex & Kusy, 1999) Active listening improves the leader-follower relationship (Rutter, 2003) Positive communication leads to positive actions (Cooperrider & Srivastva, 1987) Encourage followers to speak their mind (Sims, 2005) Good communication skills (Miles, 1997) High quality interpersonal communication leads to high quality leader- follower interaction (Campbell, White, & Johnson, 2003) Provide open communication and information to personnel-customers- suppliers (Harris, 1989) Actively communicate a wide range of information to employees (Covey, 1996) Creating and communicating meaning in formal and informal forums (Crosby, 1997) Use language to touch the heart (Heskett & Sclesinger, 1996) Have communication skills (Stettner, 2000) Engages in dialogue (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998)|
|45. Humor||Uses humor to take the edge off during stressful periods (Dubinsky, Yammarino, & Jolson, 1995) Utilize humor to keep perspective (Dinkmeyer & Eckstein, 1996)|
|Uses a funny story to turn an argument in his or her favor (Dubinsky, Yammarino, & Jolson, 1995) Makes us laugh at ourselves when we are too serious (Dubinsky, Yammarino, & Jolson, 1995) Uses amusing stories to defuse conflicts (Dubinsky, Yammarino, & Jolson, 1995) Uses wit to make friends of the opposition (Dubinsky, Yammarino, & Jolson, 1995) Use humor (Smith, 1996) Use humor to lift others up (McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995)|
|46. Self-confident||Dares to be themselves (Munroe, 1997) Self-awareness (Bennis, 1997; Bushe, 2001) Self-esteem (Bennis, 1997) Self-confidence (Auguinis & Adams 1998; Napolitano & Henderson, 1998; Roberts, 1990) Secure sense of strengths (Miles, 1997) Possess a belief in self (Heskett & Sclesinger, 1996) Self-confidence with humility (Heskett & Sclesinger, 1996) Understands oneself (Crosby, 1997) Determination (Cox & Hoover, 1992; Snyder, Dowd, & Houghton, 1994) Submit self to mirror test and find comfort with person there (Drucker, 1997) Self-efficacy (Harung, Alexamder, & Heaton, 1999) Confidence (Meyer, Houze, & Slochta, 1998) Determination to achieve (Meyer, Houze, & Slochta, 1998) Awareness of self (Spears & Lawrence, 2002) Conscious of weaknesses and strengths (Maccoby, 1981) Disciplined and determined (Snyder, Dowd, Houghton, 1994) Decisive (Implicit-leadership-theory measure) (Harung, Alexander, & Heaton, 1999; Smith, 1996) Conviction (Bardwick, 1996; Taffinder, 1997) Focused and disciplined (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998) Welcomes criticism and fights paranoia (brutally honest with self) (Smith, 1996)|
|47. Optimistic||Identify and combat discouraging fictional beliefs (Dinkmeyer & Eckstein, 1996) Models optimistic philosophy (Dinkmeyer & Eckstein, 1996) Optimism (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998) Enthusiasm (Vaughn, 1997)|
|48. Knowledge||Superior intelligence (Crabb, 1839) Think deeply (Kanter, 1995) Possess learning agility for self-knowledge (Lombardo & Eichinger, 1997) Think through problems (Lombardo & Eichinger, 1997) Critical thinking skills (Harung, Alexander, & Heaton, 1999) Knowledge (Deming, 1986; Giblin, 1986; Waitley1995) Learns fast (Belasco & Stayer, 1994)|
|Analytical thinking (Ulrich, Zenger, & Smallwood, 1999) Learn from mistakes and successes (Kanter, 1995; Kouzes & Posner, 1995; McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995) Learn form failure (Smith, 1996) Crystallized thinking (Meyer, Houze, & Slecta, 1998) Expertise (Bardwick, 1996) Think strategically (Heskett & Sclesinger, 1996) Learns unceasingly (Deming, 1986) Logic (Auguinis & Adams, 1998) Seeks opportunities to learn (Kanter, 1995) Seek broad business knowledge (Kanter, 1995) Practice insight by seeing things from new angels (Kanter, 1995) Expands information and access to new knowledge (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998)|
|49. Influence||The role of the manager/leader is to motivate (McGregor, 1960) Interpersonal influence (Tannenbaum, Weschler, & Massarik, 1961) Process of influencing the activities of an organized group (Rauch & Behling, 1984) Process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group (Hersey & Blanchard, 1988) Attempt at influencing the activities of followers (Donnelly, Ivancevich, & Gibson, 1985) Art of influencing others to maximum performance (Cohen, 1990) Influence through communication (DuBrin, 1997) Influential increment over and above mechanical compliance with the routine directives of the organization (Katz & Kahn, 1978) Leadership requires power to influence the thoughts and actions of other people (Zalenik, 1992) Influence process to get people to willingly do what must be done and do well what ought to be done (Cribbin, 1981) Process of influencing the activities of an organized group (Stogdill, 1950) Influence over movements and actions of others (Crabb, 1839) Influence attempts that avoid the invocation of power and relative status (Whyte, 1943) Influencing people toward cooperation (Tead, 1935) Ability to persuade or direct men (Reuter, 1941) Influencing activities or an organized group to goal setting/achievement (Stogdill, 1958) Influence behavior toward desired end (by word or deed) (Engstrom, 1976) Acts which influence to shared direction (DuBrin, 1997; Seeman, 1960; Shartle, 1956) Influences decisions and actions of others (Lowry, 1962) Influence agent (Edinger, 1967) Influence actions of others in shared approach (Gibb, 1959) Process of influence-persuasion (Hollander, 1978) Two-way influence relationship (Hollander, 1978)|
|Influential increment over and above mechanical compliance (Katz & Kahn, 1978) Influence members that is successful (House & Baetz, 1979) Influence activities of an individual or group (Stogdill, 1950) Influences group activities (Rauch & Behling, 1984) Influence behavior of another individual or group (Hersey, 1997) All about influence (Maxwell, 1993) Influence planned change (Harris, 1989) Influences dreams (Danzig, 1998) Influences individuals or groups to think (Capezioo & Moorehouse, 1997) Influence between leader and follower (Hollander, 1978) Influence activities of organized group (Rauch & Behling, 1984; Stogdill, 1950) Ability and willingness to influence others so they respond willingly (Clawson, 1999) Influence outside of formal authority (Blank, 1995) Social influence that aids and enlists support to accomplish (Chemers, 1997) Interpersonal influence directed to attaining goals achieved through communication (Donelly, Ivancevich, & Gibson, 1985; DuBrin, 1997; Tannenbaum, Weschler, & Massarik, 1961) Influence people so that they will contribute (Koontz & Weihrich, 1990) Influencing actions of individuals, groups, and organizations to get results (Olmstead, 2000) Organizational influence (Hinkin & Tracey, 1994)|
|50. Goal-oriented||Influence toward goal achievement (Sogdill, 1958) Toward goal achievement (Donelly, Ivancevich, & Gibson, 1985) Efforts toward goal achievement in a given situation (Moloney, 1979) Toward the attainment of some goal or goals (Donelly, Ivancevich, & Gibson, 1985) Inspires as to goals (Munroe, 1997) Accomplishment of a goal through the direction of human assistants (Prentice, 1961) Successfully marshals his human collaborators to achieve particular ends (Prentice, 1961) Gets them to move along together with competence (Jaques & Clement, 1994) Influences goal setting and goal achievement (Stogdill, 1950, 1958) Stimulates accomplishment of goals (Davis, 1942) Organized efforts to achieve goal setting and achievement (Stogdill, 1958) Cooperation toward goal (Tead, 1935) Cement unifying men for cooperative action to achieve given objectives (Titus, 1950) Cure behavior towards objectives (Edinger, 1967) Move towards production goals (Boles & Davenport, 1975) Influence to common objectives or compatible goals (Gibb, 1959) Aimed primarily at attaining goals (Hollander, 1978)|
|Influence to goal attainment (Moloney, 1979) Elicit goals (Staub, 1996) Adopt personal-active attitudes toward goals (Zalenznik, 1989) Causing willing effort to be expended to achieve purpose (Jacobs & Jaques, 1990) Accomplish common task or goal (Chemers, 1997) Achieve organizational goals (Meyer, Houze, & Slechta, 1998) Responsible to accomplish tasks (Fairholm, 2001) Helps the group to achieve its goals, increase effectiveness (Bushe, 2001) Accomplish the leaders agenda (Crosby, 1997) Provide transcendent goals (Batten, 1989) Evaluates progress towards objectives (Murphy, 1996) Goal clarification (Hinkin & Tracey, 1994)|
|51. A force||Principal dynamic force (Davis, 1942) Key dynamic force (DuBrin, 1997) Competitiveness (Roberts, 1990)|
|52. Values||Rational exchange of values (Schlesinger, 1967) Articulate values (Yeung & Ready, 1995) Operate from a set of inspiring core values and beliefs (Fitz-enz, 1997) Define, shape, and use core values (Heskett & Sclesinger, 1996) Common ground based on shared values (Daft & Lengel, 1998) Values based (Meyer, Houze, & Slechta, 1998) Ensure structures and systems in organization reflect values (Covey, 1996) Higher states behavior in terms of principles, values, and intentions (Kent, Crotss, & Aziz, 2001) Have values and beliefs that serve as basis for direction and action (Snyder, Dowd, & Houghton, 1994) Show tolerance of diversity and intolerance of performance, standards, and values (Fitz-enz, 1997) They are value driven (Tichy & Devanna, 1990) Models values (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998) Well-integrated values system (Cox & Hoover, 1992) Live the values of “my unit” (Heskett & Sclesinger, 1996) Develops core values (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998)|
|53. Resourceful||Resourcefulness (Giblin, 1986; Napolitano & Henderson, 1998) Adaptive (Bennis & Goldsmith, 1997)|
|54. Loyalty||Loyalty (Roberts, 1990)|
|55. Mission||Create a path-finding mission (Hesselbein, Goldsmith, & Beckhard, 1996) Ensure structures and systems in organization reflect mission (Covey, 1996) Alignment of the workforce to the mission (Essex & Kusy, 1999)|
|56. Commitment||Commitment from people (Ulirch, Zenger, & Smallwood, 1999) Gain commitment from members (Conger, 1992) Develop commitment to carry vision (Oakley & Kurg, 1994) Voluntary commitment of followers (Nanus, 1989) Encourage commitment (Dinkmeyer & Eckstein, 1996) Mobilize individual commitment (Ulirch, Zenger, & Smallwood, 1999)|
|57. Manages||Manage systems and keep them as stable and serviceable as possible (Vaill, 1998) Set standards (Smith, 1996) Understands and conveys to other the meaning of a system (Deming, 1986) Takes a systems approach (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998) Pumps life and meaning into management structures and brings them to life (Barach & Eckhardt, 1996) Align and ensure the match between organization and strategy (Covey, 1996) Engender organizational capability (Ulrich, Zenger, & Smallwood, 1999) Fully commit to a long-term strategy of building a valuable institution (Covey, 1996) Assembly and reassembly of organizational components, including projects- teams-locations (Essex & Kusy, 1999) Effective management of risk (Cox & Hoover, 1992) Active management by exception behavior (Waldman, Ramirez, & House, 2001) Good management (Fairholm, 2001) Management skills (Humphrey, 1987) Blend multiple organizational models (Corbin, 200) Understands a stable system (Deming, 1986) Manage projects through cross-functional teams (Barnes, 1996) Manage cross-functional purposes (Bergman, Hurson, & Russ-Eft, 1999)|
|58. Listening||Listening (Dinkmeyer & Eckstein, 1996; Spears & Lawrence, 2002) Attentive to what is said (Tyagi, 1985) Listens (accepts ideas, criticisms, feedback) (Smith, 1996) Listen more than tell (Heskett & Sclesinger, 1996) Asks what and why (Bennis, 1997) Listens deeply (McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995) Listens respectfully (McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995) Most likely to listen first (McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995) Listens and learns without passing judgement (Deming, 1986) Listens without judgment (Deming, 1986; McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995)|
|59. Resources||Organize resources—human people (O’Connor, 1997) Organize wide range of resources (Rusaw, 2001) Art and process of acquiring, energizing, linking, and focusing resources of all kinds (Bradshaw, 1998) Focus on resources (Bradshaw, 1998) Champions of resources (Waitley, 1995) Have resources needed to form networks (Kanter, 1995) Provide resources needed for continuous improvement (Fitz-enz, 1997) Dedicate resources to process innovations (Kanter, 1995) Cultivate diverse resources (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998)|
|60. Energy||Energizes (Bennis & Goldsmith, 1997; Nanus, 1989; Senge, 1990) Breathes life into the organization (Senge, 1990)|
|Active (White, Hodgson, & Crainer, 1996; Zalenznik, 1989) Ensure energy is released and sustained across initiatives (Taffinder, 1997) Energy (Danzig, 1998) Fast (Kanter, 1998) Participate actively (Kent & Moss, 1990)|
|61. Attractive/app roachable||Attract followers (Bennis & Goldsmith, 1997; Richardson, 1844) Friendly (Kanter, 1997; Tyagi, 1985) Easy to approach (Tyagi, 1985) Approachable (Smith, 1996) Visible and approachable (Smith, 1996)|
|62. Healing||Healing-oneself and others (Spears & Lawrence, 2002) Heal wounds inflicted by change (Murphy, 1996) The organizational environment must be one of healing (Kerfoot, 1999) Healing is one of the characteristics of servant leaders (Greenleaf, 1970)|
|63. Selection of people||Selects the right people (Murphy, 1996) Knows future lies in the selection-nurturance-assignment of key people (DePree, 1989) Select the most talented team members available (Kanter, 1997; Shin, 2004) Values alignment (Brown, Ledford, & Nathan, 1991; Kristoff, 1996)|
|64. Responsable||Responsible (Fairholm, 2001) Responsible attitude (Maccoby, 1981) Uses power responsibley (Koontz & Weilhrich, 1990) Responsibility (Auguinis & Adams, 1998; Roberts, 1990)|
|65. Dedicated||High dedication to the job (Cox & Hoover, 1992)|
|66. Time management||Use time effectively (Smith, 1996) Manage time and resources (Bergman, Hurson, & Russ-Eft, 1999)|
|67. Networks||Networking (MPS)|
|68. Ethics||Emphasize ethics (Syrett & Hogg, 1992) Have ethics (Stettner, 2000) Display professional ethics (Bergman, Hurson, & Russ-Eft, 1999) Sanctioning conduct (enforcing ethical conduct-laws-norms) (Crosby, 1997)|
|69. Integrity||Integrity (Ulrich, Zenger, & Smallwood, 1999) Leadership acts with integrity (Kanter, 1995) Exudes integrity (Smith, 1996)|
|70. Courage||Courage (Roberts, 1990; Snyder, Dowd, & Houghton, 1994) Courageous individuals (Tichy & Devanna. 1990) Passion and courage (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998)|
|71. Reflection||Reflects feelings (Dinkmeyer & Eckstein, 1996)|
|72. Emotion||Create emotion by generating action where there was hesitation (Bardwick, 1996) Create emotion by generating strength were there was weakness (Bardwick, 1996) Create emotion by generating expertise where there was floundering (Bardwick, 1996)|
|73. Human resources||Human resources frame (Bolman & Deal, 1991) Human resources management (Gratton, Hope-Hailey, Stiles, & Truss,|
|74. Conflict resolution||Negotiate resolution to conflict (Murphy, 1996) Resolves conflict diplomatically and finds common cause (Kanter, 1995) Interpersonal competencies to resolve conflicts in a constructive manner (Harung, Alexander, & Heaton, 1999) Resolving residual conflict in formal and informal courts (Crosby, 1997)|
|75. Decision- making||Make decisions (Bergman, Hurson, & Russ-Eft, 1999) Making decisions and implementing decisions about legislative, executive, and administrative policy (Crosby, 1997) Decisiveness (Harung, Alexander, & Heaton, 1999; Roberts, 1990)|
|76. Disciplined||Develop self-discipline (Barnes, 1996) Well-organized life (Cox & Hoover, 1992)|
|77. Ambiguity||Tolerates ambiguity and paradox (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998) Deal effectively with complex, ambiguous, and contradictory situations (Lombardo & Eichinger, 1997) Ability to deal with complexity, ambiguity, and uncertainty (Tichy & Devanna, 1990)|
|78. Effective||Effectiveness (Munroe, 1997) Lead effectively (Bennis & Goldsmith, 1997)|
|79. Boundaries||Sets parameters (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998)|
|80. Internal||Inner locus of control (Harung, Alexander, & Heaton, 1999) Internal locus of control (Cox & Hoover, 1992) Intrinsic motivation (Cox & Hoover, 1992)|
|81. Financial||Broker (Quinn, 1988)|
|82. Personality||Personality in action under group conditions (Bogardus, 1934) Interaction of specific traits of one person and other traits of many (Bogardus, 1934)|
|83. Stays the course||Stay the course (not follow fads) (Deming, 1986) Constancy of purpose (Deming, 1986) Don’t totally change direction (Deming, 1986)|
|84. Authentic||Authentic Leadership Model (Avolio, Gardner, Walumbwa, Luthans, & May, 2004) Authentic (McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995)|
|85. Inspires and motivates||Simulates, motivate, and coordinated the organization (Davis, 1942) Inspires others to go (Munroe, 1997) Motivates and inspires (Kotter, 1990) Motivates by satisfying basic human needs (Kotter, 1990) Causes people to respond with vigor (Danzig, 1998) Inspires people to understand the social, political, economic, and technological givens (Crosby, 1997) Produces movement in the long-term best interest of the group (Kotter, 1990) Recognize that people must motivate themselves (Cain, 1998) Inspire extra effort (Bradford & Cohen, 1984) Catalyze, stretch and enhance people (Batten, 1989) Motivates and coordinates (Davis, 1942)|
|Comprehend that humans have differing motivation forces at different times and situations (Koontz & Weihrich, 1990) Ability to inspire (Koontz & Weihrich, 1990) Motivation (Ragins, 1989) To cause to follow or pursue (Richardson, 1844) Inspire enthusiasm (Vaughn, 1997) Inspires confidence (Montgomery, 1961) Inspire staff to discover natural creativity, express creative ideas freely (Buzan, Dottino, & Israel, 1999) Motivate themselves to draw on (Richardson, 1844) Create a motivational climate (Batten, 1989) Inspire others to lead (Humphrey, 1987) Inspiring (Kent, Crotts, & Aziz, 2001) Motivates (Davis, 1942) Conceptualization (nurture abilities to dream great dreams, think beyond the day today) (Spears & Lawrence, 2002) Motivates across generation boundaries (Essex & Kusy, 1999) Exhibit extraordinary levels of motivation to enable group members to learn change (Schein, 1992)|
|86. Direction of the vision||Determines direction (Timpe, 1987) Process of giving purpose (meaningful direction) to collective effort (Jacobs & Jaques, 1990) Leadership revolves around vision-ideas-direction (Bennis, 1989) Sets direction for vision (Ulrich, Zenger, & Smallwood, 1999) Create and describe the vision (Bergman, Hurson, & Russ-Eft, 1999) Create direction (Kotter, 1990) Consistently provide the organization a clear direction (Kanter, 1995)|
|87. Inspires the vision||Rally men and women to common purpose (Montgomery, 1961) Exhibit conviction in creating a vision (Hesselbein, Goldsmith, & Beckhard, 1996) Marshalling, energizing, and unifying of people toward the pursuit of vision (Kent, Crotts, and Aziz, 2001) Challenging a team of people to reach to a vision (Beck & Yeager, 2001) Create a compelling vision (Shelton, 1997) Establishment of a thrust toward a purpose (Kent, Crotts, & Aziz, 2001) Inspiring a shared vision (Kouzes & Posner, 1995) Create a vision with meaning (Bennis, 1997) Inspires pursuit of a shared vision (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998)|
|88. Articulates the vision||Articulate tangible vision (Yeung & Ready, 1995) Convey vision (Syrett & Hogg, 1992) Looks at the horizon (Bennis & Goldsmith, 1997)|
|89. Sells the vision (buy- in)||Integrate agreed vision of the future (Simmons, 1996) Present vision so that others want to achieve it (O’Connor, 1997) Ability to get members of the organization to accept ownership of vision as their own (Oakley & Kurg, 1994) Infuses dreams-inspires vision (Danzig, 1998)|
|Energizes and attracts people to enroll in a vision of the future (Bennis & Goldsmith, 1997) Focus on gaining understanding and buy-in from all parties (McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995) Shares big picture (McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995)|
|90. Guides the vision||Provide guidance through shared vision (Stabu, 1996) Guides the vision (Munroe, 1997) Work into context by providing vision (Eales-White, 1998) Ensures structures and systems in organization reflect vision (Covey, 1996) Claim the future through reconnaissance (Heskett & Sclesinger, 1996) Strongly define a sense of purpose and vision (Bennis, 1997)|
|91. Visionary||Transcend the vision (McLean & Weitzel, 1992) A broad view, a new territory of the organization’s direction (Martin, 2001) Develop vision (Bradford & Cohen, 1984) Creates the big picture (Eales-White, 1998) Have a vision (Kanter, 1995; Snyder, Dowd, & Houghton, 1994) Ability to see clearly (Sadler, 1997) Knows the future (Heskett & Sclesinger, 1996; Spears & Lawrence, 2002) Has a long-range perspective (Bennis, 1997) Are visionaries (Tichy & Devanna, 1990) Has eye on the horizon (Bennis, 1997; Bennis & Goldsmith, 1997) Thinks completely (big picture) (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998)|
|92. Stamina||Physical stamina (Roberts, 1990) Emotional stamina (Roberts, 1990) Perseverance (Danzig, 1998) Build stamina (Smith, 1996)|
|93. Miscellaneous||Pragmatic (Cox & Hoover, 1992) Preserve what makes the company special (Deal & Kennedy, 1982) Charisma (Danzig, 1998; Whetten & Cameron, 1983) Respectable (Maccoby, 1981) Is his/her own person (Bennis, 1997) Unconventional behavior (Conger & Kanungo, 1998) Enhance the quality of work life (Harris, 1989) Initiation and maintenance of structure (Stogdill, 1974) Consistently make effective contributions to social order (Hosking, 1988) Must be able to leverage more than his own capabilities (Bennis, 1989) Answers the question what is really going on (Terry, 1993) Balance (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998) Do the right thing (Bennis & Nanus, 1985) Create follower-ship (Staub, 1996) Be chief (Cox & Hoover, 1992) To begin (Cox & Hoover, 1992) Capable of inspiring others to do things without actually sitting on top of them with a checklist (Bennis, 1989) Art of mobilizing others (Kouzes & Posner, 1995) Orchestrate a 360 worldview (Corbin, 2000)|
|Talk more than others (Kent & Moss, 1990) Make federations of corporations (Bennis, 1997) Agile (Bennis & Goldsmith, 1997) Astuteness (Giblin, 1986) Producer (Quinn, 1988) Compatibility (Giblin, 1986) Order the chaos (Corbin, 2000) Quality (Danzig, 1998) Give a point to the working lives of others (Birch, 1999) Hard work (Miles, 1997) Multi-tasking (Essex & Kusy, 1999) Values others input (McGee-Cooper & Trammell, 1995) Accountability (Roberts, 1990) Pragmatic approach (Cox & Hoover, 1992) Persuasion (Spears & Lawrence, 2002) Break major tasks into bite size chunks (Gower) Tenacity (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998) Empathy (Spears & Lawrence, 2002) Timing (Roberts, 1990) Credibility (Roberts, 1990) Handles emotion in self and others (Bergman, Hurson, & Russ-Eft, 1999) Ensures that boundaries are porous and permeable (Bennis, 1997) Learn from adversity (Cox & Hoover, 1992) Descriptiveness (Bushe, 2001) Curiosity (Bushe, 2001) Appreciation (Bushe, 2001) Attitude of mind (Birch, 1999) Desire (Roberts, 1990) Procedural justice (Hinkin & Tracey, 1994) Autocratic (Leadership Scale for Sports, LSS) Dependability (Roberts, 1990) Type A personality (Cox & Hoover, 1992) Functionality (Ragins, 1989) Accountably to make it safe to learn from mistakes (McGee-Coopoer & Trammell, 1995) Industriousness (Auquinis & Adams, 1998) Shifts paradigm (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998) Summons old-fashioned work-place virtues like loyalty-commitment-on the job exuberance (Wadsworth, 1997) Promote an entrepreneurial spirit in innovative ventures (Harris, 1989) Judgement (Bennis, 1997) Excellence (Harris, 1989) (SLP) Self-renewal (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998) Stewardship (Spears & Lawrence, 2002) Controls ambition and ego (Smith, 1996) Passion (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998)|
|Tests assumptions (Napolitano & Henderson, 1998) Open mind (Cont) (Schein, 1992) Reach out to partners (Schein, 1992) Does not expect perfection (Deming, 1986) Maintain high standards of dignity (Smith, 1992) Share their passion and expertise (McFarland & Senn, 1993)|
About the Authors
Dr. Bruce E. Winston is dean of the School of Global Leadership and Entrepreneurship at Regent University. His research interests include servant leadership, organizational development and transformation, leadership development, distance education and technology in higher education.
Dr. Kathleen Patterson is an assistant professor in the School of Global Leadership and Entrepreneurship at Regent University. Kathleen enjoys servant leadership research, is the coordinator of the Servant Leadership Research Roundtable at Regent University and chairs the Servant Leadership section of the American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences.