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Gary E. Roberts, Ph.D.
Professor Emeritus757.352.4962More about Gary E. Roberts, Ph.D.

Gary E. Roberts, Ph.D.


Dr. Gary E. Roberts joined the faculty of the Robertson School of Government in fall 2003 with teaching and research specializations in Public Administration. Prior to his arrival at Regent University, Dr. Roberts served as a tenured faculty member at Fairleigh Dickinson University and the University of Memphis. Dr. Roberts has worked in both the public and nonprofit sectors in the areas of human resource management and community development. His teaching areas include nonprofit administration, human resource management, and public administration.

Dr. Roberts possesses extensive experience in public administration curriculum development, program performance measurement/evaluation and accreditation issues. Current research interests center on workplace spiritual intelligence, servant leader human resource policy and practice, the impact of the religious friendly workplace, and organizational policies to promote employee work-life balance.

He has single-authored or co-authored five books and more than 45 journal articles and book chapters on various human resource and public management issues. His work appears in the Review of Public Personnel Administration, Public Productivity & Management Review, American Review of Public Administration, and Public Personnel Management, among others Dr. Roberts was the Book Review Editor for the Review of Public Personnel Administration, served on the editorial review boards of the flagship public human resource journals, and is an active journal manuscript reviewer.


Doctor of Philosophy, April 1990. University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Major Field: Public Administration Minor Fields: Human Resources Management, Organization Theory, Labor Relations, Research Methods

Master of Public Administration, August 1980. University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia Specialization: Human Resources Management

Bachelor of Arts in Labor Studies, November 1977. Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania


Articles, Books and Book Chapters:

Green, D. D., Roberts, G., & Rudebock, R. D. (2016). Reshaping the federal system for a postmodern workforce. Management and Economics and Research Journal, 2, 20-31.

Roberts, G. (2016). Working with Christian servant leader spiritual intelligence: The foundation of God honoring vocational success. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Roberts, G. (2015). Developing Christian servant leadership: Faith-based character growth at work. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Roberts, G. (2015). Christian scripture and human resource management: Building a path to Servant leadership through faith. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Roberts, G. (2014). Servant leader human resource management: A moral and spiritual perspective. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Roberts, G. (2014). Practice that answer. In J. Slack (Ed.), Devotions for the Christian Public Servant, (p. 36) Lexington, KY: Emeth Press.

Roberts, G. & Hess-Hernandez, D. (2014). Occupational stress coping skills of military chaplains: The role of spiritual intelligence. In E. Patterson (Ed.), Peacemakers in Uniform: Military Chaplains in Afghanistan, Iraq and Beyond, (pp.171-200), Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Roberts, G. & Hess-Hernandez, D. (2012/2013). Religious commitment and servant leadership: The development of an exploratory conceptual framework. International Journal of Servant Leadership, 8/9(1), 299-330.

Roberts, G. (2013). Leadership coping skills: Servant leader workplace spiritual intelligence. Journal of Strategic Leadership, 4(2), 52-69.

Jones, P. C., Roberts, G. E., Martin, E. P., Ahumada, E. & King, S. E. (2013). The development of an MPA major field test. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 19(1), 97-115.

Redmer, T., & Roberts, G. E. (2012). "Honor and Remember." Christian Business Academy Review, 7(1), 77-82.

Green, D., & Roberts, G. (2012). "Transformational leadership in a postmodern World: The presidential election of Barack Obama." Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 11(1), 9- 25.

Green, D. & Roberts, G. (2012). "Impact of postmodernism on public sector leadership practices." Public Personnel Management, 41(1), 79-96.

Roberts, G. & Green, D. (2011). "Servant leader workplace spiritual intelligence: A shield of protection from workplace stress." Regent Global Business Review, 5(1), 12-18.

Green, D. & Roberts, G. (2011). Impending danger: Rethinking federal leadership in the 21st Century. Deer Park, NY: Linus Publications.

Green, D. & Roberts, G. (2010). "Personnel implications of public sector virtual organizations." Public Personnel Management, 39(1), 47-57.

King, S., Chilton, B. & Roberts, G. (2010) "Reflections on defining the public interest." Administration & Society, 41(8), 954-978.

Roberts, G. (2009). Employee benefits. In S. Hays, R. Kearney, and J.Coggburn (Eds.). Public human resource management: Problems and prospects, 5th ed. (pp. 123-141). New York: Longman.

Green, D & Roberts, G. (2008). "Strengthening and guiding decentralized organizations: Interpretation through the exegesis of Acts 1 and 2." Regent Global Business Review, 2(2), 19-22.

Cheevers, K. A., Clay, J. A., Menifield, C. E., Norris-Tirrell, D., & Roberts, G. E. (2007). "Waiving the M.P.A. entrance exam: Impact on performance." Journal of Public Administration Education, 13(2), 403-424.

Roberts, G. E. & Pregitzer, M. (2007) "Why employees dislike performance appraisal," Regent Global Business Review, 1(1), 14-21.

Roberts, G. E. (2005). "A guide to practical human resource management research." In S. Condrey (Ed.) Handbook of Practical Human Resources Management, 2nd Edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Roberts, G. E., Gianiakas, J., McCue, C., & Wang, X. (2004). "Traditional and family-friendly benefits practices in local government: Results from a national survey." Public Personnel Management, 33(3), 307-330.

Roberts, G. E. (2004) "Municipal government benefits practices: Results from a national survey." Public Personnel Management, 33(2), 1-22.

Roberts, G. E. (2003) "Municipal government part-time employee benefits practices." Public Personnel Management, 32(3), 435-454.

Roberts, G. E. (2003). "The association of needs assessment strategies with the provision of family-friendly benefits. Research Note." Review of Public Personnel Administration, 23(3), 241-254.

Roberts, G. E. (2003). "Impasse resolution strategies." Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy (EPAP). New York: Marcel Dekker.

Roberts, G. E. (2002). "Issues, challenges and changes in recruitment and selection." In S. Hays and R. Kearney (Eds.) Public personnel administration: Problems and prospects (4th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Roberts, G. E. (2002). "Employee performance appraisal system participation: A technique that works." Public Personnel Management. 31(3), 333-342.

Roberts, G. E. & Pavlak, T. (2002). "Designing the MPA capstone course: A structured-flexibility approach." Journal of Public Affairs Education, 8(3), 179-192.

Roberts, G. E. & Pavlak, T. (2002) "The design of an integrated values and competency-based MPA core curriculum." Journal of Public Affairs Education, 8(2), 115-129.

Roberts, G. E. (2002). "Mental health benefits in New Jersey State and Local Government." Public Personnel Management. 31(2), 211-224.

Roberts, G. E. (2001). "An examination of employee benefits cost control strategies in New Jersey local governments." Public Personnel Management, 30(3), 303-322.

Roberts, G. E. (2001). "New Jersey local government benefits practices survey." Review of Public Personnel Administration, 21(4), 284-307.

Roberts, G. E. (2001). "A history of the federal civil service from a values- based perspective." In R. Maranto & S. Condrey, (Eds.). Radical reform of the Civil Service. Lanham, MA: Lexington.

Roberts, G. E. (2001). "Employee benefits cost control strategies in municipal government." Public Performance and Management Review, 24(4), 389-402.

Roberts, G. E. (2001). "Utilizing stakeholder surveys in MPA program performance measurement." Journal of Public Affairs Education, 7(1), 19-30.

Roberts, G. E., & McGill, J. (2000). "New Jersey Interest Arbitration Reform Act: A third year assessment." Review of Public Personnel Administration, 20(3), 28-42.

Roberts, G. E. (2000). "An inventory of family-friendly benefit practices in small New Jersey Local governments." Review of Public Personnel Administration. 20(2), 50-62.

Roberts, G. E. (2000). "Pi Alpha Alpha activities and effectiveness: Results from a national Survey of chapter advisors." International Journal of Public Administration, 23(12), 2149- 2169.

Roberts, G. E. (1998) "Perspectives on enduring and emerging issues in performance appraisal." Public Personnel Management, 27(3), 301-320.

Roberts, G. E. (1998). "Designing and conducting employee attitude surveys." In S. E.Condrey (Ed.) Handbook of Practical Human Resources Management. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Klingner, D., Patterson, V. & Roberts, G. E. (1998). "The Miami Coalition surveys of employee drug use and attitudes: A five-year retrospective (1989-1993)." Public Personnel Management, 27(2), 201-222.

Roberts, G. E. (1997). "Florida's open meetings law and its effect on the policy making process in Dade County: The administrative perspective." International Journal of Public Administration, 20(7), 1367-1394.

Roberts, G. E. (1997). "Implementing sunshine and the Public Records Law in Dade County, Florida: Problems and prescriptions for reform." International Journal of Public Administration, 20(2), 431-449.

Roberts, G. E. & Reed, T. (1996). "Performance appraisal participation, goal setting and feedback: The influence of supervisory style." Review of Public Personnel Administration, 16(4), 29-60.

Roberts, G. E. (1996). "A case study in performance appraisal system development: Lessons from a municipal police department." American Review of Public Administration, 26(3), 361- 385.

Roberts, G. E. & Pavlak, T. P. (1996). "Municipal government personnel professionals and performance appraisal: Is there a consensus on the characteristics of an effective appraisal system?" Public Personnel Management, 25(3), 379-408.

Roberts, G. E. (1995). "Developmental performance appraisal in municipal government: An antidote for a deadly disease?" Review of Public Personnel Administration, 15(3), 17-43.

Roberts, G. E. (1995). "Age related employment issues in Florida municipal governments: Are municipalities preparing for change?" Review of Public Personnel Administration, 15(2), 62-83.

Roberts, G. E. (1995). "Municipal government performance appraisal system practices: Is the whole less than the sum of its parts?" Public Personnel Management, 24(2), 197-221.

Roberts, G. (1994). "Maximizing performance appraisal system acceptance: Perspectives from municipal government personnel administrators." Public Personnel Management, 23(4), 525- 549.

Roberts, G. (1994). "Barriers to municipal government performance appraisal systems: Evidence from a survey of municipal personnel administrators." Public Personnel Management, 23(2), 225-236.

Roberts, G. (1992). "Linkages between performance appraisal system effectiveness and rater and ratee acceptance." Review of Public Personnel Administration, 12(3), 19-41.

Dunn, W. N., Pavlak, T. P., & Roberts, G. (1987). Cognitive performance appraisal -- Mapping manager's category structures using the grid techniques. Personnel Review, 16(3), 16-19.


Recipient of the 1989-1990 National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration's Annual Dissertation Award

Robert S. Wolfson Fellowship awardee for scholarly excellence in public personnel and labor relations, 1982, University of Pittsburgh

MPA comprehensive exam, University of Georgia, passed with distinction

Elected to membership in Pi Alpha Alpha and Phi Kappa Phi for scholarly excellence in

Public Administration, 1980, University of Georgia

U.S. Office of Education Public Service Fellowship, 1978-1979, University of Georgia