A Window to the Middle East

Learn. More about the Middle East.

Educational Resources
Holidays
UNESCO Guidelines
Middle East Bibliography

Middle Eastern Educational Resources

It is hard to begin a discussion on the middle-east without a historical frame of reference.  See 5000 years of history in 90 seconds with this map of the imperial history of the middle-east.

View this report by the Pew Forum on the size and distribution of the world's Muslim population in the Middle East and North Africa.

To explore some in-depth resources for world leaders, visit Regent University’s library link:  RU Global — Resources for World Leaders Regent University Library Link

The Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI) explores the Middle East through the region’s media. MEMRI bridges the language gap which exists between the West and the Middle East, providing timely translations of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish media, as well as original analysis of political, ideological, intellectual, social, cultural, and religious trends in the Middle East. Founded in February 1998 to inform the debate over U.S. policy in the Middle East, MEMRI is an independent, nonpartisan, nonprofit, 501 (c)3 organization. MEMRI's headquarters is located in Washington, DC with branch offices in London, Tokyo, Rome, and Jerusalem. MEMRI research is translated to English, German, Chinese, Italian, French, Spanish, Japanese, and Hebrew. 

Education in the Middle East and North Africa is falling behind other regions in quality and needs urgent reform to deal with its unemployment issue according to a 2008 report by the World Bank. A senior World Bank official, Marwan Muasher, told the BBC that educational reform had to take top priority if the region's youth were to be better equipped in a fast-changing world and high unemployment combated. "If we are to create such jobs, then we have to start with education." Another study carried out in January by the Tunis-based Arab League Educational Cultural and Scientific Organisation found that 30% of the approximately 300 million people in the Arab World were illiterate. See full article from BBC news.

The World Bank economic overview of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)

Tools for self-assessment from Georgetown University’s center for child and human development provides resources for organizational and individual assessment tools. 

 " Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster."  Prof. Geert Hofstede, Emeritus Professor, Maastricht University gives us the five cultural dimensions as a taxonomy to explore culture. 

The linked example is taken from the medical field, but gives a wonderful perspective on cultural competency.

The Arab American National Museum is the first museum in the world devoted to Arab American history and culture. Arab Americans have enriched the economic, political and cultural landscape of American life. By bringing the voices and faces of Arab Americans to mainstream audiences, we continue our commitment to dispel misconceptions about Arab Americans and other minorities. The Museum brings to light the shared experiences of immigrants and ethnic groups, paying tribute to the diversity of our nation. 

Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs deals with U.S. foreign policy and U.S. diplomatic relations with Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestinian Territories, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

The world factbook on the Middle East.

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Holidays in the Middle-East

Islamic Holidays Ramadan, a month long fast in the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar. During Ramadan, Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset, make peace, and bond with family and friends. Students may fast during the daylight hours of month of Ramadan. In 2010, Ramadan begins Wednesday, the 11th of August and will continue for 30 days until Thursday, the 9th of September. Eid al-Adha or the Feast of the Sacrifice, celebrates the end of the Hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca.

Jewish Holidays The High Holidays - Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur (Sept. 8-10; Sept. 17-18, 2010). The Day of Awe: Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish New Year, and Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. Passover begins on the night of the fifteenth day of the month of Nissan and lasts for eight days. This holiday commemorates the departure of the nation of Israel from Egypt. Passover will be celebrated March 29 - April 6, 2010. Hanukkah, or the festival of lights, is an eight day holiday to celebrate the rededication of the Holy Temple in Jerusalem and is December 1-9 in 2010.

Christian Holidays Good Friday is April 02, 2010. The Friday before Easter, commemorates the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. Among some sects of Christianity and in many countries today is a day of fasting. Easter Sunday April 04, 2010 Celebrating the resurrection of Jesus Christ, whose death was observed on Good Friday. Christmas, December 25th, is the celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ.

Bahai Holidays Month of Fasting - Bahai preparation for New Year. [March] Naw Ruz--Baha'i New Year (Year 157) and feast honoring the one Deity as Baha - Splendor.[March] Ridvan -- Twelve day celebration of Baha'u'llah's declaration identifying himself as the new Prophet. Baha'u'llah believed Deity to be male, female, and beyond gender. [April/May]

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UNESCO Guidelines

UNESCO provides the following guidelines for for educational leaders in their document Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education.

  • Ensure that the programmes they deliver across borders and in their home country are of comparable quality and that they also take into account the cultural and linguistic sensitivities of the receiving country. It is desirable that a commitment to this effect should be made public.
  • Recognise that quality teaching and research is made possible by the quality of faculty and the quality of their working conditions that foster independent and critical inquiry. The UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Status of Higher Education Teaching Personnel and other relevant instruments need to be taken into account by all institutions and providers to support good working conditions and terms of service, collegial governance and academic freedom.
  • Develop, maintain or review current internal quality management systems so that they make full use of the competencies of stakeholders such as academic staff, administrators, students and graduates and take full responsibility for delivering higher education qualifications comparable in standard in their home country and across borders. Furthermore, when promoting their programmes to potential students through agents, they should take full responsibility to ensure that the information and guidance provided by their agents are accurate, reliable and easily accessible.
  • Consult competent quality assurance and accreditation bodies and respect the quality assurance and accreditation systems of the receiving country when delivering higher education across borders, including distance education.
  • Share good practices by participating in sector organisations and interinstitutional networks at national and international levels.
  • Develop and maintain networks and partnerships to facilitate the process of recognition by acknowledging each other’s qualifications as equivalent or comparable.
  • Where relevant, use codes of good practice such as the UNESCO/Council of Europe Code of Good Practice in the Provision of Transnational Education9 and other relevant codes such as the Council of Europe/UNESCO Recommendation on Criteria and Procedures for the Assessment of Foreign Qualifications.
  • Provide accurate, reliable and easily accessible information on the criteria and procedures of external and internal quality assurance and the academic and professional recognition of qualifications they deliver and provide complete descriptions of programmes and qualifications, preferably with descriptions of the knowledge, understanding and skills that a successful student should acquire. Higher education institutions/providers should collaborate especially with quality assurance and accreditation bodies and with student bodies to facilitate the dissemination of this information.
  • Ensure the transparency of the financial status of the institution and/or educational programme offered.

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Middle East Bibliography

Compiled by Marta Lee, MLS, MA, Librarian and Liaison to The Robertson School of Government and School of Psychology and Counseling

Business

Kavoossi, Masoud. The globalization of business and the Middle East. Westport, CT: Quorum, 2000.

Kaynak, Erdener. International business in the Middle East. Berlin; New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1986.

Kuran, Timur.  “The Islamic commercial crisis: Institutional roots of economic underdevelopment in the Middle East.” The Journal of Economic History 63, no. 2 (June 2003): 414-446.

———. The economic system in contemporary Islamic thought: Interpretation and assessment.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 18, no. 2 (May 1986): 135-164.

Mallat, Chibli. “Commercial law in the Middle East: Between classical transactions and modern business.” The American Journal of Comparative Law 48, no. 1 (Winter 2000): 81-141.

Metcalfe, Beverly Dawn. “Women, management and globalization in the Middle East.” Journal of Business Ethics 83, no. 1 (Nov 2008): 85-100.

Economics

“AT&T expands presence in Middle East and Africa market, appoints new sales head.” PR Newswire (Nov 26, 2008).

Hicks, Alexander and Christopher Zorn. “Economic globalization, the macro economy, and reversals of welfare: Expansion in affluent democracies, 1978-94.” International Organization 59, no. 3 (Summer 2005): 631-662.

Wilson, Rodney. “The contribution by economists to middle eastern studies (1973-1998).” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 25, no. 2 (Nov 1998): 235-246.

Education

“Leaders of American universities in the Middle East bring their message to the U.S.” Chronicle of Higher Education 53, no. 31 (April-June 2007): A38.

Education in the Middle East. Ed. Leslie C. Schmida andDeborah G. Keenum eds. Washington, D.C.: Amideast, 1983.

Ali, Saba Rasheed and Elham Bagheri. “Practical suggestions to accommodate the needs of Muslim students on campus.” New Directions for Student Services no. 125 (Spring 2009): 47-54.

Blackadar, Andy, Thomas J Watson, Jr. Responding to terrorism: Challenges for democracy. teacher's resource book [and student text]. Public policy debate in the classroom. Choices for the 21st century education program, 2002.

Lazovsky, Rivka. “Educating Jewish and Arab children for tolerance and coexistence in a situation of ongoing conflict: An encounter program.” Cambridge Journal of Education 37, no. 3 (Sept 2007): 391-408.

Mercer, Justine. “Appraising higher education faculty in the middle east: Leadership lessons from a different world.” Management in Education 20, no. 1 (Jan 2006): 17-18.

Neuberger, Benyamin. “Education for democracy in Israel: Structural impediments and basic dilemmas.” International Journal of Educational Development 27, no. 3 (May 1, 2007): 292-305.

Ottaway, Marina. “The more things change... political reform in the Arab world.” World Policy Journal 26, no. 2 (Summer 2009): 43-51.

Rahme, Joseph G. “Ethnocentric and stereotypical concepts in the study of Islamic and world history.” The History Teacher 32, no. 4 (Aug 1999): 473-494.

Saleh, Al-Jufout, Abu-Hamatteh Ziad, and Al-Qaisy Lama. “Empowerment of female students for participation in the representative councils in Jordanian universities.” College Student Journal 42, no. 1 (March 2008): 15-23.

Sara, Nathir G. 1980. Educational administration and challenge of modernization in Arab countries of the Middle East. Vol. 9CCBC Notebook.

Government

“Constitutional politics in the middle east: With special reference to Turkey ,Iiraq, Iran, and Afghanistan.” Ed. Arjomand. Said Amir. Oxford: Hart, 2008.

AbuKhalil, As' Ad. “Change and Democratisation in the Arab world: The role of political parties.” Third World Quarterly 18, no. 1 (March 1997): 149-163.

Anderson, Roy. “Politics and change in the Middle East: Sources of conflict and accommodation.” Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009.

Badeau, John S. “U.S.A. and U.A.R.” Foreign Affairs 43, no. 2 (jan 1965): 281-296.

Baram, Amatzia. “Territorial nationalism in the Middle East.” Middle Eastern Studies 26, no. 4 (Oct 1990): 425-448.

Brown, L. “The search for al qaeda: Its leadership, ideology, and future.” Foreign Affairs 88, no. 1 (Jan/Feb 2009): 199.

Brown, L. Carl. “Middle East.” Foreign Affairs 86, no. 1 (Jan/Feb 2007): 173.

Clark, Terence. “Post-war Iraq: An assessment.” Asian Affairs 35, no. 1 (March 2004): 16-21.

Cohen, Yoel. “Nuclear ambiguity and the media: The Israeli case.” Israel Affairs 12, no. 3 (July 2006): 529-545.

Cole, Juan Ricardo. Engaging the Muslim world. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Graubard, S. “A broader agenda: Beyond bush-era foreign policy.” Foreign Affairs 88, no. 1 (Jan/Feb 2009): 176.

Gray, Matthew. “Explaining conspiracy theories in modern Arab middle eastern political discourse: Some problems and limitations of the literature.” Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies 17, no. 2 (Summer 2008): 155-174.

Halliday, Fred. “Iran and the Middle East: Foreign policy and domestic change.” Middle East Report no. 220 (Autumn 2001): 42-47.

Hellmich, Christina. “Al-qaeda--terrorists, hypocrites, fundamentalists? the view from within.” Third World Quarterly 26, no. 1 (Feb 2005): 39-54.

Kahl, Colin H., Brian Katulis, and Marc Lynch. “Thinking strategically about Iraq: Report from A symposium.” Middle East Policy 15, no. 1 (Spring 2008): 82-110.

LaMothe, Ryan. “Render unto Caesar: Pastoral care and the American empire.”Pastoral Psychology 55, no. 3 (jan 2007): 339-351.

Mostafa, Mohamed M. and Mohaned Al-Hamdi. “Political Islam, clash of civilizations, U.S. dominance and Arab support of attacks on America: A test of a hierarchical model.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 30, no. 8 (Aug 2007): 723-736.

Parasiliti, Andrew. Iran: “Diplomacy and deterrence.” 51, no. 5 (Oct 2009): 5-13.

Richards, Alan. “Democracy in the Arab Region: Getting There from Here.” Middle East Policy 12, no. 2 (Summer 2005): 28-35.

Ross, Dennis. “The Middle east predicament.” Foreign Affairs 84, no. 1 (January/February 2005): 61-74.

Ross, Dennis B. “Yasir Arafat.” Foreign Policy no. 131 (Jul/Aug 2002): 18.

Salem, Paul. “Politics and culture: Toward an Arab agenda for the 21st century.” Middle East Policy 6, no. 4 (June 1999): 146.

Sayigh, Yezid. “The Palestinian strategic impasse.” Survival 44, no. 4 (Winter 2002): 7-21.

Schumann, Christoph. “The "failure" of radical nationalism and the "silence" of liberal thought in the Arab world.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, & the Middle East 28, no. 3 (Dec 2008): 404-415.

Sherman, Martin. The politics of water in the Middle East: AnIisraeli perspective on the hydro-political aspects of the conflict. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1999.

Slater, Jerome. “A Palestinian state and Israeli security. Political Science Quarterly 106, no. 3 (Fall 1991): 411.

Zubaida, Sami. “Islam and the politics of community and citizenship.” Middle East Report no. 221 (Winter 2001): 20-27.

———. “Turkish Islam and national identity.” Middle East Report no. 199, Turkey: Insolvent Ideologies, Fractured State (April-June 1996): 10-15.

Government – peace

“Peace and democracy in the Middle East rely on a thriving civil society says Stephen Bubb, member of the Clinton global initiative.” PR Newswire (Sep 23, 2009).

Ami, Shlomo. “So close and yet so far: Lessons from the Israeli-Palestinian peace process.” Israel Studies 10, no. 2 (Summer, 2005): 72-90.

Ben-Meir, Alon. “Israel's peace offensive.” Palestine - Israel Journal of Politics, Economics & Culture 15, no. 1 (March 2008): 187-190.

Del Sarto, Raffaella A. “Back to square one? the Netanyahu government and the prospects for middle east peace.” Mediterranean Politics 14, no. 3 (Nov. 2009): 421-428.

Greenwald, Carol. “Can Arabs make peace with Israel?” Middle East Quarterly 6, no. 3 (Sept. 1999): 35.

Ham, Anthony. “Peace is not a four letter word -- searching for the language of reconciliation in the Middle East.” Social Alternatives 19, no. 1 (Jan 2000): 52-56.

Kurtzer, Daniel C. Negotiating Arab-Israeli peace: American leadership in the middle east. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2008.

Majdalani, Ahmad. “The Arab peace initiative: An option or strategy for peacemaking?” Palestine - Israel Journal of Politics, Economics & Culture 14, no. 4 (Dec 2007): 21-25.

Mor, Ben D. “Peace initiatives and public opinion: The domestic context of conflict resolution.” Journal of Peace Research 34, (May 1997): 197-215.

Podeh, Elie. “The Arab peace initiative: A missed opportunity?” Palestine - Israel Journal of Politics, Economics & Culture 14, no. 4 (Dec 2007): 5-11.

Pranger, Robert J. “Plain talk about Iraq.” Mediterranean Quarterly 17, no. 3 (Summer 2006): 12-25.

Usher, Graham. “Facing defeat: The intifada two years on.” Journal of Palestine Studies 32, no. 2 (Winter 2003): 21-40.

Government and religion

Faris, Hani A. “The nexus between Palestine, Iraq and Lebanon.” Contemporary Arab Affairs 1, no. 1 (March 2008): 3-14.

Fassihi, Farnaz. “Palestinians face prospects of life without Arafat; with leader very ill, aides discuss succession; conflicts over burial site.” Wall Street Journal, (Nov 2004): 8.

Gerges, Fawaz A. “Islam and Muslims in the mind of America: Influences on the making of U. S. policy.” Journal of Palestine Studies 26, no. 2 (Winter 1997): 68-80.

Greenwald, Carol. “Can Arabs make peace with Israel?” Middle East Quarterly 6, no. 3 (Sept. 1999): 35.

Hirschkind, Charles. “What is political Islam?” Middle East Report no. 205, Middle East Studies Networks: The Politics of a Field (Oct.-Dec. 1997): 12-14.

Jeffery, Arthur. “The political importance of Islam.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 1, no. 4 (Oct 1942): 383-395.

Ji-Hyang Jang. “Weak state, weak civil society: The politics of state-society relations in the Arab world.” Journal of International & Area Studies 16, no. 1 (June 2009): 81-92.

Kartin, Amnon and Izhak Schnell. “Demography and politics in the Palestinian authority.” Israel Affairs 13, no. 1 (Jan 2007): 95-115.

Lapidus, Ira M. “State and religion in Islamic societies.” Past & Present no. 151 (May 1996): 3-27.

Margulies, Ronnie and Ergin Yildizoglu. “The political uses of Islam in Turkey.” Middle East Report no. 153, Islam and the State (July-Aug 1988): 12-50.

Mayer, Ann Elizabeth. “Law and religion in the Muslim Middle East.” The American Journal of Comparative Law 35, no. 1 (Winter 1987): 127-184.

Mohamad, Husam A. “Democracy promotion in Arab politics.” Journal of International & Area Studies 14, no. 2 (Dec 2007): 103-117.

Salamey, Imad and Frederic Pearson. “Hezbollah: A proletarian party with an Islamic manifesto - A sociopolitical analysis of Islamist populism in Lebanon and the Middle East. Small Wars & Insurgencies 18, no. 3 (Sept 2007): 416-438.

Snir, Reuven. “"Mosaic Arabs" between total and conditioned Arabization: The participation of Jews in Arabic press and journalism in Muslim societies during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 27, no. 2 (Aug 2007): 261-295.

———. “Arabic journalism as a vehicle for enlightenment.” Journal of Modern Jewish Studies 6, no. 3 (Nov 2007): 219-237.

Stork, Joe. “The gulf war and the Arab world.” World Policy Journal 8, no. 2 (Spring 1991): 365-374.

Tantdon, Yashpal. “UNEF, the secretary-general, and international diplomacy in the third Arab-Israeli war.” International Organization 22, no. 2 (Spring 1968): 529.

Weinbaum, M. G. “Dimensions of elite change in the Middle East examines 868 changes of principal elected officials, military leaders and others active at high policy-making levels, 1950-74.” Comparative Political Studies 12, (July 1979): 123-150.

Human Rights

Kamrava, Mehran. “Military professionalization and civil-military relations in the Middle East.” Political Science Quarterly 115, no. 1 (Spring 2000): 67-92.

Land, T. “Middle East leads the world in stamping out killer virus.” Middle East no. 397 (Feb 2009): 30.

Leadership

Byman, Daniel L. “The implications of leadership change in the Arab world.” Political Science Quarterly 120, no. 1 (Spring 2005): 59-83.

Campbell, John C. and Elizabeth H. Bryant. “The league of Arab states and regional disputes: A study of middle east conflicts.” Foreign Affairs 54, no. 3 (04 1976): 623-624.

Etienne, Bruno. “No to the slogan "Islam versus the west!" an essay in geostrategy: Reply to the theory of "the clash of civilizations".” Futuribles no. 332 (July-Aug 2007): 111-120.

Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed and Kyle Dabruzzi. “Is al-qaeda's central leadership still relevant?” Middle East Quarterly 15, no. 2 (Spring 2008): 27-36.

Harari, Oren. “Proven leadership principles.” Executive Excellence 19, no. 7 (July 2002): 3.

Holomisa, Bantubonke. “American leadership in global crises: A south African perspective.” International Journal on World Peace 24, no. 3 (Sept 2007): 83-90.

Langbert, Mitchell and Hershey H. Friedman. “Perspectives on transformational leadership in the Sanhedrin of ancient Judaism.” Management Decision 41, no. 1/22003): 199.

Organski, A. F. K. and Ellen Lust-Okar. “The tug of war over the status of Jerusalem: Leaders, strategies and outcomes.” International Interactions 23, no. ¾ (1997): 333-350.

Sarayrah, Yasin Khalaf. “Servant leadership in the Bedouin-Arab culture.” Global Virtue Ethics Review 5, no. 3 (2004): 58.

Thompson, Kenneth W. U.S. leadership in Asia and the Middle East. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1985.

Tures, John A. “Will new blood in the leadership produce new blood on the battlefield? The impact of regime changes on middle east military rivalries.” The Middle East Journal 58, no. 4 (Autumn 2004): 612.

Witzel, Morgen. “Islamic leadership: Extolling humility, justice and community.” European Business Forum no. 28 (Spring 2007): 50.

Media

New media and the new Middle East. Ed. Philip Seib. 1st ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

Civic discourse and digital age communications in the Middle East. Ed. Gher, Leo A. and Amin, Hussein Y. Stamford, CT: Ablex, 2000.

Abdulrahim, Masoud A., Ali Al-Kandari, and Mohammed Hasanen. “The influence of American television programs on university students in Kuwait: A synthesis.” European Journal of American Culture 28, no. 1 (Feb 2009): 57-74.

Adams, David M. “Media and development in the Middle East.” Transformation (02653788) 23, no. 3 (July 2006): 170-186.

Ali, Shahzad and Khalid. “U.S. mass media and Muslim world: Portrayal of Muslim by "news week" and "time".” (1991-2001). European Journal of Scientific Research 21, no. 4 (Aug 30, 2008): 554-580.

Allam, Rasha. “Filming the modern Middle East: Politics in the cinemas of Hollywood and the Arab world.” Middle East Journal 61, no. 3 (Summer 2007): 552-553.

Anderson, Jon W. “New media, new publics: Reconfiguring the public sphere of Islam.” Social Research 70, no. 3 (Summer 2003): 887-906.

Boaz, Cynthia. “War and foreign policy framing in international media.” Peace Review 17, no. 4 (Oct 2005): 349-356.

Goldfarb, Michael. “All journalism is local: Reporting on the Middle East: How the U.S. and European media cover the same events differently.” Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 6, no. 3 (Summer 2001): 110.

Hafez, Kai. “Journalism ethics revisited: A comparison of ethics codes in Europe, north Africa, the Middle East, and Muslim Asia.” Political Communication 19, no. 2 (April 2002): 225-250.

Hahn, Oliver and Julia Lönnendonker. “Transatlantic foreign reporting and foreign correspondents after 9/11: Trends in reporting Europe in the united states.” International Journal of Press/Politics 14, no. 4 (Oct. 2009): 497-515.

Khiabany, Gholam. “Iranian media: The paradox of modernity.’ Social Semiotics 17, no. 4 (Dec 2007): 479-501.

Liebes, Tamar and Zohar Kampf. “Black and white and shades of gray: Palestinians in the Israeli media during the 2nd intifada.” International Journal of Press/Politics 14, no. 4 (Oct 2009): 434-453.

Loveless, Matthew. “The theory of international media diffusion: Political socialization and international media in transitional democracies.” Studies in Comparative International Development 44, no. 2 (June 2009): 118-136.

Lustick, Ian S. “Abandoning the iron wall: Israel and "the middle eastern muck".” Middle East Policy 15, no. 3 (Fall 2008): 30-56.

Lynch, Jake and Annabel McGoldrick. “War and peace journalism in the holy land.” Social Alternatives 24, no. 1 (2005): 11-15.

Menkel-Meadow, C. and I. Nutenko. “The next generation: Creating new peace processes in the Middle east.” Negotiation Journal 25, no. 4 (Oct 2009): 569.

O'Sullivan, John. “The role of the media at a time of global crisis.” International Journal on World Peace 21, no. 4 (Dec 2004): 69-79.

Rao, Shakuntala and Ting Lee Seow. “Globalizing media ethics? An assessment of universal ethics among international political journalists.” Journal of Mass Media Ethics 20, no. 2 (June 2005): 99-120.

Wilinat, Lars, Annette Aw, Naila Nabil Hamdy, Zhou He, Victor Menayang, María Teresa La Porte, Karen Sanders, and Ezhar Tamam. “Media use, anti-Americanism and international support for the Iraq war.” International Communication Gazette 68, no. 5 (Oct 2006): 533-550.

Wolfsfeld, Gadi. “The news media and the second intifada: Some basic lessons.” Palestine - Israel Journal of Politics, Economics & Culture 10, no. 2 (June 2003): 5.

Mental Health

Al-Krenawi, Alean and Vered Slonim-Nevo. “Psychosocial and familial functioning of children from polygynous and monogamous families.” Journal of Social Psychology 148, no. 6 (Dec 2008): 745-764.

Ayyash-Abdo, Huda and Rayane Alamuddin. “Predictors of subjective well-being among college youth in Lebanon.” Journal of Social Psychology 147, no. 3 (June 2007): 265-284.

Bottom, William P. “Organizing intelligence: Development of behavioral science and the research based model of business education.” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 45, no. 3 (Summer 2009): 253-283.

Coolidge, Frederick L. and Daniel L. Segal. “Was Saddam Hussein like Adolf Hitler? A personality disorder investigation.” Military Psychology 19, no. 4 (Oct. 2007): 289-299.

Dobbs, David. “The post-traumatic stress trap.” Scientific American 300, no. 4 (April 2009): 64-69.

Eilbirt, Henry. “Twentieth-century beginnings in employee counseling.” The Business History Review 31, no. 3 (Autumn 1957): 310-322.

Haboush, Karen L. “Working with Arab American families: Culturally competent practice for school psychologists.” Psychology in the Schools 44, no. 2 (Feb. 2007): 183-198.

Hakim-Larson, Julie, Ray Kamoo, Sylvia Nassar-McMillan, and John H. Porcerelli. “Counseling Arab and Chaldean American families.” Journal of Mental Health Counseling 29, no. 4 (Oct 2007): 301-321.

Priester, Paul E. “Mental health counseling in the Islamic republic of Iran: A marriage of religion, science, and practice.” Counseling & Values 52, no. 3 (April 2008): 253-264.

Rehm, Lynn P. “Conducting psychotherapy around the globe: Orientation and introduction.” Journal of Clinical Psychology 63, no. 8 (Aug 2007): 707-711.

Rosen, Daniel D., David Greenberg, James Schmeidler, and Gaby Shefler. “Stigma of mental illness, religious change, and explanatory models of mental illness among jewish patients at a mental-health clinic in north Jerusalem.” Mental Health, Religion & Culture 11, no. 2 (March 2008): 193-209.

Zaghlawan, Hasan Y., Michaelene M. Ostrosky, and Jamal Al-Khateeb. “Decreasing the inattentive behavior of Jordanian children: A group experiment.” Education & Treatment of Children 30, no. 3 (August 2007): 49-64.

Religion

“The Islamic movement inside Israel.” Journal of Palestine Studies 36, no. 2 (Winter 2007): 66-76.

Ayubi, Nazih N. M. “The political revival of Islam: The case of Egypt.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 12, no. 4 (Dec. 1980): 481-499.

Baker, Raymond William. “Screening Islam: Terrorism, American jihad and the new Islamists.” Arab Studies Quarterly 25, no. 1 (Winter, 2003): 33-56.

Brown, L. C. “Guardians of the revolution: Iran and the world in the age of the ayatollahs.” Foreign Affairs 88, no. 5 (Sept. 2009): 161-161.

Ferdows, Adele K. “Women and the Islamic revolution.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 15, no. 2 (May 1983): 283-298.

Gilsenan, Michael. Recognizing Islam: Religion and society in the modern Middle East. London: I.B. Tauris, 2000.

Gopin, Marc. Holy war, holy peace: How religion can bring peace to the middle east. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck. “Muslim revivalist thought in the Arab world : An overview.” Muslim World 76, no. 3-4 (Jl-O, 1986): 143-167.

Haney, Marsha Snulligan. “Envisioning Islam: Imam Mohammed and interfaith dialogue.” Muslim World 99, no. 4 (Oct 2009): 608-632.

Khashan, Hilal. “The new world order and the tempo of militant Islam.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 24, no. 1 (May 1997): 5-24.

Kibble, David G. “The threat of militant Islam: A fundamental reappraisal.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 19, no. 4 (Oct 1996): 353-364.

Kramer, Martin. “The Middle East, old and new.” Daedalus 126, no. 2, (Spring 1997): 89-112.

———. “Arab nationalism: Mistaken identity.” Daedalus 122, no. 3, (Summer 1993): 171-206.

Kreps, Sarah E. “The 2006 Lebanon war: Lessons learned.” Parameters 37, no. 1 (Spring 2007): 72-84.

Küng, Hans. Islam: Past, present and future. Oxford: Oneworld, 2007.

Kuran, Timur. “The absence of the corporation in Islamic law: Origins and persistence.” The American Journal of Comparative Law 53, no. 4 (Fall 2005): 785-834.

Malek, George N. “Christian-Muslim dialogue.” Missiology 16, no. 3 (Jl, 1988): 279-286.

Nasr, Vali. “Regional implications of shi'a revival in Iraq.” Washington Quarterly 27, no. 3 (Summer 2004): 7-24.

Rabbani, Mouin. “The costs of chaos in Palestine.” Middle East Report 32, no. 224 (Fall 2002): 6-9.

Rahman, Fazlur.  “Islam's attitude toward Judaism.” Muslim World 72, no. 1 (June 1982): 1-13.

Social issues

Abaza, Mona. “More on the shifting worlds of Islam: The Middle East and southeast Asia: A troubled relationship?” Muslim World 97, no. 3 (July 2007): 419-436.

Ahram, Ariel I. Iraq and syria: “The dilemma of dynasty.” Middle East Quarterly 9, no. 2 (Spring 2002): 33.

Al-Hamarneh, Ala and Christian Steiner. “Islamic tourism: Rethinking the strategies of tourism development in the Arab world after September 11, 2001.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, & the Middle East 24, no. 1 (April 2004): 173-182.

Bayat, Asef. “Activism and social development in the Middle East.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 34, no. 1 (Feb 2002): 1-28.

Bilgin, Mehmet and Emine Akkapulu. “Some variables predicting social self-efficacy expectation.” Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal 35, no. 6 (Aug 2007): 777-788.

Buchman, David. “Structuralism reconsidered: Ibn al-‘Arabi and cultural variation in Muslim societies.” Muslim World 94, no. 1 (Jan 2004): 131-138.

Cuffel, Alexandra. “Call and response: European Jewish emigration to Egypt and Palestine in the middle ages.” The Jewish Quarterly Review 90, no. 1/2 (Jul.  Oct., 1999): 61-101.

Fassihi, Farnaz. “Palestinians face prospects of life without Arafat; with leader very ill, aides discuss succession; conflicts over burial site.” Wall Street Journal, (Nov 2004): 8.

Hodge, David R. and Aneesah Nadir. “Moving toward culturally competent practice with Muslims: Modifying cognitive therapy with Islamic tenets.” Social Work 53, no. 1 (Jan 2008): 31-41.

Jackson, Louise A. “Care or control? the metropolitan women police and child welfare, 1919-1969.” The Historical Journal 46, no. 3 (Sep 2003): 623-648.

Metcalfe, Beverly Dawn. “Women, management and globalization in the Middle East.” Journal of Business Ethics 83, no. 1 (Nov 2008): 85-100.

Nelson, Daniel and Stuart Campbell. “Taylorism versus welfare work in American industry: H. L. Gantt and the Bancrofts.” The Business History Review 46, no. 1 (Spring 1972): 1-16.

Salem, Paul. “Politics and culture: Toward an Arab agenda for the 21st century.” Middle East Policy 6, no. 4 (June 1999): 146.

Savitsky, Laura, Maria Illingworth, and Megan DuLaney. “Civilian social work: Serving the military and veteran populations.” Social Work 54, no. 4 (Oct 2009): 327-339.

Schram, Sanford F. and Joe Soss. “Success stories: Welfare reform, policy discourse, and the politics of research.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 577/ Reforming Welfare, Redefining Poverty (Sept 2001): 49-65.

Women’s Issues

Ahmadi, Alireza, Reza Mohammadi, David C. Schwebel, Naser Yeganeh, Ali Sourosh, and Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi. “Familial risk factors for self-immolation: A case-control study.” Journal of Women's Health (15409996) 18, no. 7 (July 2009): 1025-1031.

Brenner, Joyce Rosman. “Women's issues in Israel.” Journal of Jewish Communal Service 83, no. 2 (Winter 2008): 204-208.

Browers, Michelle. “The centrality and marginalization of women in the political discourse of Arab nationalists and Islamists.” Journal of Middle East Women's Studies 2, no. 2 (Spring, 2006): 8-34.

Ferdows, Adele K. “Women and the Islamic revolution.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 15, no. 2 (May 1983): 283-298.

Fernea, Elizabeth. “The challenges for Middle Eastern women in the 21st century.” Middle East Journal 54, no. 2 (Spring 2000): 185-193.

Goodwin, Joanne L. “'Employable mothers' and 'suitable work': A re-evaluation of welfare and wage-earning for women in the twentieth-century united states.” Journal of Social History 29, no. 2 (Winter 1995): 253-274.

Quader, Sarab Abu-Rabia and Izhar Oplatka. “The power of femininity.” Journal of Educational Administration 46, no. 3 (2008): 396.

Saleh, Al-Jufout, Abu-Hamatteh Ziad, and Al-Qaisy Lama. “Empowerment of female students for participation in the representative councils in Jordanian universities.” College Student Journal 42, no. 1 (March 2008): 15-23.

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