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Regent Research Roundtables

Regent Research Roundtables

From the Editors

Dr. Bruce E. Winston and Dr. Kathleen Patterson
2021

Welcome to the Proceedings of the 2021 Regent Research Roundtables. In addition to presentations of empirical studies, the Roundtable format allows presenters to discuss new concepts, possible future research topics, consulting methods, new teaching methods, and panel discussions of topics that are of interest to our academic communities.

NOTE: All authors own responsibility for APA and/or formatting.

The Value of Servant-leadership in Sodexo

Jeffery S. Doolittle

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

This essay explores the servant-leadership theory and the value it brings to the complex and globally diverse workforce of Sodexo, the global leader in the business services and supplies industry. The discussion includes a servant-leadership literature review, Sodexo’s servant-leadership journey, servant-leadership across cultures, leadership dilemmas, and a business case for servant-leadership. Servant-leadership is a globally relevant leadership approach built on dimensions such as love, humility, and service. While cross-cultural differences influence different ways of considering leadership and service or exceptions and rules, servant-leadership connects differences in discovering solutions for organizational dilemmas. The benefits of servant-leadership extend beyond solving problems to include both expected benefits such as improved performance and productivity, and unexpected benefits such as organization citizenship behavior and intrinsic motivation. Sodexo, the global leader in the business services and supplies industry, demonstrates the value of servant-leadership in achieving strategic goals in a complex organization.

The Impact of Servant Leadership on Racism in Society

Tamara R. Morton

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of racism in society and offer solutions by the impact of servant leadership. The development of racism and the present circumstances today call for change to bring healing and justice. Biblical principles can be applied to combat racism, along with servant leadership, to reflect the love of God for the entire world. The Old Testament and the New Testament confirm the message of Christ to bring good news to all people. Servant leadership can foster service to others, move society toward community, and build trust (Reinke, 2004). Many scholars have studied the theory of servant leadership, and the contribution of research can engage the issue of racism. The attributes and characteristics of servant leaders implemented can result in justice for all and transform communities. The humility of servant leaders puts the leader as a servant and embraces the differences of others to show compassion to those they serve (Northouse, 2019). The impact of servant leadership empowers the oppressed and brings forth freedom. As a result, action steps can be taken by utilizing awareness and perception, demonstrate acceptance and empathy, exemplify altruism and love, and build community and trust (Greenleaf, 1977 and Patterson, 2003).

Servant, Leader, Prosecutor: A Servant Leadership Training Program for Prosecutors

Tabitha B. Anderson

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

The criminal justice system is currently under direct scrutiny to implement change. Specifically, prosecutors are accused of bearing responsibility for mass incarceration, disparate sentences, and unethical conduct. While all attorneys are subject to a code of ethics and professional responsibility, prosecutors bear additional competing duties and discretion. They must seek justice, represent the interests of victims, defendants, and the community, satisfy competing interests of stakeholders, comply with ethical mandates, moral responsibilities, professionalism, discretion, and personal aspirations. Both seasoned and inexperienced prosecutors must balance these competing duties, burdens, and responsibilities. While they receive extensive legal training, they receive no leadership training. Prosecutors are, by definition, leaders within the criminal justice system and their communities. Servant leadership is a successful model for prosecutors because it mirrors the multiple duties of a prosecutor to put the needs, development, and wellbeing of others first with the goal of producing servant leaders in others. A servant leadership training program teaches prosecutors to manage their competing interests, discretion, and professional fatigue through the ideals and behaviors of servant leadership. It is not intuitive. It must be taught.

Servant Leadership and Conflict Management in the Faith-Based Organization

Michelle G. Segundo

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine how servant leaders manage conflict in faith-based organizations (FBOs). Data was collected through the qualitative method of semi-structured interviews with two servant leaders who serve in executive leadership positions in their faith-based organizations located in South Texas. The interviews were conducted utilizing the video conference application, Zoom, as requested by the participants in accordance with their Covid-19 safety measures. The first cycle coding of both participants’ responses revealed 60 codes with 806 frequencies, sharing 26 first cycle codes (Appendix). The second cycle of coding produced five themed clusters reflecting the participants’ shared values of (a) communication; (b) biblical standards; (c) vision; (d) unity; and (e) empowerment when managing conflict in their FBOs (Table 2, Table 3). This phenomenological study places the servant leader in managing group conflict within a faith-based organizational (FBO) context allowing the servant leader to connect with the FBO’s biblical foundation and incorporate SL attributes (Table 1) that complement the faith foundation of the organization. Although the literature reveals that leaders exhibiting specific servant leadership qualities (Table 1) have a positive impact in both minimizing and managing conflict in the FBO, the existing research incorporating all three factors of SL, FBOs, and conflict management was limited validating the necessity for this study and its outcomes that will provide help to servant leaders attempting to manage conflict in a faith-based organizational context.

Nurturing a culture of hope in leaders and organizations in globally turbulent times

Karen Cerff

Roundtable: Servant Leadership

This article supports the extended theoretical model initially developed by Patterson (2003), encompassing the seven virtuous constructs of love, humility, altruism, vision, trust, empowerment and service, extended by Winston (2003) to include a circular motion, demonstrating the leader’s service that results in a continuous circular motion by positively affecting the followers’ Agapao love, commitment, self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation and altruistic attitudes towards their leaders. Cerff and Winston (2006) included the cognitive theory of hope emanating from the field of positive psychology (Shorey & Snyder, 1997) in the conceptual model, as a virtuous construct that is an outcome of both the leader’s Agapao love and the follower’s Agapao love. Recent marketplace research indicates deliberate initiatives to nurture hope in leaders that continue to influence both leaders and followers in organizations with positive ripple effects in contrast to the erosion of hope. This article will present empirical research that validates the inclusion of hope in the servant leadership model and the pivotal value of hope during turbulent times for leaders and followers alike.

An Exploration of Successful Global Entrepreneurial Innovation Leadership Attributes and Behaviors

Jeffery S. Doolittle

Roundtable: Human Resource Development

This viewpoint paper aims to identify the entrepreneurial leadership behaviors and attributes associated with successful entrepreneurial innovation to guide global business considerations. As designed, the insights covered will lead to the transformation of society and workplaces by applying proven innovation thought leadership. This paper combines a contemporary exploration of the literature on leadership with insights on national culture to develop more nuanced understandings of key entrepreneurial innovation leadership behaviors and attributes within multicultural and national contexts. The literature on entrepreneurial innovation leadership behaviors and attributes underpinned with insights on national culture provides more nuanced understandings of how leaders can appropriately adapt their leadership approach to transform an increasingly diverse and complex workplace and society. This helpful insight that may assist decision-makers in developing innovation leadership and transform global organizations. This paper offers a contemporary review of innovation leadership behaviors and attributes underpinned within a national cultural context.

Repurposing the Purpose of Higher Education in the Post-Pandemic World

Chad H. Newton

Roundtable: Human Resource Development

The purpose of this study pertained to an exploration of a senior professor’s experiences during the immediate shift from traditional classroom teaching to fully online teaching during the pandemic in 2020. A primary goal of this research involved a purposeful focus on the experiences of a senior faculty member from a phenomenological perspective. The implications of this study included several suggestions: (a) opportunities for applying the laws of learning acquisition associated with human resource development (HRD), (b) exploring the participant’s experiences that occurred during the immediate change from traditional lecture halls to online teaching, and (c) the need for developing traditional professors in the practice and application of Knowles’s theory of andragogy. This study incorporated the phenomenological method of research design and interpretation of the findings, and it used four additional methods of interpretation and analysis: (a) IPA, (b) case study method, (c) the laws of learning acquisition described by Gilley, Eggland, and Gilley (2002), and (d) in vivo coding with an emphasis on personal narratives that emerged during the semi-structured interview. The findings included several insights for reflection and perspectives about the future of professorship in the post-pandemic world. In particular, the professor’s statement about repurposing higher education in the postpandemic world held considerable value for insight generation.

Shipyard Industry Succession: A Case Study Analyzing Supervisor Developmental Programs

Charles Hulse

Roundtable: Human Resource Development

The purpose of this case study is to explore the organizational phenomenon of leadership development. It is important to note that this case study is specific to GC1’s leadership development program and the work environment it has been designed around. This research is a qualitative phenomenological study that analyzed the data collected from the interviews of three participants; 1) one who completed the program, 2) one who is currently active in the program, and 3) one who just started the program. Data were analyzed utilizing the descriptive coding technique. This case should only be viewed as a preliminary study designed to answer the question- what are private sector organizational developmental programs producing? More managers or leaders for the shipyard industry?

Human Resources Development and Group Cohesion During Technological and Management

Alina Wreczycki

Roundtable: Human Resource Development

Based on Turner and Tajfel’s (1986) social identity theory of intergroup behavior and Arrows et al.’s (2000) group dynamics, this work explored the relationship between human resources development (HRD) and group cohesion during technological and management changes. The exegesis for this study occurred at Matthew 5:3-12, which provided traits conducive to support group cohesion during management and technological shifts. Robbins’ (1996) inner texture as part of the socio-rhetorical analysis was used to exegete traits from Matthew 5:3-12 (NIV). It was hypothesized that HRD during times of technological changes called for managers to function as situational leaders who inspired and motivated group members to attend training for knowledge transfer into the succeeding organizational processes for sustainability while safely idling the existing procedures. While there appeared to be synergies between Turner and Tajfel’s (1986) social identity of intergroup behavior theory and group cohesion during management and technological changes, it became evident that the balance between HRD and group cohesion was critical and predominately placed in the hands of the manager as an effective leader. The traits that emerged from the participants’ narratives on the relationships with the retired and succeeding managers using Saldana’s (2013) were compared to the exegeted set from Matthew 5:3-12 (NIV). While the traits of the retired manager were consistent with the pericope, those of his successor were not.

Utilizing horizon scanning to attain timely awareness in a future of uncertainty

Rodney B. Woods

Roundtable: Strategic Foresight

The article aims to help leaders understand Horizon Scanning and its benefits in addressing unforeseen challenges arising from various calamities and emergencies in a world of increasing uncertainty. Leaders armed with the necessary tools and resources will be able to create a focused vision, clear identity, and secure future for their organization. Furthermore, the swiftness of their response will indicate a sense of urgency and significantly define their leadership, positively impacting their stakeholders. Therefore, the appropriate application of Horizon Scanning is crucial to business success both now and in the future.

Beyond Strategy and Design: Gaining a competitive advantage in an uncertain world

Jeffery S. Doolittle

Roundtable: Global Consulting

Leadership is facing a time of significant challenge and complexity. Numerous sociological and technological advances are driving the complexity, making it necessary for leaders to discover solutions to meet new challenges. There is no serious question on the need for organizational strategy and design alignment. Numerous studies have demonstrated that successful organizations align their strategy and design with their unique operational environment. Although, while alignment is essential, especially during turbulent times, it is not sufficient. This article considers what leaders might do to gain a competitive advantage in an uncertain world. This author’s premise based on research: Focus on individual and organizational virtues and character. When organizations solely focus on behaviors, they fail to account for habits that can both contribute to or against organizational success. Today’s world is too chaotic not to deepen understanding of how people think, act, and feel. The addition of character and virtues holds the key to unlocking productivity, creativity, and competitive advantage. Moving beyond behaviors and focusing on the development of leadership virtues and character improves performance and provides a competitive advantage.

The Apertures of Consulting Across Disciplines

Chenille White

Roundtable: Global Consulting

The objective of this proposal is to present to practitioners the apertures of consulting across disciplines during the “Empowering Consulting Practitioners, Leaders, and Educators” 2021 Leadership Roundtable. The global pandemic resulted in unprecedented changes and challenges for society. It mandated a re-imagining and restructuring within organizations. The effects are drastic and demand new organizational solutions that adjust to the changing times. Government leaders seek to identify the needs of entities and individuals because of this catastrophic event. Leaders across diverse organizations seek to identify ways to move from survival to organizational advancement. Consultants seek to determine how to meet the needs of both the government and business leaders with strategic consulting that offers long-term solutions. This paper identifies the commonalities and divergences that contribute to the apertures in consulting. The findings reveal the leadership of the government must create systems of communication that includes the leadership of organizations and consultants. The remaining findings exist under this overarching aperture. New theories are nonexistent but merely continuations of approaches and leadership theories seen in such unprecedented conditions. A brief overview and analysis of the current challenges and apertures, emerging theories, and best practices are provided to include recommendations on how to successfully consult in the 21st century and beyond. Additional insight for a proposed case study offers an avenue for further research on how to address the apertures of consulting across disciplines.

Building the Kingdom by Tearing Down Cultural Walls: A Cross-Cultural Leadership Analysis of Jesus’ Elevation of the Despised Samaritans

Michelle G. Segundo

Roundtable: Biblical Perspectives

Organizational success depends on effective leadership whose praxis are often inexorably intertwined within the predominant culture (Dorfman, 1996). Effective leadership entails direct interaction between leaders and their followers; however, the most pervasive and lasting form of leadership happens through the indirect process of influence as the leader is able to communicate the organization’s needs and unify his followers in facilitating and fulfilling shared objectives through collective efforts (Yukl, 2013). Christ not only expected His disciples to carry out His mission, but He demonstrated leadership methods that focused their hearts and motives on loyalty to the kingdom of God rather than remaining loyal to their Judaic culture that traditionally excluded other races and cultures. Grindheim (2017) asserted that the kingdom exerts a liberating, community-shaping force as Christ’s inclusivity was countercultural to the religious tradition that often excluded people from the church and God. The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate methods of cross-cultural leadership through Christ’s personal praxis of cross-cultural leadership and more specifically, Jesus crossing cultural constraints and elevating the role of Samaritans in the New Testament thus promulgating the Great Commission (Matt. 28:18-20) reinforcing Christ’s mission of salvation, healing, restoration, empowerment, and eternal life for all mankind.

Ethical Leadership: Being Transparent in Differing Belief Systems

Gladys M. Monroe

Roundtable: Kingdom Business

Ethical leadership (EL) “motives, values, and behaviors (e.g., honesty, trustworthy, altruistic, fairness)” (Yukl and Gardner, 2020, p.231) lay the foundation for transparent communication, leading to a work environment conducive to a platform for dialogue between differing opinions. Organizational culture mirrors the expectations and values demonstrated by leaders who design the mission, objectives, and vision, but followers must meet these parameters to execute their tasks. “Being self-aware, transparent and vulnerable” (Hendrikz and Engelbrecht, 2019, p.4) are constructs that form the principled leadership scale (PLS) that lends to the leader comprehending their interaction with their followers having an impact and demonstrating humility, exhibiting inner moral character. Downe et al. (2016) assert that good governance within government organizations demonstrates a standard for ethical conduct when managers at all levels and politicians exemplify value-based attributes, which can gain public trust. Examining interaction and reaction among cohorts, experiencing comradery within a structured context, their discussion of workplace challenges, environmental work culture, and relational differences in beliefs, values, and professional roles recognized that it shaped their workplace culture. Baker and Power’s (2018) emphasis on Spiritual Capital (SC) empowers leaders to exert their beliefs and faith in the public realm bringing a stance before those who have different belief systems to recognize that Kingdom Principles have operational validity correlated to value-based doctrine. Clarity of meaning is imperative to effective communication (Konopaske et al., 2018) and accurate interpretation. The follower’s mindset is influenced and changed from self-serving to the ethical leader’s illustration of what they observe and experience.

The Regent Research Roundtables is the proceedings of the School of Business & Leadership Regent Research Roundtables that provide a forum for scholars in the field of business and leadership studies. Participants in the Research Roundtables are selected through a peer-review process. Inclusion in the proceedings follows an editorial selection process with the specific roundtable chair selecting specific articles that fit the style and structure of a proceedings document.

Editorial Staff

Dr. Bruce E. Winston
Co-Editor
Regent University

Dr. Kathleen Patterson
Co-Editor
Regent University

Editorial Members
Faculty, School of Business & Leadership

Dr. Steve Firestone
Regent University

Dr. John Mulford
Regent University

Dr. William (Dave) Winner
Regent University

Dr. Rob Freeborough
Regent University

Dr. Virginia Richardson
Regent University

Dr. Joshua Henson
Southeastern University

Dr. Diane Wiater
Regent University

Production Staff

Ms. Myrnalyn Castillo
Website Production
Regent University