Volume 9, Issue 1 / Spring 2015
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From the Editor
Dr. William O. Welsh, III

Greetings, fellow travelers.

It is with a combination of sadness and hope for the future that Regent University is suspending production of the International Journal of Leadership Studies until further notice. This issue offers a broad variety of international leadership research and theory inquiries continuing to challenge the dominant leadership understanding discourse.

This issue opens with a detailed Delphi study offering an amplification of twelve servant leadership primary characteristics. This is followed by an Indian perspective study of authentic leadership that simultaneously reinforces the critical distinction between management and leadership while concluding that authentic leadership leads to both effective management and leadership performance. Next on offer is a critical research methodology validity and reliability challenge through the lens of cross-cultural transitioning of Rotter’s Internal-External Locus of Control scale. This is followed, in turn, by a Norwegian study of multi- team leadership effects on collaboration and integration during inspection, maintenance, and repair operations in the North Sea. Our next article presents two separate models for the moderating effects of perceived leader motive (altruistic vs. instrumental) on the relationship between transformational leadership and prosocial voice in the Chinese workplace followed by a study employing a tautological approach to develop a seven-scale instrument investigating if Romans 12 gift profiles might be useful in person-job fit analysis. [more]

G. Donald Chandler and John W. Chandler's (2013) On Effective Leadership: Across Domains, Cultures, and Eras
Sabre Masters & Krishna Bista
Leadership is not about taking charge of people. G. Donald Chandler and John W. Chandler (2013) address the questions of why some leaders are effective, ineffective, and only a few that are exceptional. They present a pragmatic argument for defining leadership, case studies of exemplary leaders, leadership skills, and ethical choices. This book is a beneficial resource for expanding knowledge and professional development for individuals that aspire to become leaders. [more]

Leadership for Sustainability: Theoretical Foundations and Pedagogical Practices that Foster Change
Heather Burns, Heather Diamond Vaught & Corin Bauman
Sustainability education has a significant role to play in changing the leadership paradigm and fostering leaders who are capable of working collaboratively to address complex sustainability challenges. Leadership for sustainability denotes a new and expanded understanding of leadership that signifies taking action based on sustainability values, leading from a living processes paradigm, and creating an inclusive, collaborative and reflective leadership process. This paper examines and weaves together literature on leadership, leadership development, and sustainability education to suggest best practices in leadership development. [more]

A Seven-Scale Instrument to Measure the Romans 12 Motivational Gifts and a Proposition that the Romans 12 gift Profiles Might Apply to Person-Job Fit Analysis
Dorena DellaVecchio & Bruce Winston

This study used a tautological approach to develop a seven-scale instrument that measures the Romans 12 motivational gifts and after collecting data from 4177 participants compared the scores on the seven scales between males and females revealing that females scored significantly higher on the (a) Giving, (b) Serving, and (c) Mercy scales while males scored significantly higher on the (a) Ruling, (b) Teaching, (c) and Perceiving scales. The study conducted a cluster analysis on the 4,177 participant scores of the seven scales and built 50 profiles with all seven ANOVA tests (one per gift) showing significance at the .000 level. The study proposes that the Romans 12 gift profiles might be useful in person-job fit analysis and suggests that future research be conducted to test the validity of this proposition. This study includes definitions of each of the seven Romans 12 gifts and includes a literature review of the gifts.[more]
Modelling of Leniency in Leadership in the Face of Hardships
Krista Kohtakangas, Juha Perttula & Antti Syväjärvi

This study evaluates the hardships that are experienced when engaging in leadership activities. It explores how especially middle managers employ self-leadership and express self-compassion when facing work-related hardship events. The empirical data consists of seven interviews of middle managers, which were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The study shows how middle managers generate leniency in leadership by beginning with emotional distress and ending with restored peace of mind. The results identify the self-leadership strategies employed to endure the experienced hardships. Work context and principles of acting regulate the formation of leniency in leadership. The outcome is featured by putting one’s mind to rest and learning from the experience. The means to lead oneself and to be kind to oneself interconnect in leniency in leadership, which is theorized as the interface of self-leadership strategies and self-compassion as a special form of self-directive behavior. [more]
Identifying Primary Characteristics of Servant Leadership: Del Phi Study
Adam Focht & Michael Ponton

The purpose of this study was to more clearly define servant leadership by identifying primary characteristics of the phenomenon through a Delphi study. Greenleaf (1977) stated that servant leadership “begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first. Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead” (p. 13). Greenleaf clearly stated that in servant leadership, service comes before leadership. Because a servant leader serves first, we designated those characteristics of a servant as the primary characteristics of servant leadership. In order to serve first, a servant leader must first exhibit the primary characteristics and then aspire to lead. Over 100 characteristics of servant leadership have been identified in the literature (Sendjaya, 2003, p. 4). We conducted a Delphi study with scholars in the field of servant leadership and, after three rounds, 12 characteristics were identified as primary characteristics of servant leadership. These characteristics include valuing people, humility, listening, trust, caring, integrity, service, empowering, serving others’ needs before their own, collaboration, love/unconditional love, and learning. [more]
Assessing the Effectiveness of Authentic Leadership
Biplab Datta

The effectiveness of authentic leadership (AL) has been empirically evaluated in this paper. It has been found that authentic leadership has been understood as a three dimensional, second order construct by Indian respondents. The study indicates that AL, as measured by the 16 items of the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ), leads to seven different dimensions of effective management and five different dimensions of effective leadership as measured by 42 variables. The paper concludes that AL leads to effective management and leadership performance. [more]
Who's Controlling Locus of Control? Cross-Cultural Loc Usage
Russell L. Huizing

Rotter’s Internal-External Locus of Control scale has been broadly used in both American contexts as well as in other cultures around the world. A review of the research that first transitioned this scale into other cultures shows a number of significant validity and reliability threats. Given that many more recent studies have based their validity and reliability on these earlier studies, it is important to understand the threats that existed so current research can strengthen the validity and reliability of this important scale across other cultures. Recommendations for various forms of validity and reliability are provided. [more]
Effects of Multi-Team Leadership on Collaboration and Integration in Subsea Operations
Jan R. Jonassen

Inspection, maintenance, and repair (IMR) operations in the North Sea are performed from specialized vessels. The article contributes to the understanding of leadership as being too complex to be described as the strategies and behaviors of only one person. These leaders work in concert to be facilitating and contributing to flexibility and adaptation thus initiating collaboration between teams and individuals through interaction processes. This unique leadership model allows for and generates openness, transparency and the practice of basic values like respect and helpfulness. The challenge for the leaders in subsea operations, however, is to create or contribute to the creation of an overarching collective identity to facilitate the transformation of the organization from a diversified and more fragmented organization consisting of several individual sub teams to an executive force of one overarching team supervised by one leader. A “sharedness” of mindset is developed through a set of collective communication. With shared mental models, there is a better chance of creating a collective flow of work. Openness and a short distance between leaders and subordinates also affect the ability of the organization to discover mistakes and rectify them earlier than otherwise possible. The challenge is as ever both individual and organizational: The ability to work together towards goal achievement. The paper introduces elements building a foundation for successful leading of complex multi-team operations. [more]

Investigation of Motive Between Transformational Leadership and Pro-Social Voice: An Empirical Study in China
Chenwei Li & Keke Wu
Prosocial voice, as a form of citizenship behavior with a purpose of expressing constructive changes and improving the status quo, is desirable in both teams and organizations. Also, transformational leadership (TL) has been documented as a leadership style that prompts employees to engage in prosocial voice. Recently, whether or not the effects of transformational leadership on prosocial voice have boundaries becomes a topic of interest to organizational researchers. We presented two separate models for the moderating effects of perceived leader motive (altruistic vs. instrumental) on the relationship between transformational leadership and prosocial voice in the workplace. From an employee perspective, this study documents that one’s perception towards his/her leader’s motive (altruistic vs. instrumental) underpinning leadership behaviors is related to the boundaries of TL’s effect on prosocial voice. Data with 167 employees at an auto maker in China were used and the analysis results provided support for the models. [more]

Please note: Views and opinions expressed in the articles published in the International Journal of Leadership Studies (IJLS) represent each author's research and viewpoint and do not necessarily represent IJLS or its sponsors. IJLS and its sponsors make no representations about the accuracy of the information contained in published manuscripts and disclaims any and all responsibility or liability resulting from the information contained in the IJLS.

The International Journal of Leadership Studies is a publication of the Regent University School of Business & Leadership | © 2015
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