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Volume 3, Issue 2 / 2008
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From the Editor
Dail Fields
This issue focuses on a range of individual differences such as one’s emotions and cultural intelligence, as well as the consideration of alternative leadership models in light of new insights about cultural differences and similarities. The papers in this issue also continue our tradition of targeting international settings including the transitioning countries of Eastern Europe and Asia. I believe the topic variety illustrates a range of possible ways of looking at leadership that we hope to continue to cultivate in this professional research journal, which is available online and free of charge. [more]

Practitioner's Corner
The Frustration Phenomenon: Exploring Leader–Follower Relationships in the Information Age

William J. Shirey
This article highlights a study that explored the extent to which leaders and followers perceived that their relationships were compromised by the use of hi-tech communication instruments. Using phenomenological methods, the study concluded that within the U.S. Department of Defense sample examined, leaders and followers often perceived their relationships were compromised by distractions associated with e-mail communication and the use of instruments such as computers, Blackberrys, and cell phones. When the leader–follower relationship was compromised, lack of respect and commitment were primary factors. Body language and workload were also significant. [more]

Please note: Views and opinions expressed in the articles published in the International Journal of Leadership Studies (IJLS) represent each author's research and viewpoint and do not necessarily represent IJLS or its sponsors. IJLS and its sponsors make no representations about the accuracy of the information contained in published manuscripts and disclaims any and all responsibility or liability resulting from the information contained in the IJLS.

Intersectionality and Leadership
Agnes Richardson & Cynthia Loubier

The overall body of existing leadership diversity studies has focused only on one or two diversity attributes, missing the effects of multiple intersecting attributes. This study uses intersectionality theory to examine the interactions of surface level diversity attributes to dissect leader identity. Based on qualitative narratives and a substantial literature review, this study examines phenomenological and intersectional analyses of the perceptions of leadership style and efficacy of two successive university presidents—one male and one female. The results showed that the perceived differences in leadership were attributable to an interaction between multiple factors, and they affected surface level and deep level attributes when describing leaders. However, in this study, it was the leaders’ business and education backgrounds as well as their approach to moving the university forward that respondents emphasized as the differences between the leaders. [more]
Emotional Disposition and Leadership Preferences of American and Chinese MBA Students
John Humphreys, Nan Jiao, & Theresa Sadler
This article reports results from an exploratory study examining the relationship between American and Chinese MBA students’ emotional intelligence, constructive thinking ability, emotional creativity, and leader behavioral preference. Data analyses indicated a significant, positive correlation between emotional intelligence and the desirability of transformational leadership. No such relationship was found with constructive thinking ability, and emotional creativity actually exhibited a negative association. Moreover, there were significant differences found between the American and Chinese samples on emotional intellect and emotional creativity, with Americans scoring higher on the emotional intelligence scale but the Chinese exhibiting higher scores on the emotional creativity measure. Further, significant differences were found as to the desirability of transformational leadership. The American sample exhibited a higher mean preference score for transformational leadership as compared to the Chinese students, while the Chinese sample perceived passive leadership as more acceptable as compared to the American students. [more]
A Qualitative Evaluation on the Role of Cultural Intelligence in Cross-Cultural Leadership Effectiveness
Ling Deng & Paul Gibson
Most cross-cultural leadership research has been conducted and based upon various dimensions of culture (Hofstede, 2001; House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004; A. Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 2002). We argue that an understanding of cultural differences and cultural dimensions in a general sense is not enough on its own to achieve cross-cultural leadership effectiveness. This study aims to investigate the importance of, and the implementation of, cultural intelligence (CQ) as a key component of cross-cultural leadership capabilities within the context of Western–Chinese cultural differences. Derived from information and insights gathered through a series of in-depth interviews with 32 Western expatriate managers (among them are 26 Australian expatriates) and 19 local Chinese managers who represent top- and middle-level executives working in Australian businesses operating in China, this study confirms that expatriate leaders’ CQ can positively impact their cross-cultural leadership effectiveness. Given the large and increasing interest in doing business in China among Western firms, the further development of this study will highlight its pragmatic value. We intend to design a consulting model based upon the key findings, thereby providing an effective application tool to assist Western leaders to enhance their cross-cultural leadership effectiveness. [more]
Edifying the New Man: Romanian Communist Leadership’s Mythopoeia
Mihai C. Bocarnea & Bramwell Osula
Totalitarian regimes struggle to justify and support their actions by myths symbolizing their power. Such regimes employ state mythopoeia to transmit their philosophical truths to the people. Ideological control is achieved by means of new or remastered old myths. This paper deals with Communist mythmaking in the specific ideological environment of 1980s Romania, dominated by the Ceausescu dictatorship. In a systematic effort to change the consciousness of the people, Communist mythoplasts (propagandists) were tasked to implement a new, Socialist culture. One of the purposes of this state mythopoeia was to edify the New Man. This paper analyzes the myth of the New Man, a structural element of the Romanian Communist Party ideology, as presented in the doctrinal documents of the party. The significance of the New Man myth to an evolving concept of leadership is also considered from a perspective in which leadership is seen as an expression of the relationship between leaders and followers. [more]
Servant Leadership as a Humane Orientation: Using the GLOBE Study Construct of Humane Orientation to Show that Servant Leadership is More Global than Western
Bruce E. Winston & Barry Ryan
This article suggests that servant leadership, as a model, is more global than Western in nature. Support for this premise comes from the use of the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research Program’s (GLOBE) humane orientation construct and how this occurs in the cultural concepts from African (Ubuntu, Harambee); East Asian (Taoist, Confucianism); Mediterranean (Jewish); and Indian (Hindu) value systems. By illustrating that servant leadership is appropriate in various global cultures, this article recommends that not only is servant leadership a global leadership style but that servant leadership should be included in leadership development programs in Africa, Asia, and the Mediterranean as a means of producing humane leaders. [more]

International Journal of Leadership Studies
An online refereed journal sponsored by
Regent University School of Business & Leadership
1333 Regent University Drive, Virginia Beach, VA 23464
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© 2008| ISSN 1554-3145