Volume 2, Issue 3 / 2007
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From the Editor
Dail Fields
This issue of the International Journal of Leadership Studies contains work from a truly international group representing North America, Europe, and Asia. I believe the topic variety illustrates a range of possible ways of looking at leadership that we hope to continue to cultivate as we strive to present a professional and interesting research journal in an online format free of charge to readers. [more]

Practitioner's Corner
The Leader as Learner

Doris Gomez
Within much of the world’s developed economies, changes in technology, requirements for the workforce, and globalization of organizations are creating new leadership challenges and needs. It has been predicted that companies and organizations will no longer be able to successfully operate using traditional models of leadership. Nadler and Tushman (1999) compared it to “the differ­ence between checkers and three dimensional chess” (p. 49). The world is changing: organizations are becoming flatter, knowledge is being dispersed more generously, and the boundaries traditionally shaping organizations may no longer exist. These changes are having a dramatic impact on the workforce and leadership needs of companies and organizations. [more]

Please note: Views and opinions expressed in the articles published in the International Journal of Leadership Studies (IJLS) represent each author's research and viewpoint and do not necessarily represent IJLS or its sponsors. IJLS and its sponsors make no representations about the accuracy of the information contained in published manuscripts and disclaims any and all responsibility or liability resulting from the information contained in the IJLS.

Leadership and Teamwork: The Effects of Leadership and Job Satisfaction on Team Citizenship
Seokhwa Yun, Jonathan Cox, Henry P. Sims, Jr., & Sabrina Salam

This study examined how leadership related to citizenship behavior within teams. Leadership was hypothesized to influence team organizational citizenship behavior (TOCB) either directly or indirectly through job satisfaction. Longitudinal data were collected in three waves. Leader behaviors were measured at time 1, follower job satisfaction at time 2, and TOCB at time 3. Results indicate that both empowering and transformational leadership related positively to TOCB through job satisfaction. Aversive leadership was related negatively to TOCB. Also, leadership was mediated by job satisfaction in negatively relating to team anticitizenship behavior. The implications and directions for future research are discussed. [more]
Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership
Wendelin Küpers
The paper proposes a framework for the integration of leadership and followership. An integral orientation considers that leadership is constitutively linked with followership and vice versa. Facing the diversity of approaches and theories in both fields, a comprehensive conceptualization is presented that is suited to investigating complex, interrelated processes of leading and following. Based on a holonic understanding, integral perspectives cover the interdependent subjective, intersubjective, and objective dimensions of leaders and followers; respectively, leadership and followership within a developmental perspective. Based on an integral orientation, further processual and relational dimensions are discussed by which mutually interwoven leadership/followership can be understood as an emerging event, embedded within an ongoing, interrelated nexus. Finally, the paper outlines some theoretical and methodological implications and perspectives for future research of an integral leadership and followership. [more]
Initiating Trust in a Hostile Environment: A Case Study of Leaders Forging a New Transnational Partnership in Iraq
Benjamin Paul Dean
Transnational or global partnerships and intercultural strategic alliances require organizational leaders who will proactively engage risk and establish initial trust at the earliest stage of the emerging new relationship, especially where the prospective partnership must overcome a hostile external environment in which risk is high. Recent models of trust have emphasized the importance of trusting behavior that occurs early in the relationship. The model proposed by Jarvenpaa, Knoll, and Leidner (1998) refers to such early behavior as trusting action. Trusting action resembles a form of emergent trust or trust ex ante, similar to swift trust. This case study considers a new transnational partnership between two faith-based nonprofit charitable organizations—one in Iraq and the other in the United States. The study reports how risk-taking behavior and trusting action by leaders overcame a hostile, low-trust environment to create the intercultural relationship of trust essential to forming a strategic alliance. The findings support Jarvenpaa et al.’s proposition that initial trusting action functions both directly as a nontraditional antecedent of trust and indirectly by enhancing other antecedents. A need remains for additional case studies on how leadership initiatives can strategically employ mechanisms and interactions of early trusting behaviors to expedite such partnerships and alliances. [more]
Democratic Leadership: The Lessons of Exemplary Models for Democratic Governance
Sanghan Choi
Since leadership plays a vital role in democratic movements, understanding the nature of democratic leadership is essential. However, the definition of democratic leadership is unclear (Gastil, 1994). Also, little research has defined democratic leadership in the context of democratic movements. The leadership literature has paid no attention to democratic leadership in such movements, focusing on democratic leadership within small groups and organizations. This study proposes a framework of democratic leadership in democratic movements. The framework includes contexts, motivations, characteristics, and outcomes of democratic leadership. The study considers sacrifice, courage, symbolism, citizen participation, and vision as major characteristics in the display of democratic leadership in various political, social, and cultural contexts. Applying the framework to Nelson Mandela, Lech Walesa, and Dae Jung Kim; the study considers them as exemplary models of democratic leadership in democratic movements for achieving democracy. They have showed crucial characteristics of democratic leadership, offering lessons for democratic governance. [more]
Transformational Leaders: Their Socialization, Self-Concept, and Shaping Experiences
Punam Sahgal & Anil Pathak
This study uses a developmental perspective to study transformational leadership in the Indian context. It focuses on significant life experiences that have shaped leaders who have successfully transformed organizations. The personal experiences shared by leaders offer valuable insights on the role of family and childhood experiences that have had a sustained impact on their lives. The paper suggests that leaders do not emerge as a consequence of events or incidents but a journey of distinctive life experiences and processes. It concludes with a framework that weaves the antecedents of leadership that have enabled leaders to accomplish professional growth and success. [more]

International Journal of Leadership Studies
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© 2007| ISSN 1554-3145