Volume 3, Issue 1/2013     
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A Contextual Leadership Model for Indigenous Churches in Northern Brazil
Steven Crowther & Bramwell Osula

This research examines the history, culture, and leadership methods of the Ingarico Amerindian tribe of Northern Brazil. The leadership methods are studied with the goal of discovering a model of leadership among the Ingarico. In addition, this research examines the communication and teaching methods of the Ingarico to find a culturally relevant model for leadership training among the Ingarico. The Ingarico have a method of leading that is set within the Christian tradition. This model of leadership includes core themes like humility, a concern for the followers including a low power distance, an understanding of authority through the picture of a father, and a commitment to practical leadership. The Ingarico have an oral culture that causes them to use verbal, visual, and demonstration as forms of teaching, such as reenacting historical events. These forms of nonlinear teaching can be used to facilitate leadership development among the Ingarico and reflect a biblical model of Shepherd leadership founded in the visual and storytelling concepts in teaching the Bible, using different aspects of the stories to teach leadership.

Government Ethics Strategy: Case Study of Foley Scandal
Daryl D. Green & Lisa Robinson Davis

This investigation explores the American political environment and how amoral behavior associated with the “seven deadly sins” impacts contemporary organizational culture. This case analysis also evaluates Congressman Mark Foley’s scandal related to inappropriate emails to congressional pages. The study is significant due to the fact that public strategy can fail in the aftermath of government-wide unethical behavior by senior officials; this results in a negative perception by taxpayers. Researchers and practitioners therefore are interested in understanding how to improve ethical conduct and regain public trust. This paper is an original study and further contributes to understanding how strategy is influenced by ethical conduct and organizational culture in the public sector.

Scouting and Servant Leadership in Cross-cultural Perspective: An Exploratory Study
Fredric W. Rohm Jr. & Bramwell Osula

This qualitative case study evaluates the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM), Boy Scouts of America, Scout Association of Japan, and the four major German scouting organizations (Deutsche Pfadfinderschaft Sankt Georg, Pfadfinderinnenschaft Sankt Georg, Bund der Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder, and Verband Christlicher Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder) as servant leadership development programs. After a brief history of the origins of scouting, the WOSM and the three national scouting organizations are examined, comparing their mottos, promises, and laws. All programs promote service to God, country, and community; teaching leadership through outdoor living and community service projects. A review of servant leadership literature yields six different models: Laub (1999); Patterson (2003); Barbuto and Wheeler (2006); Wong and Davey (2007); Liden, Wayne, Zhao, and Henderson (2008); and Sendjaya, Sarros, and Santora (2008). To assess the scouting programs for evidence of servant leadership, Sendjaya et al.’s (2008) model is chosen to study six characteristics of servant leadership: (a) voluntary subordination, (b) authentic self, (c) covenantal relationship, (d) responsible morality, (e) transcendental spirituality, and (f) transforming influence.

Cardinal Virtue and the Well of Fortitude
Jackie L. Schiller II

In this article, the author seeks to inform the reader of a new concept—The Well of Fortitude. More of a model for self-leadership, the Well of Fortitude also serves as a mental concept that provides a sense of direction in the leadership of men and women, whether in the military setting, higher learning setting, church setting, or any other environment. This concept is influenced widely by McCoy’s Passion of Command, Grossman’s On Killing, Stephen Covey’s whole person model, and virtue ethics. It is the author’s goal that this concept resonate with the reader, causing personal conviction and positive change in the Cardinal Virtues—Temperance, Wisdom, Justice, and Courage.


From the Editor
Kathleen Patterson

We are thankful to the authors in this edition. First, we have a research article by Dr. Steven Crowther and Dr. Bramwell Osula have written “A Contextual Leadership Model for Indigenous Churches in Northern Brazil.” You will find this article to be focused on the history, culture, and leadership methods of the Ingarico Amerindian tribe of Northern Brazil. The Ingarico language has no word for leadership and none of our contemporary leadership theories capture the diverse aspects of Ingarico leadership; the question then becomes is there, perhaps, a model in the life of Jesus?

Secondly, we have a contribution from Dr. Daryl D. Green and Dr. Lisa Robinson Davis, with their article entitled, “Government Ethics Strategy: Case Study of Foley Scandal.” This case study delves into the American political environment, offers additional insight into amoral behavior associated with the “seven deadly sins,” and then centers on Congressman Mark Foley’s scandalous leadership alongside the idea of accountability.

Thirdly, we have an article entitled, “Scouting and Servant Leadership in Cross-Cultural Perspective: An Exploratory Study.” Contributed by Dr. Fredric W. Rohm, Jr. and Dr. Bramwell Osula, this article is a qualitative case study that evaluated the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM), Boy Scouts of America, Scout Association of Japan, and the four major German scouting organizations—and then further seeks to look at the servant leadership development in the programs.

Finally, Major Jackie L. Schiller II provides incredible insight with the article “Cardinal Virtue and the Well of Fortitude.” This article informs readers of a whole-person model and a newer concept—The Well of Fortitude. The need for self-leadership is broached, as well as the Well of Fortitude as a mental concept in light of an individual’s growth, one’s potential, and the success of the leader. As you can tell, this issue is packed with insightful information, real life application and hopefully some inspiration for you personally. Blessings as you continue to lead with the virtues!

But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self-control. Against such things there is no law.            

Galatians 5:22-23

The Journal of Virtues & Leadership
An online refereed journal sponsored by
Regent University School of Business & Leadership
1000 Regent University Drive, Virginia Beach, VA 23464
Phone: 757-352-4550; Email: jvl@regent.edu | ISSN 1941-465X | © 2013