From the Editor
Bruce E. Winston, Ph.D.

Welcome to Volume 6, Issue 1, of Emerging Leadership Journeys (ELJ). This issue contains conceptual, qualitative, and quantitative articles/studies produced by students in the School of Business & Leadership’s Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership program. All of the articles/studies in this issue come from first-year students in their first through fourth semesters of study. These articles/studies provide excellent examples of the type of work our students produce during their program of study.


The Divine Empowerment of Shared Leadership
Michael R. Gilbert

In the first century A.D., a sudden shift within the Jewish community in the geographical area of Palestine occurred that would ultimately spread to the Gentile peoples and nations and continues throughout the contemporary world. Drawing from intertextual analysis, comprised of (a) historical, (b) social, and (c) cultural intertextures, this article explores the effectiveness of the Holy Spirit, initially working through the original 12 Apostles, and how this third Person of the Godhead reached the Diaspora during the Feast of Weeks, known as Pentecost. The exploration of the expanding role of women is also discussed and the effectiveness of how the construct of interwoven cultures brought forth the intended result of thousands being added to the newly formed church from its initial day of operation. The elements of charismatic, transformational and servant leadership theories, as described by contemporary scholars, provide a construct that explains the success of the Holy Spirit’s work through the first generation of believers, enabling both men and women to become shared leaders in the New Testament Church.
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An Investigation of Path-Goal Theory, Relationship of Leadership Style, Supervisor-Related Commitment, and Gender
Leana Polston-Murdoch

The conceptual framework of this leadership model is that leaders who practice certain leadership styles, according to subordinates’ expectations of gender stereotypes, could influence the subordinate commitment to superior. Does a leader’s gender and subordinates’ perceived leadership style influence the subordinates’ commitment to supervisor? This study was designed to accomplish a dual purpose: (a) to determine if there is a relationship between subordinates’ perception of leadership style and subordinate commitment to his/her leader and (b) to determine if supervisor’s gender moderates the relationship between the perceived leadership style and subordinate commitment to his/her leader. Responses were received from a total of 117 self-reported participants through social networking. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that path-goal leadership styles can predict subordinates’ commitment to superior; however, gender only predicts subordinates’ commitment to superior for achievement-oriented and directive styles. Further comparison of regression coefficients indicated no statistically significant difference between male and female leadership styles and subordinates’ commitment to superior.
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Authentic Leadership: Commitment to Supervisor, Follower Empowerment, and Procedural Justice Climate
Amara Emuwa

This study examined the authentic leadership relationships with follower outcomes of commitment to supervisor and empowerment, and the extent to which procedural justice moderated these relationships through quantitative methodology. The study utilized a cross-sectional survey approach and convenient sampling (N=152). Theoretical framework underpinning the study is provided, as well as tested hypotheses. Summary of results and limitations of this research are discussed.
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Charismatic Leadership Case Study with Ronald Reagan as Exemplar
R. Mark Bell

Charismatic leadership theory describes what to expect from both leaders and followers. Leaders engage in extraordinary behaviors and display substantial expertise. Crisis situations or other substantial realities create an atmosphere that is conducive for the emergence of charismatic leadership. Followers react to these extraordinary behaviors as part of the greater situational context and attribute charisma to the leader. Charismatic traits, including communication, vision, trust, impression management, and delegation of authority, are discussed. Ronald Reagan is also discussed as an exemplar of charismatic leadership. Examples from Reagan’s presidency are cited to help frame charismatic traits and their effects on followers. It is asserted here that followers’ attributions of charisma are interwoven with both the leader’s behaviors and contextual circumstances. Thus, charismatic leadership is framed as a reciprocal process. Although this reciprocity exists, charismatic leadership in the common understanding tends to be leader-focused. Ronald Reagan exemplified this reciprocal relationship well as his extraordinary leadership behaviors engaged followers, and these events took place in the midst of a variety of crisis situations.
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The Autopoietic Church: Inter-textual Analysis of “The Acts of the Apostles
Sharon H. Forrest

This paper is an inter-textual analysis of the Acts of the Apostles in a meta¬phorical context, using Morgan’s contemporary cybernetic metaphor of autopoiesis. The paper examines ecclesiastical communications and consciousness in the context of a self-referential autopoietic social system. Further, the recursive communication continuum of kerygmic and prophetic utterances in the Acts of the Apostles is categorized through inter-text and meta-text analyses. The representative elemental features of autopoietic organization such as self-renewing and self-creating structuration, self-referencing environment, internally determined social practices, simultaneously created community norms, transformative symbolisms, and a unified organizational identity are also examined and applied to the early church. Further, the benefits of autopoietic organizational structure for the early church in a persecutive political environment are explicated with ramifications for the sustainability of the church in modern times.
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Servant Leadership, Ubuntu, and Leader Effectiveness in Rwanda
Timothy A. Brubaker

The present paper explores the relationship between leader behaviors and perceived leader effectiveness in Rwanda. In particular, servant leader behaviors and leader behaviors related to the African concept of Ubuntu are studied in relation to perceived leader effectiveness in order to determine which set of behaviors most significantly relate with effectiveness. In order to achieve this purpose, a scale for measuring Ubuntu among organizational leaders is developed. A non-probability convenience sample is used from among a population defined as Rwandan adults working in non-government sectors. All survey items are translated into Kinyarwanda. Findings show that (a) servant leadership is positively and significantly related to leader effectiveness; (b) Ubuntu-related leadership is positively and significantly related to leader effectiveness; (c) servant leadership and Ubuntu are not significantly different in the strength of their relationships with leader effectiveness; and (d) there is mixed evidence for the discriminant validity of Ubuntu-related leadership as a construct distinct from servant leadership.
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