From the Editor
Mihai Bocarnea

This second issue of Emerging Leadership Journeys (ELJ) includes five of the best research papers submitted by students in their fourth semester of the Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership Program. In this issue, Thomas Adams examines the moderating effect of prayer on the relationship between supervisory support and an employee’s perception of the workplace. In his empirical study, Matthew Earnhardt tests the applicability of a servant leadership theory to the military context. Loventrice Farrow uses qualitative research to explore the experiences of minority women leaders as mentees and the impact of these experiences on their careers while Sharon Norris investigates the relationships among need for autonomy, general self-efficacy, and self-leadership strategies. Finally, Kelly Rouse Riesenmy studies the moderating role of follower identification on the relationship between a leader’s self-confident leadership, follower-centered leadership, and capable manager leadership and the followers’ similar leadership behaviors. I am thankful to all of the grading professors who serve as ELJ editorial members for their support and especially to Dr. Dail Fields for this selection and the guidance he provided to the authors. I am also grateful to the production staff, Dr. Doris Gomez, Mrs. Julia Mattera, Mr. Billy Mims, and Mrs. Sarah Stanfield, and my colleague on the editorial staff, Mrs. Nicolette Neville, for all of their support with this second issue of Emerging Leadership Journeys.



Impact of Prayer on the Relationship between Supervisory Support and Employee's Perception of Workplace Equity
Thomas Adams

This research study advances the body of knowledge of leadership studies by examining the impact of prayer on the relationship between supervisory support and employee perception of organizational equity. Studies have shown a positive correlation between prayer and motivation. Equity theory is an organizational development theory which focuses on the employee perception of workplace fairness and equity to determine the level of employee satisfaction. Three surveys, the Supervisory Support, the Multidimensional Prayer Inventory, and the Distributive Justice Index, measured the impact of prayer on the relationship between supervisory support and the perception of workplace equity of business professionals. Leaders equipped with an increased knowledge in this area will have a better understanding of factors that influence perceptions of equity in the workplace which contribute to overall employee satisfaction. | article pdf |

Testing a Servant Leadership Theory Among United States Military Members
Matthew P. Earnhardt

Servant leadership, first proposed by Greenleaf (1970), is an emergent leadership theory postulating a leader must serve first. Patterson (2003), building on transformational and previous servant leadership research, developed a model of servant leading based on the following: (a) agapao love, (b) humility, (c) altruism, (d) vision, (e) trust, (f) empowerment, and (g) service. This study tests Patterson’s theory of servant leadership in a military context by investigating the relationship between the seven constructs in Patterson’s servant leadership model. Multi-rank and service military members’ perception of servant leaders was assessed using the servant leadership instrument developed by Dennis and Bocarnea (2005). Patterson’s servant leadership model was supported by the study. The study pioneers servant leadership research in the military. | article pdf |

The Experiences of Minority Women Leaders as Mentees in U.S. Organizations
Loventrice Farrow

Mentoring has been described as an important aspect of organizational socialization and career development that can positively influence career success. If minority women leaders generally do not have influential or powerful mentors, what are the implications for their career development and presence in senior leadership positions? Studies show that in most organizations, women of color do not fare well when it comes to mentoring and as a result, they overall lack the same level of career development and influential connections as Caucasians. This qualitative study explored the experiences of minority women leaders as mentees and the impact of this experience on their careers. The study found that career and psychosocial functions of the mentoring experience were consistent across age and ethnic background, and that informal mentoring was preferred over formal programs. | article pdf |

An Examination of Self-Leadership
Sharon E. Norris

The increased competition that some organizations face requires change from traditional management to shared leadership. Employees who possess personal attributes such as need for autonomy and general self-efficacy may be more likely to take responsibility and work effectively in empowered environments. These employees may also be more likely to make efforts to improve their individual performance, such as making use of self-leadership strategies. This study examines individual differences that may influence the use of self-leadership strategies. The results of the study show a positive significant relationship between general selfefficacy and use of natural reward, constructive thought, and general self-leadership skills. The study finds women are more likely than men to use behavior-focused, natural reward, constructive thought, and general self-leadership skills. | article pdf |

The Moderating Role of Follower Identification in the Relationship Between Leader and Follower Visionary Leadership
Kelly Rouse Riesenmy

The findings from this cross-sectional study on 27 corporate employees reveal relationships between leader and follower leadership behaviors and follower identity with the leader. A positive relationship was found between the leaders’ follower-centered leadership and followers’ follower-centered leadership, and the leaders’ capable manager leadership and followers’ capable manager leadership. Furthermore, correlations reveal that identification with the leader is positively related to the leaders’ self-confidence leadership, leaders’ follower-centered leadership, and leaders’ capable manager leadership. The results did not support the hypothesized role of follower identification with the leader as a moderator between leader selfconfident leadership, follower-centered leadership, and capable manager leadership, and the followers’ leadership behaviors in the same domains. Visionary leadership and follower identification in research and practice are discussed. | article pdf |

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