From the Editor
Bruce E. Winston, Ph.D.

Welcome to Volume 12, Issue 1 of Emerging Leadership Journeys (ELJ). This issue contains qualitative and quantitative research articles produced by students in the School of Business & Leadership's Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership program. These articles provide excellent examples of the type of work our students produce during their program of study.


The Roles of Intercultural Competence and Unity in Authentic Transformational Leadership: A Socio-Rhetorical Analysis of Ephesians 3:1-13
Meghan N. Rivers

Whereas both ethical and authentic leadership are closely linked to transformational leadership, scholars have examined their respective and combined applications. Both are listed, analyzed, and debated (among others) as effective styles of cross-cultural leadership, fueling positive results within organizations, communities, and within regional culture clusters. Within the framework of ethical cross-cultural leadership are several questions surrounding intercultural communication competence and the role unity plays within authentic transformational leadership. An examination of these subjects addressed through a socio-rhetorical critical analysis of Ephesians 3:1-13, utilizes cultural intertexture analysis to investigate some of the primary factors within ethical transforming leadership. This investigation encapsulates several prevalent leadership and communication theories to include intercultural communication competence, cultural intelligence, and authentic transformational leadership factors. The appropriate communicative mission and praxis of authentic transformational leaders appeal to follower's sensibilities, engenders a collective vision for change, and incites fierce loyalty and dedication to the collective mission. Through Paul's insightful explanation and shared revelation on the mysteries of God, the burgeoning and now interculturally inclusive first-century Christian church is strengthened, enlightened, and encouraged to grow together.
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An Exposition of 1 & 2 Samuel on Decision-Making and Power
M. Jake Aguas

This expository essay considers the story of King David and juxtaposes critical elements of his life with the praxis of organizational behavior and design. It uses the study of decision-making and types of power to evaluate the life of King David in 1 and 2 Samuel. The essay also highlights the effectiveness of David's decision-making acumen. David's experiences will be layered with French and Raven's bases of power in an effort to uncover the imbrications thereof and provide modern-day leaders with a stronger decision-making foundation and improve their effectiveness as they navigate through the wild waters of organizational challenges.
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Self-Perceived Servant Leadership Characteristics: Testing for Differences in Citadel Cadets
Tom Clark

The Servant Leadership Survey (SLS) offers a valid, reliable, empirically proven instrument that accurately measures servant leadership at both the individual and organizational levels. However, in organizations that focus on developing leaders through a formal, multi-stage process, some emerging leaders may not have assigned followers until a year or more in the program. This presents a significant challenge from the perspective of assessing and measuring a student's progress along the leader developmental pathway. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to adapt and validate the SLS for self-assessment. While the results provide an indication of the differences in self-perceived leadership characteristics by cadets at The Citadel, the adapted SLS did not align well with the original instrument. Nevertheless, the insight derived from this study will facilitate the next steps required to validate a self-assessment instrument eventually which could provide the necessary data to adjust the overall academic and experiential program to be more effective and offer the individual-specific information to facilitate counseling and personal leadership development for every student in the program.
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A Review of Autocratic, Paternalistic, and Charismatic Leadership in Three Collectivist Cultures
Meghan N. Rivers

The conception of culture serves as a primary issue within both organization and leadership research. Examination of organizational leadership and culture provides researchers with comprehensive tools to better understand effective leadership within an increasingly globalized organizational context. Amidst the broad spectrum of leadership theory are the subsequent conceptions of three leadership theories: (a) autocratic leadership, (b) paternalistic leadership, (c) charismatic leadership. A deeper understanding of organizational leadership and its varied application and effectiveness requires fastidious consideration of the social, cultural and in some cases religious contexts in which leadership exists. The three selected theories are placed against the cultural contextual framework of Confucian Asia (China), Sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America (Mexico) as representatives of many cultural dimensions identified within the GLOBE study. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to review the development of specific leadership theories and cross-cultural values informed by their application or prevalence within three selected collectivist regions. Ultimately, the research findings support the contentions of some scholars, that while the nexus of organizational leadership theories should be cross-culturally static, the reality of shifting ideals relative to interface with a diverse global marketplace, presents differing behaviors across cultures and in some cases within regional cultural clusters.
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Cross-Cultural Competence in Higher Education Faculty and Staff
Guillermo Puppo

Intercultural sensitivity is a function of developmental stages based on relativistic realities of the individual. Intercultural competence, on the other hand, draws on CQ and intercultural sensitivity to shift cultural perspective and adapt behavior to cultural commonality and difference to accomplish cross-cultural goals. Cross-cultural leadership, thus, is a hybrid leadership encompassing ideological diversity and allowing an organization, of any type, to perform at its best not only domestically, but also at the international level. This study analyzed the relationship and differences between independent variables such as gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, religious identity, ability and international status, travel and living abroad, training, interactions with culturally diverse individuals and conversations about cultural difference, and work experience, and dependent variables such as cultural intelligence CQ, cognitive and metacognitive CQ, motivational CQ, and behavioral CQ. The study surveyed U.S. faculty and staff (n=144) from U.S. universities by purchasing responses through The researcher collected the data via a web-based survey built-in SurveyMonkey, which included the Personal Data Form (PDF) and the Cultural Intelligence Survey (CQS). Multivariate analysis was used to understand the relationship between each of the independent and dependent variables. The results could not support previous research.
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