2018 Dissertations – Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership Program

 

The final requirement for School of Business & Leadership Ph.D. students is the scholarly research dissertation. To access full-text versions of these dissertations, please contact your university’s library or UMI Dissertation Services. Regent students, staff and faculty may access full-text versions from the Regent University Library.

The Relationship Between Employees’ Perception of Spiritual Leadership in Their Organizational Leaders and Employees’ Commitment to Stay with the Organization
Alexander Averin | 2018

Abstract
Recent interest in the effects of spiritual leadership on organizational outcomes focused mainly on the impact of spiritual practices on the leader, as well as the relationship between spiritual leadership and group-level outcomes, thus leaving the link between spiritual leadership and individual followers’ behavior chiefly unexplored (Reave, 2005). The purpose of this research was to add to the understanding of the connection between spiritual leadership and followers’ behavior by addressing the research question of whether there is a relationship between employees’ perception of spiritual leadership of their organizations’ leaders and the employees’ commitment to remain with their organizations. This study proposed to explore this relationship by focusing on the vision, hope/faith, and altruistic love dimensions of spiritual leadership proposed by L. W. Fry (2003) and continuance commitment dimension of employee commitment as proposed by Meyer and Allen (1991). To answer the research question and test stated hypotheses, this study utilized a nonexperimental, cross-sectional, correlational research design and employed the Spiritual Leadership Theory Survey as well as the Continuous Commitment–High Sacrifice scale to collect necessary data (Allen & Meyer, 1990; L. W. Fry, Vitucci, & Cedillo, 2005; Powell & Meyer, 2004). The data were collected from 88 participants who were employed in nonprofit religious organizations in the United States. The results of the data analysis revealed a significant relationship between employees’ perception of their leaders’ vision and altruistic love and their continuance commitment. The relationship between employees’ perception of their leaders’ faith/hope and their continuance commitment was found to be not significant. The potential confounding influence of age, gender, and social desirability bias was also explored and found to be not significant. Implications and limitations of this study as well as recommendations for future research were also discussed.

Creative Leadership and Innovative Climates in Ecclesial Settings: Comparing Current Church Planting Efforts to the Early Church in Acts
Justin Bowers | 2018

Abstract
This qualitative study considered the concepts of creative leadership and innovative climates through comparative analysis of both five pivotal moments in the life of the early church in Acts and current church planting resources aimed at equipping church planting leaders in today’s North American context. The sociorhetorical method of interpretation was utilized to consider five narratives in Acts: (a) Pentecost, (b) persecution and scattering, (c) Cornelius and the Gentile mission, (d) the church at Antioch, and (e) the Jerusalem Council. Along with this, a qualitative meta-analysis of the most frequently used resources recommended from 13 church-planting networks and denominations is conducted. The rise of interest in creative leadership and innovative climates within organizations has become an increasingly popular area of interest in today’s organizational leadership literature (Florida, 2002; Puccio, Mance, & Murdock, 2011). However, little research exists pursuing the nature of innovation and creativity in the ecclesial setting; in fact, the research studying evangelistic effectiveness in the North American context only shows a decline of influence toward reaching those outside the church (Dickerson, 2013; Packard & Hope, 2015). This reveals a great need for ecclesial leaders and ecclesial research to begin to pursue and understand innovation and creativity for the sake of effective ecclesial leadership in this current context. This research demonstrates a wide gulf between innovation and creativity in the early church in Acts not as a point of pursuit but rather as a natural and adaptable part of the overflow work of God’s Holy Spirit and current church-planting materials that seem to be emphasizing to planters to create and innovate for the sake of effective contextualization but also to heed a warning that creativity can often be little more than a hazard and distraction from true, pastoral ministry. The current research serves to build a foundation for future research into creative leadership and innovative climates in ecclesial settings.

A Qualitative Study of the Relationship Between Morality and Authentic Leadership
Probal DasGupta | 2018

Abstract
This qualitative study explored the relationship between morality and authentic leadership based on a research question that inquired whether a high moral standard was required of an authentic leader in order for him to achieve a good outcome for society. The study adopted the phenomenological approach, using in-depth interviews and the guided interview technique, to explore the constructs. A purposeful sampling technique of the snowball variety was utilized to select 16 business leaders as participants. Data collection was done through in-person and telephone interviews. Data saturation was determined to have been reached with eight interviews; two more interviews validated the saturation. The statements and narratives collected were subjected to a thematic analysis involving coding and reduction procedures, and the patterns that emerged appeared to reflect some common and some divergent views of authentic leadership and morality. The study discovered that authentic leadership and morality appear to be related in various ways: (a) authenticity might be intrinsically moral because benevolence, genuineness, honesty, and goodness are common characteristics of both the authentic person and the moral person; (b) both the authentic person and the moral person appear to demonstrate the quality of integrity; and (c) authenticity and morality appear to share a dyadic relationship that, on the one hand, define the leader, and on the other hand, empower the leader to make good decisions, thereby facilitating a good outcome for society. In presenting its findings, the study also aimed to bridge the researcher–practitioner gap by providing some evidence-based guidelines for the practicing leader and the leadership consultant.

The Moderating Effect of Environmental Empowerment on the Relationship Between Personal Growth Initiative and Motivation to Lead Among African Americans in Corporate Organizations
DeVata Davis | 2018

Abstract
Empirical research of personal growth initiative (PGI) and motivation to lead (MTL) among various cultural groups is scarce. Additionally, there are no studies relating environmental empowerment to PGI and MTL. Research on PGI has focused primarily on college students and addressed the cognitive and behavioral components that influence individuals to look for opportunities to engage in self-change and to seek opportunities to grow and develop. MTL research has focused on personality traits, sociocultural values, leadership self-efficacy, and past leadership experiences. Studies on environmental empowerment have addressed organizational outcomes such as job satisfaction, job performance, organizational commitment, and turnover. To this researcher’s knowledge, the current study is the first to examine the relationship between PGI and MTL and the influence of environmental empowerment on that relationship, specifically among African Americans in corporate organizations. This study used a nonexperimental, cross-sectional, quantitative approach to examine the moderating effect of environmental empowerment on the relationship between PGI and MTL among African Americans in corporate organizations. Hierarchical multiple regression and Pearson product-moment correlations were used to test the hypotheses. Results of this study did not fully demonstrate a moderating effect; however, dynamic structural framework proved to strengthen the relationship between intentional behavior and affective-identity MTL. Intentional behavior also proved to be the strongest predictor of affective-identity MTL and noncalculative MTL. Leadership experience and intentional behavior were the strongest predictors of social-normative MTL. Theoretical and practical implications as well as limitations of the study are discussed. Recommendations for future research are also provided.

Measuring Clergy Effectiveness: The Development and Validation of the Clergy Effectiveness Scale
Samuel P. Dobrotka | 2018

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to operationalize the 64 characteristics within the domains of knowledge, skills, abilities, and personal characteristics (KSAPs) that DeShon (2010) identified as enhancing clergy effectiveness. A review of the current literature showed that clergy effectiveness instruments are inadequate due to age (developed in the 1980s), theological orientation (insufficient evangelical representation), and insufficient content validity and/or were based on secondary criteria. The methodology for the study closely followed the widely accepted steps for scale development identified in DeVellis (2017). The sample was comprised of church leaders, both staff and lay, who had a working relationship with the senior pastor for at least 1 year (N = 397). Churches of various sizes from five different denominations were selected using a snowball technique. Data were collected via an online Google Forms application, downloaded to an Excel spreadsheet where it was scrubbed, and then uploaded into SPSS V23.0 for analysis. Tests conducted on the data confirmed suitability for factor analysis—greater than a 5:1 ratio of participants per item, Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy (.965), Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity (significant at .000), and an assessment of the correlation matrix (most correlations greater than .5). Factor analysis was conducted using an orthogonal rotation (varimax). Four analyses were run before all of the cross-load and no-load items were eliminated. Scale optimization resulted in a final three-factor instrument consisting of 14 items. A scree plot substantiated a three-factor model. The three factors for the final clergy effectiveness instrument were socially adept (five items), professional competence (five items), and inclination to lead (four items). Scale reliability was substantiated by Cronbach’s alpha scores of .94 (socially adept), .89 (professional competence), and .73 (inclination to lead). Discussion included significance of the study, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research.

Testing Servant Leader Development in Student Life Workshops at Maranatha Baptist University
Jeffrey Drost | 2018

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to extend servant leadership theory by exploring the seven virtuous constructs of Patterson’s (2003) theoretical model at Maranatha Baptist University (MBU) and to ascertain if MBU’s Student Life Servant Leadership Workshops (SLW) are effective at bringing about perspective transformation (King, 1998) by focusing specifically on the nurturing and development of Patterson’s seven constructs. Using a pretest/posttest quasi-experimental design with control group (Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, 2002), this study used Dennis and Bocarnea’s (2005) Servant Leadership Assessment Instrument (SLAI) to survey students from two samples: (a) residential students who attend the SLW and (b) online students (i.e., the control group) who receive no training on Patterson’s dimensions of love, altruism, humility, vision, trust, empowerment, and service. Data were collected electronically from students before and after the SLW intervention. Partial support of Patterson’s model was found in the SLAI responses for the residential sample among the relationships between love and humility, love and altruism, and empowerment and service. Similarly, partial support was found for Patterson’s model in the SLAI responses for the online sample among the relationships between love and humility, love and altruism, vision and trust and empowerment, and empowerment and service. The independent-samples t tests conducted using students’ paired pretest/posttest responses indicated that the SLW intervention did not produce a statistically significant effect on residential students’ perceptions of their leaders’ servant leader characteristics as measured by the SLAI. The study concludes with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications of not finding support for relationships among the remaining dimensions of Patterson’s model and for the inability of the SLW to produce a statistically significant effect on students’ perceptions of their leaders’ servant leader characteristics along with suggestions for future research. This study makes important contributions to the study of servant leadership theory and perspective transformation.

An Examination of the Relationship Between the Five Dimensions of Courageous Followership and Servant Leadership Within the U.S. Air Force
Bradley Green | 2018

Abstract
The purpose of this research was to determine if there was a positive and significant relationship between the five dimensions of courageous followership and servant leadership. Based on an extensive review of the literature, it was determined that there had not been an empirical study to date that attempted to determine the correlation between courageous followership and a definition of servant leadership that included the construct of service. This study fills this gap in the literature by surveying participants to indicate their perceptions of their followership behaviors and their perceptions of the servant leadership behaviors of their leaders. The Followership Profile was used to measure followership behaviors, and the Essential Servant Leadership Behaviors Scale was used to measure one-dimensional servant leadership. The data were collected from military members who serve in one of the three components of the U.S. Air Force; data were analyzed with SPSS 24 software. A Pearson product-moment correlation was performed to determine if there was a significant relationship between the five dimensions of courageous followership and servant leadership. The findings from this study substantiated the assertion that there was a positive and significant relationship between the overall model of courageous followership and servant leadership. In addition, two of the five dimensions were positively and significantly correlated to one-dimensional servant leadership. This is the first study to find a correlation between courageous followership and one-dimensional servant leadership. This finding lays the groundwork for future studies. It is likely that the nature of the relationship is reciprocal with servant leaders causing courageous followership behaviors in their followers and courageous followers causing servant leadership behaviors in their leaders.

The Effects of Servant Leadership and Job Stress on Job Satisfaction Among Online University Administrators and Faculty
John Hargadon | 2018

Abstract
The purpose of this research was to test the direct relationship between the level of servant leadership demonstrated by one’s direct supervisor and the level of job satisfaction reported by an employee, as well as the potential moderating effect of servant leadership on the proposed negative relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. Winston and Fields (2015) stated there is a dearth of research on the impact of servant leadership on individual and organizational outcomes; the current research proposes to help fill that gap in the literature. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Short Form; D. Weiss, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, 1967), Perceived Job Stressors scale (Kanner, Kafry, & Pines, 1978), and Essential Servant Leadership Behaviors (Winston & Fields, 2015) are the three previously developed and validated instruments utilized in this study. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (Cramer, 2007) was utilized to determine the predictive value of the independent variables (job stress and servant leadership) on the dependent variable (job satisfaction) at a significance level of .05. SPSS software was utilized to run all statistical analyses. Potential confounding variables, age and tenure, were controlled for statistically using the analysis software. Results failed to demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between job stress and job satisfaction, but a statistically significant relationship between servant leadership and job satisfaction was supported, as was a significant moderating effect of servant leadership on job stress and job satisfaction. Model and practical implications are discussed, as are study limitations and suggestions for future research.

Measuring Organizational Arrogance: Development and Validation of a Theory-Based Instrument
C. Victor Herbin III | 2018

Abstract
This research described the formation of an emerging concept, organizational arrogance, and the development of an instrument designed to measure this organizational behavior phenomenon. This dissertation was completed in response to the established need for empirical evidence examining arrogant behaviors and their negative impact on organizational members and organizations in general. This study defined organizational arrogance as an organizational environment where leaders shaped a culture in which organizational members behaved with a sense of superiority, leading to overconfidence in organizational capabilities, dismissiveness toward internal and external needs, and disparagement of intraorganizational and interorganizational members. Using existing theories, this research developed and validated a 5-item measurement scale for organizational arrogance with a Cronbach alpha of .922, indicating a reliable instrument. Ongoing research reported findings on a variety of factors that played into organizational failure, including level of job satisfaction, employee engagement, morale, workplace stress, organizational culture, and ineffective leadership and followership styles. Findings from this study provided the body of knowledge opportunities for new exploration to gain further understanding of how organizational arrogance and its associated traits contributed to or birth from the dark side of leadership. The practical significance of this study was that it reinforced the idea that organizational culture remained a leader responsibility that required keen attention, astute observations, and immediate action to eliminate any signs of organizational arrogance.

Broken Faith: A Qualitative Analysis of the Impact of Involuntary Termination of Pastoral Staff on Organizational Trust and Personal Spirituality
Robert B. Huizinga | 2018

Abstract
Involuntary termination is the removal from employment unilaterally by the employer, where the employee was able and willing to continue providing services. Previous data showed that termination had negative social, psychological, and physical impacts on followers, and these impacts spread through the follower’s family. When funding dictates, pastors must be removed from their position to maintain the financial viability of the church. The purpose of this study was to understand how involuntary termination of a pastor, who was a spiritual leader and follower in the same spiritual organization, influenced their spiritual life and their trust in their local church, or even the ecclesia overall. Using a phenomenology of faith, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 participants with data collected on 13 terminations. The average age was 54.3 ± 11.7 years and an average time in ministry of 16.7 ± 8.5 years. All churches were congregationalist in nature. Analysis showed both denominational and team leadership organizational stressors. A senior pastor as authoritarian leader was associated with a lack of organizational checks and balances, a lack of denominational authority, a non-functional organizational structure, and a lack of overall leadership maturity. A circle of 2 or 3 (a small minority of leaders who change the course of the organization) reflected the highest density in antecedent and consequent events. Participants felt wounded by the church and reported looking to God for justice. Theological interpretation of the termination was not negatively impacted; the event was part of God’s sovereign plan, and God was asking for a change in their life. However, the termination was painful, as participants felt betrayed either by the church or by members, with churches challenging their theology or morality. Participants noted a decrease in organizational trust, either in the local organization or in the denomination. The most frequent PTs involved a change in feelings of trust in the church, a loss of trust in leadership, and a loss of trust in congregational governance. Involuntary terminations may happen, but church leaders should ask how they enact involuntary termination so that it authentically represents the love of Jesus Christ.

An Exploratory Quantitative Comparison of Direct Reports’ Perceptions of Entrepreneurial Leadership of Biotechnology Founders Versus Nonbiotechnology Founders
Lawrence Jones II | 2018

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to test for empirical evidence to distinguish the entrepreneurial leadership behaviors of the biotech entrepreneur. A review of the literature showed that Shimasaki (2014) proffered that the biotechnology (biotech) entrepreneur is unique from all other entrepreneurs because the biotech entrepreneur not only has entrepreneurial skills but additional characteristics, such as being an accomplished life science business person, scientist, bioengineer, or physician. Unfortunately, no empirical data support exists for whether these additional characteristics would affect entrepreneur leadership behavior. The study methodology closely followed Thornberry (2006) who developed an Entrepreneurial Leadership Questionnaire (ELQ) to assess the various behaviors that each founder must have. The statistical software GPower 3.0 was used to determine that a minimum of 70 survey participants would be needed for each of the groups to achieve the 90% confidence interval. There was complete confidentiality and anonymity for the responses and names of the organizations. Data were collected via an online SurveyMonkey survey and then uploaded and analyzed with SPSS software. T tests were conducted on the data to confirm hypotheses. Four alternative hypotheses showed statistically significant differences at the 90% confidence level. The explorer importance, accelerator importance, miner importance, and miner frequency were identified as variables where the results were higher for biotech founders than nonbiotech founders. The research contributions for this study may initiate and expand the importance of understanding what founders of biotech firms may need to consider in entrepreneurial training and development.

Entrepreneurial Leadership in the Coffee Industry in Africa: A Phenomenological Analysis of the Relationship Between Leadership and Innovation in the African Coffee Value Chain
Frederick S. M. Kawuma | 2018

Abstract
This doctoral dissertation focuses on the relationship between entrepreneurial leadership and innovation in the African coffee value chain. The argument is that despite its unique status as the birthplace of both commercial varieties of Arabica and Robusta coffee, the innovations and consequently the benefits in the sector have been external to Africa. The study responds to the research question: What are the underlying issues of entrepreneurial leadership that have held back innovativeness in the African coffee value chain and need identification and tackling if Africa is to realize the benefits of its resource? The study investigated the key characteristics of entrepreneurial leaders in the African coffee sector that could strategically position them to take advantage of opportunities and bring out significant innovations. In addressing the research question, a review of relevant literature examined entrepreneurial leadership, organizational culture, knowledge creation, creativity, innovation, and design thinking. A case study based on a purposive sample of 12 firms and drawn from the East African region, which accounts for more than 70% of Africa’s coffee exports, was conducted using a phenomenological design. Most respondents articulated their critical roles as entrepreneurial leaders, though in practice many were preoccupied with operational matters and were noted as giving less attention to issues of strategy. All leaders indicated a high level of exposure through international engagements and various networks, though such knowledge did not seem to lead to significant transformational innovations. There was limited evidence of application of disruptive approaches to the current status quo in the African coffee value chain. From looking at the strengths and deficiencies, unfortunately, only a minority showed evidence of fitting the accurate description of entrepreneurial leaders. The study pointed out areas of significant deficiencies, which if addressed could improve the entrepreneurial leadership in the sector. The study recommended areas of further research.

Followership and the Relationship Between Kelley’s Followership Styles and the Big Five Factor Model of Personality
Donald Robert Kudek | 2018

Abstract
Kelley (1988), considered to be a pioneer in the field of followership, stated, “Followership dominates our lives and organizations, but not our thinking because our preoccupation with leadership keeps us from considering the nature and the importance of the follower” (p. 143). The lack of interest and/or research in followership has caused misunderstandings of the follower. Because many leadership theories incorporate personality traits that can “explain people’s behavior across different situations” (Barrick, Parks, & Mount, 2005, p. 745), the current research determined the relationship between an individual’s personality traits and followership characteristics. An instrument consisting of demographic questions; the 20-item Kelley’s Followership Questionnaire, which measures active engagement and independent thinking; and the 20-item Mini-International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) personality test, which measures a person’s Big Five personality levels of extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience was sent to 238 full-time working adults in the United States through SurveyMonkey®. With the survey data, a Pearson product-moment correlation was done to determine the strength of a linear association between each of the five personality types in relation to the two followership characteristics. A positive relationship was found between the personality characteristics of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience with the followership attributes of active engagement and independent thinking. The correlation strength ranged from .136 to .374 with all but one significant at the p < .01 level. Neuroticism was negatively correlated to both active engagement and independent thinking at the -.120 and -.133 levels, respectively. Although the research population was diverse, based on geographical location, age, organizational level, and work experience, the respondents indicated an ethnicity of 84% White/Caucasian. Future research should include a longitudinal study to determine if changes occur over time—research to determine if various demographic characteristics, including international cultures, would have an impact on the relationships.

Psychological Ownership: The Mediating Effects of Participative Decision-Making on Employees’ Attitudes and Identification Towards the Organization
Paul A. Kuffel | 2018

Abstract
The possessions we choose to surround ourselves with in the workplace can influence the way we think not only about ourselves but how we think about the people around us (Dittmar, 1992). Employees create relationships with objects through a conscious owning and/or through a physical possession of the object(s) or felt as a relationship between person and nonphysical entities such as ideas, words, artistic creations, as well as other people (Pierce, Kostova, & Dirks, 2001). Expanding this knowledge of employee ownership in the workplace can offer leaders a route towards creating a more effective culture supporting and motivating workers as effective members of the organization. This study advances the psychological ownership literature by examining the effects of employee ownership in three ways: (a) looking at the effects of employees’ taking part in the decision-making process as a mediator of the relationship between psychological ownership and employee perceived control, (b) the effects of employees being part of the decision-making process as a mediator of the relationship between psychological ownership and organizational identification, and (c) evaluating the mediating effect of participative decision-making on the relationship between psychological ownership and perceived control and organizational identification. This study is important for leaders to help understand different factors motivating employees in the workplace. This study explored the relationship between psychological ownership, perceived control, and organizational identification when mediated by participative decision-making in a sample of U.S. government employees (N = 82). The results indicate that psychological ownership positively influences perceived control, and participative decision-making mediates the positive influence on perceived control. No significant relationship was found between psychological ownership and organizational identification or influence of the mediator in the relationship between the variables. It concludes with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of these findings, along with study limitations and recommendations for future research. This research helps to build a better picture for helping to understand how ownership and involvement in decision-making influences employees in the workplace.

Exploring Servant Leadership in a Top-Down Environment
Roosevelt Mareus | 2018

Abstract
This study used both Greenleaf’s (1977) theory of servant leadership and Spears’s (1995) ten characteristics of servant leadership to explore the concept in a top-down environment. The study proposed to answer the research question: To what extent, if any, is a mayor of a metropolitan area in the Northeast region of the USA displaying at work the ten characteristics of servant leadership as defined by Spears? Twenty selected studies relevant to the current subject were reviewed. This study used an exploratory single-case study design and purposeful sampling techniques. The methodology consisted of in-depth, semistructured, open-ended interview with leaders from the community and employees from each of the various departments throughout City Hall. Thirteen participants who represented a diverse selection of community leaders and employees were interviewed because saturation occurred quicker than expected. Interviews, observation, and archival data were the primary sources of data collection. The key finding of this study revealed that four of the ten servant leadership characteristics as defined by Spears were dominant characteristics with regard to the mayor’s leadership style: building community, commitment to the growth of people, empathy, and stewardship. The scope of this research was limited to the mayor of a metropolitan area in the Northeast region of the USA. Future research should examine other mayors and governors in other regions of the USA using the framework of Greenleaf’s (1977) theory of servant leadership and as defined by Spears to explore if the themes found in this case study are found in other case situations.

Apostle Peter’s Cross-Cultural Leadership in Christian Missions to the Gentiles: A Sociorhetorical Analysis of Acts 10:1-11:18
Sonny Mathew | 2018

Abstract
With cross-cultural leadership literature being sparse and cross-cultural studies predominately done under the auspices of global leadership studies, this study addressed the significant gap in religious cross-cultural leadership. The process of bridging the gap in religious cross-cultural leadership helped in developing a biblical model of cross-cultural leadership addressing cultural hegemony, the postcolonial theory, the Western missionary enterprise, and the boundary line between the global north and global south. The religious cross-cultural leadership particularities of calling, intellectual humility, religious messaging, and interreligious dialogue served as the foundation for a biblical model of crosscultural leadership. On an intrapersonal level, the biblical model of cross-cultural leadership included calling, as in the selection, personal leadership development, and assignment to a specific region within the eight major cultural zones of Western Christianity and the orthodox, Islamic, Confucian, Japanese, Hindu, African, and Latin American worlds. The biblical model of cross-cultural leadership engagements in cross-cultural contexts on a meso-level includes intellectual humility and the ongoing experiential learning of seeking concrete experiences, developing reflective observations, formulating abstract conceptualizations, and testing and experimenting. The goal of biblical religious messaging is respectful Christian persuasion in interreligious dialogues. On a macrolevel, biblical model of cross-cultural leadership is in boundary-spanning global leadership bridging the social boundaries between people first in local settings and then in international contexts. The biblical model of religious crosscultural leadership on a macrolevel is also engaging in world Christianity, an emerging field that investigates and seeks to understand Christian communities, faith, and practice as they are found on six continents, expressed in diverse ecclesial traditions, and informed by the multitude of historical and cultural experiences—an attempt to give voice to the underrepresented and marginalized communities of faith.

Leadership Preferences of Millennials: Exploring How Generation Y Wants to be Led
Katrina McNeil | 2018

Abstract
This qualitative study explored the leadership preferences of the older half of the Millennial generation born between 1980 and 1990 in the United States. As Millennials rapidly enter the workforce, organizations will inevitably change. With that, the way leaders lead will also need to change. Literature has provided suggestions for how to best lead Millennials, but very little research has been done from the Millennial perspective asking Millennials how they want to be led. In-depth interviews explored the leadership preferences of the Millennial participants. The 23 participants were purposefully selected from a population of Millennials who were born in the United States between 1980 and 1990, lived in the United States until at least the age of 18, and have been working full time for a minimum of 5 years. The research revealed that Millennials want peer-like relationships with their leaders that are characterized by transparency, collaboration, and two-way feedback. They want hard-working leaders who lead by example and can serve as experienced mentors. Millennials want leaders who care about them as individuals, both inside and outside of the workplace. They want selfless leaders who put the needs of others first. Millennials want empathetic leaders who recognize that life is more than just work and will allow flexibility accordingly. As Millennials continue to join the workforce in substantial numbers, organizational leaders need to reevaluate their current leadership style to ensure they can effectively lead the newest generation in the workforce. Millennials believe they are unique, and they want their leadership tailored. One leadership style will not work for all Millennials. Leaders will need to be flexible enough to adjust their leadership approach to each unique individual and each unique situation. Recommendations for future research consist of expansion to include individuals from the entire generation born from 1980 to 2000 and to conduct a longitudinal study to determine if the leadership preferences of Millennials change over time.

Computers, Cell Phones, and Social Media: How After-Hours Communication Impacts Work–Life Balance and Job Satisfaction
Arian T. Moore | 2018

Abstract
In the age of technological advancements such as the smart phone, laptop, and iPad, employers have nonstop access to employees, blurring the lines between work and personal life. In an effort to provide more insight into the work–life balance challenges that result from constant access, this research study examined afterhours communication by way of cell phones, computers, and social media and the relationship with job satisfaction and work–life balance. The absence of work–life balance proves detrimental to organizations, leading to higher absenteeism and higher turnover rates. Thus, it is of the organization’s benefit to understand and create culture that allows work–life balance in congruence with organizational goals. A review of work–life balance defined it as “the individual perception that work and nonwork activities are compatible and promote growth in accordance with an individual’s current life priorities” (Kalliath & Brough, 2008, p. 326). The instruments used to measure these variables include the Facebook Use Scale, which measures Facebook use and engagement with coworkers after hours; the Technology-Assisted Supplemental Work Survey, which measures the use of technology for work purposes after hours; the Work–Life Balance Scale, which measures work and nonwork conflict; and the Job Satisfaction Survey, which measures employee level of satisfaction. The quantitative study used correlation analysis to determine the relationship between after-hours communication as an independent variable and two dependent variables—work–life balance and job satisfaction. Participants were recruited through social media and included working professionals across multiple industries. Despite findings from previous research, the results from this study indicated linear correlations between after-hours communication, work–life balance, and job satisfaction when communication is exchanged through computers and cell phones. Additionally, there was no significance found in relation to after-hours communication by way of Facebook and work–life balance and job satisfaction. Due to an imbalance in population sample and insignificant findings, the study indicated a need for future research.

An Empirical Examination of the Relationships Among Perceived Authentic Leadership, Follower’s Hope, Follower’s Trust in the Leader, and Follower’s Work Engagement
Lenora Mosby | 2018

Abstract
George (2003) discussed how the complexities of 21st-century corporations demand new leadership; George believed leaders need to lead with purpose, promoting values, integrity, and a strong ethical system. Researchers have noted that authentic leadership is positively related to engagement because often authentic leaders strengthen the feelings of self-efficacy, competence, and confidence of their followers (Avolio & Gardner, 2005; Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, May, & Walumbwa, 2005). This study tested the extent to which follower’s hope and follower’s trust in the leader mediated a follower’s perceptions of authentic leadership behaviors of his or her leader and the follower’s level of employee work engagement. Data were collected from a sample of 203 participants that worked in corporate America. Findings from the study revealed there was a positive and significant relationship between perceived authentic leadership behaviors and follower’s work engagement. Follower’s hope and trust in the leader both partially mediated the relationship between perceived authentic leadership and follower’s work engagement since the analysis revealed that after the addition of the mediator, there was very little reduction in the relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed as well as recommendations for future research.

An Exploration of the Apostle Paul’s Influential Power Behaviors Juxtaposed to Destructive Leadership Theory and Weberian Charismatic Attributes: A sociorhetorical Interpretation of Philemon
Angel Denise Newton | 2018

Abstract
This qualitative study investigated the differences between apostle Paul’s charismatic behavior in Philemon compared to those of destructive leadership theory (DLT) and Weberian charisma. While leadership is mostly a positive phenomenon, the potential for exposure to nonconstructive leadership exists. DLT includes Weberian charismatic phenomena seen as nonconstructive behavior. Both charismatic and destructive leaders, unlike other leadership styles, need a strong influential relationship, positive or negative, between the leader and followers. Philemon is rich for the exploration of Paul’s use of power because it is the only remaining intimate epistle and is replete with rhetoric related to his use of power. Few studies have explored how Paul’s use of power contribute to the discussion of a unique understanding of charismatic behavior in church leadership. Sociorhetorical interpretation, a multifaceted tool, was used to explore the text in Philemon. Sociorhetorical interpretation of Philemon provide insights differentiating the use of charismatic power in Christian contexts from DLT and Weber. First, Paul’s use of power in Philemon makes clear that power is multilateral and shared. It flows from God and is realized between the leader and followers. Second and consequently, this sharing of power aims to align all participants with Christian morals and values. Therefore, Pauline charisma can be recognized by behavior conforming to Christ (deity)—rooted in love and absent from nonconstructive attributes. Abusive behavior is antithetical to the Pauline use of power in Philemon.

Concepts of Human Resource Development in Daniel 3: A Conceptual Framework for Leadership Development
Chad H Newton | 2018

Abstract
I proposed exegetical and qualitative analyses of Daniel 3 that would provide a framework rooted in intellectual aspects of transformational leadership theory (TLT) for human resource development (HRD) consultants to use. The study involved multiple methods of qualitative interpretation and analysis to implement theoretical triangulation into the findings. The study included the following theories for interpretation: (a) hermeneutics, (b) symbolic interactionism, (c) narratology, and (d) systems theory. The key trait of TLT that this study emphasized involved intellectual stimulation (Yukl, 2013). According to many scholars in the HRD field, intellectual methods of stimulation used to create behavioral change include cognitive, psychological, and transformational qualities of learning. Therefore, I argued that the narratives in Daniel 3 described interactions between King Nebuchadnezzar and Daniel’s friends that revealed a transformational process based on leadership qualities rooted in intellectual and psychological learning. The analytical approach in this study included the following methods: (a) sociorhetorical, (b) first-cycle coding, (c) second-cycle coding, and (d) content analysis. The inclusion of multiple methods of analysis served the purpose of using both religious and nonreligious methods of interpretation so that the findings contained increased generalizability to other contexts and so that future researchers may use the findings to conduct more research. Robbins’s (1996a) approach of socio-rhetorical analysis allowed me to exegete the text from a Judeo–Christian perspective. The result included a conceptual framework composed of 10 concepts related to TLT, HRD, adult learning, and spiritual aspects of transformational learning. The numinosum experience played a significant role in the transformational process, which affected King Nebuchadnezzar’s cognitive worldview and leadership beliefs.

Culture, Shared Mental Schemes, and Leadership: Comparing the Association of Culturally Contingent Implicit Leader Behaviors and Leadership Effectiveness and Organizational Commitment Between Two Subgroups of Latinos in the United States
Luis Guillermo Penaranda | 2018

Abstract
This investigation builds on the foundation of culturally endorsed implicit leadership theories (CLT), advanced by the Global Leadership & Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) study. CLTs are cognitive structures or beliefs about leadership effectiveness that are shared by members of particular national societies but not as strongly by members of other societies. The GLOBE study focused on comparing societal cultures defined in terms of national identity and geographic location but did not consider that, within those societies, there are subgroups of people whose mental programs about leadership may have been formed in other cultures, as is the case of migrant communities. The present study examined two subgroups of Latinos in the United States (i.e., those who migrated from Latin American countries and those born and raised in the United States) who may resemble the cultural implicit beliefs about leadership behaviors of their societies of origin (i.e., Latino vs. Anglo). The GLOBE study identified seven leader behaviors that are culturally contingent—they are perceived in some cultures as enhancing outstanding leadership, while in other cultures the same behaviors are viewed as inhibiting outstanding leadership. This exploratory study examined the extent to which foreign-born and native-born Latino church volunteers in the United States differ in their association of GLOBE’s seven culturally contingent CLT leader behaviors with leadership effectiveness (LE) and organizational commitment (OC). Regression models were used to examine the relationships between perception of culturally contingent CLT leader behaviors and both LE and OC for each of the subgroups. The difference in the regression coefficients of the regression models of each subsample were examined to test the hypothesized differences between the two groups of participants. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey within the context of Latino church volunteers. The results showed positive relations, mainly between self-sacrificial, status-conscious, bureaucratic, and humane orientation leader behaviors and LE and OC. The only statistically significant differences between the models for each subgroup occurred when examining internally competitive, face-saver, and autonomous leader behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are presented, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Investigating the Link Between Essential Servant Leader Behavior and Employee Engagement in the Knowledge Economic Era: An Autonomous Motivation Critique of Servant Leader Behavior
Larry Phillips | 2018

Abstract
The purpose of this quantitative exploratory research was to investigate the influence of essential servant leader behavior on the organizational environment. In the knowledge-based economy, the organizational environment requires members with a reciprocal sharing behavior. Without the sharing of unique talents (i.e., knowledge) among organizational associates, employee skills cannot be recognized and developed, and reduced competency thwarts worker engagement. This study tested the predictive capabilities of essential servant leader behavior (Winston & Fields, 2015) to develop reciprocal expectation and knowledge sharing among coworkers. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed a significant mediating influence for both anticipated reciprocal relationships and knowledge sharing on the relationship between essential servant leadership behavior and worker engagement but failed to reveal any noticeable moderation effect from worker discernment. The results of this research show servant leadership theory offers the prospect of a moral-based leadership model through which multilevel (i.e., individual, group, and organizational) activity is positively influenced. A new research area linking organizational climate to servant leadership behavior emerges through Parris and Peachey’s (2013) conceptual support extending servant leadership as a positive influence on the work climate. This study established relationships linking essential servant leader behavior, organizational climate, employee sharing behavior, and worker engagement. Grounded in theory suggesting servant leadership as a leadership style with a moral underlining, this study offers a new way of thinking about follower motivation.

Identification and Selection of Coopetitive Partners: A Small Business Perspective
Steven Renz | 2018

Abstract
The purpose of this phenomenological case study was to explore how small business leaders and entrepreneurs identify and select effective coopetitive partners. Coopetition is used by firms to gain competitive advantages through collaborative efforts with competing organizations. Coopetitive relationships present unique challenges to small business leaders and entrepreneurs; it also offers them access to new opportunities and needed resources (BarNir & Smith, 2002; Bengtsson & Kock, 2000). The findings from this research provide small business leaders and entrepreneurs with insight into the behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes regarding the identification and selection of coopetitive partners from the lived experiences of 10 small business leaders. These findings offer leaders information they may use to more effectively determine practices to support their coopetitive partnership selection process. This research used the qualitative, phenomenological case study method to examine factors used by small business leaders and entrepreneurs in their identification and selection of coopetitive partners. Research was conducted using purposeful sampling and face-to-face semistructured interviews. Participants in this research had employed coopetitive strategies successfully in conducting their business. The theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991) was used as the basis for predicting behavior. This study used Moustakas’ (1994) modified version of the van Kaam method of phenomenological analysis. The research findings illustrate the importance of leader relationships and networks in identifying and selecting coopetitive partners. A significant finding was the influence of customers in the selection of coopetitive partners. Additionally, this study showed how small business leaders and entrepreneurs developed relationships with their coopetitive partners and the attributes sought in their selection.

Exploring the Relationship Between Pastoral Emotional Intelligence and Pastors’ Perceptions of Members’ Organizational Commitment and Leaders’ Support
Derrick R. Rhodes | 2018

Abstract
Emotional intelligence is a vital factor in increasing organizational effectiveness, satisfaction, and retention. Generally, research on emotional intelligence and organizational commitment has focused on organizational and environmental factors in contexts outside the ecclesial setting. The purpose of this study was to address gaps in the literature exploring the relationship between pastoral emotional intelligence, pastors’ perceptions of the organizational commitment of their congregations, and pastors’ perceptions of supportive and noncontrolling supervision of the church leadership team. Participants were 134 pastoral care participants. The data were collected via snowball sampling. Wong and Law’s Emotional Intelligence Scale was used to collect the data for emotional intelligence. Mowday, Steers, and Porter’s (1979) shortened Organizational Commitment Questionnaire was used to measure organizational commitment. A set of eight supportive supervision items from the Supportive and NonControlling Supervision Scale was used to measure supportive organizational leadership (Oldman & Cummings, 1996). The findings indicated there was no statistical significance between emotional intelligence and perceived members’ organizational commitment with the exception of self-emotional appraisal; all the other correlations between emotional intelligence and supportive and noncontrolling supervision showed no statistical significance as well. Nevertheless, further investigation indicated that when the whole of emotional intelligence was correlated with perceived members’ organizational commitment and supportive and noncontrolling supervision, statistical significance with both relationships was supported.

Ontological Principles of Leadership in Acts 2 and 6:1-7 and their Anthropological Implications for the Constructs of Christian Leadership and Spirituality in the Workplace
William Sawyer | 2018

Abstract
This study examined spiritual leadership from a Christian perspective and the relationship of Christian leadership to spirituality in the workplace based on leadership principles gleaned from Acts 2 and 6:1-7. The study drew on sacred and secular spiritual leadership and spirituality in the workplace theories to provide the framework for understanding the concepts. The methodology employed the texture analyses of sociorhetorical critical methods (Robbins, 1996b) and hermeneutical and exegetical interpretation to reveal eight themes and 11 leadership principles that are ontological in the nature of leadership and anthropological in the context of the workplace as found in the pericope. The research revealed that spiritual leadership that is Christian is distinctive because of the ontological transformation of the leader producing purity and power through the work of the Holy Spirit. Luke’s paradigm of Christian leadership includes an element of self-discipline in maintaining and cultivating the inner spiritual health of the leader through protracted personal prayer and careful study of the scriptures. In addition, the study indicated that spiritual leaders are motivated and empowered by wholehearted devotion to Christ and self-sacrificing compassion for others, particularly those who are suffering, in need, and neglected. The results demonstrated that Christian leadership is egalitarian and pluri-form with no distinction in its applicability in religious and secular contexts. Further, Christian leadership principles lived in the workplace are effective, but the results may not be measured by Western concepts of immediacy.

Calling and Authentic Followership
Stephanie Sheehan | 2018

Abstract
This research was conducted in response to calls for future research in the areas of spiritual calling and followership. Though research in the area of calling has become more prevalent, it has not distinctly focused on spiritual calling as identified through a biblical worldview. Recent endeavors in this area have yielded development and substantiation of a spiritual calling scale, opening wider the doors of research opportunity. Followership research has been gaining momentum in recent decades; however, authentic followership remains a nascent area, only recently gaining attention, construct development, and tools for measurement. To more fully explore each of these domains and potential interactions, this quantitative study was conducted using survey methodology utilizing the newly developed scales in each of these areas. Data evaluation was conducted through multiple regression analysis and revealed positive relationships between spiritual calling and each dimension of authentic followership, and spiritual calling was indicated as an antecedent of authentic followership. The research and findings contribute empirically to the body of knowledge in these newly emerging areas and provide further validation of measurement tools for use in future research. The research findings also establish a connection between individual spirituality and embodiment of followership. Implications of this connection are discussed and areas of future research considered.

An Historical Look at the Development of Contemporary Political Leadership in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Implications for Future Leadership Development
Flavien S. Shirandi | 2018

Abstract
Bilgin and Morton (2002) posited that the long period of colonialism and the Cold War democracy tended to make way for many strong African states as expressions of power. This provided a new paradigm of freedom meant to afford the triumph of liberal economics. Equally, N’Gambwa (2011) added that this new paradigm of freedom seemed to have caused resurgence in the concept of leadership in Africa and could be viewed as a deciding factor in the rational management of people and public affairs. The emergence of this new democratic paradigm of leadership is intended to encourage participation that guarantees the rights and freedoms of African citizenry. Understanding the dynamics of this paradigm shift is very necessary and key to reconciling, integrating, and synergizing disparities contained within these dynamics. The dynamics of this paradigm shift may be essential to future leadership development efforts in Africa and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) as a nation. The current phenomenological study explored the various factors identified as having a devastating impact on the DRC. These factors regarded as major impediments to development in the DRC include but are not limited to lack of good political development, socioeconomic discrimination, lack of provision for peace and security to the people of DRC, fulfilling fundamental duties, and protection of the DRC’s territory by the government. In-depth interviews were utilized to examine questions relating to (a) leaders’ moral requisites, (b) poor governance in DRC, and (c) accountability and transparency. Data were analyzed, and results indicated the issue of state failure was a factor that affects political, socioeconomic, and leadership development in the DRC. While corruption conveys the true situation in the country, results also indicated that the DRC needs good and effective leadership that imbibes the culture of integrity as competent for national transformation. In essence, the development and advancement of the DRC as a nation leans on the ability of good leadership. The attribute of good leadership is seen as a virtue that must be valued by political leaders in order to properly manage and direct the affairs of the DRC.

In the Case of GO Virginia: Exploring Early Leadership for Collaborative Advantage in Regional Networks
Brian C. Smith | 2018

Abstract
This qualitative study explored expectations for leadership in early phase organizing of regional networks in the case of a statewide initiative called GO Virginia. Archival and observational data were used, as well as interview data from individual and group interviews with 48 participants. Leaning on theory posited by Huxham and Vangen (2005), this study contributes to the limited stream of research into leadership in collaborative regional network settings by uniquely maintaining a referent focus on the regional level while exploring expectations across levels (state and regional) and sectors (private, public, and nonprofit) involved. No significant variations in expected regional network leadership attributes and behaviors, which are reported at both individual and group levels, were discovered. Data substantiated case-specific contextual features that were largely top-down in nature and influenced conditions and expectations for leadership vis-à-vis primary activities and structures, processes, and participants. Notwithstanding the importance of structuration, this study lent support for viewing leadership as socially grounded phenomena in which, given characteristics of multiorganizational, multisector network settings that are profiled in this study, ethical leadership and the use of highly participative, dialogical group processes and values-based perspectives are particularly important.