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Doctoral Projects – Doctor of Strategic Leadership Program

The final requirement for School of Business & Leadership Doctor of Strategic Leadership (DSL) students is the DSL Project. Doctoral students develop and conduct innovative research projects that enhance the field of leadership one project at a time.

Dissertations – Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership Program

The final requirement for School of Business & Leadership Ph.D. students is the scholarly research dissertation. To access full-text versions of these dissertations, please contact your university’s library or UMI Dissertation Services. Regent students, staff and faculty may access full-text versions from the Regent University Library.

Christian Perspectives in Leadership and Business Book Series

In partnership with Palgrave Macmillan, the School of Business & Leadership has begun publishing books in its Christian Perspectives in Leadership and Business book series. This series, authored by SBL alumni and faculty, provides robust content, relevant material and a unique voice as it integrates the scholarship perspective – with full devotion to the fields of business and leadership – and faith as the foundational aspect.

View Open Call for Book Proposals.

This series includes the following:

Principles of Hiring and Developing Employees

Dr. Bruce E. Winston


Evaluating Performance through Christian Virtues

Dr. Mihai C. Bocarnea, Dr. Joshua Henson, Dr. Russell L. Huizing, Dr. Michael Mahan & Dr. Bruce E. Winston


Biblical Theology for Ethical Leadership: Leaders from Beginning to End

Dr. Aaron Perry


Bold Followership: A Biblical Cure for Organizational Toxicity

Dr. Maurice A. Buford


Biblical Principles of Leading and Managing Employees

Dr. Bruce E. Winston


Biblical Servant Leadership: An Exploration of Leadership for the Contemporary Context

Dr. Steven Crowther


Biblical Principles of Being an Employee in Contemporary Organizations

Dr. Bruce E. Winston


Leadership Growth Through Crisis: An Investigation of Leader Development During Tumultuous Circumstances

Dr. Bruce E. Winston


Modern Metaphors of Christian Leadership: Exploring Christian Leadership in a Contemporary Organizational Context

Dr. Joshua Henson


Biblical Principles for Resilience in Leadership: Theory and Cases

Dr. Carlo A. Serrano


Organizational Metaphors: Faith as Key to Functional Organization

Dr. Debra Dean & Dr. Robert B. Huizinga


True Leadership: Leadership Styles and the Kenotic Relationship

Dr. David P. Peltz & Dr. John H. Wilson


Leadership Philosophy in the Fiction of C.S. Lewis

Dr. Aaron Perry


Biblical Principles of Crisis Leadership: The Role of Spirituality in Organizational Response

Dr. Steve Firestone




2017 Doctoral Projects – Doctor of Strategic Leadership Program

The final requirement for School of Business & Leadership Doctor of Strategic Leadership (DSL) students is the DSL Project. Doctoral students develop and conduct innovative research projects that enhance the field of leadership one project at a time.


Global Consulting and the Leadership Development Process in Sub-Saharan Africa

Samuel A. Adeyemi | 2017


Sub-Saharan Africa has had its share of political, economic and social challenges. It needs to produce leaders with greater sophistication in leadership skills to overcome these challenges. Cabrera and Unruh (2012) assert that global leaders are not born, but made. Effective leadership development requires leadership training at the individual, organizational and national levels. There is a need to develop individuals to lead in a way that produces positive financial, social and environmental results (Van Velsor et al., 2010). It is pertinent for the leadership development curriculum for sub-Saharan Africa to take into consideration the peculiar cultures in that part of the world.

This dissertation explores the role of global consulting in the leadership development process in sub-Saharan Africa. Specifically, it applies consulting tools with a view to explore ways of making the Daystar Leadership Academy to be an enduring institution that is strategic and effective. It also explores opportunities for upgrading the Daystar Leadership Academy to a government recognized diploma or degree awarding institution over the short and long terms. These opportunities include making it a government-approved institute that awards its own diplomas, upgrading it to a degree awarding university, or making it an offsite campus for an existing university.

From Volunteer to Leader

Christina V. Angelakos | 2017


Volunteers are an integral part of our organizations. They are the driving force of nonprofits, churches, and community projects. Volunteers serve in a variety of roles, offering their support and donating their time, resources, and knowledge to complete tasks and help organizations function at their highest level. However, for all their assistance, very little time is spent developing them spiritually, physically, and emotionally. This is a mistake. Not only are volunteers one of our greatest assets, but they have the potential to become leaders in our organization and help us further expand our volunteer pool by developing others.

There is no “perfect” way to develop leaders, just as there are no “perfect” leaders. There are too many different personalities, situations, organizational cultures, and programs for it to be a one-size-fits-all solution. The purpose of this manuscript isn’t to prescribe a remedy that gives you exact instructions on how to develop volunteers into super leaders, but rather to be used as a compass to help guide you on your journey to grow volunteers into leaders.

The process for developing a volunteer into a leader is broken up into six sections: 1) Know your team, 2) Know yourself, 3) Identify what leadership means to you and your organization, 4) Understand the roadblocks to leadership, 5) Establish the anatomy of your ideal leader within the organizational parameters, and 6) Take practical steps to help volunteers grow spiritually, mentally, emotionally, and professionally.

Leaders never fully arrive at the end of their journey. There is always room for growth no matter how long they have been leading. A vital part of developing leaders (and raising up volunteers) is to teach them how to connect with others who will help them along that journey. Coaching, mentoring, and peer relationships are where this magic happens, and this manuscript discusses various ways to incorporate them into the volunteer/leader experience at your organization.

Mastering Motivation: How to Motivate Your People to Buy-In, Own Their Roles, and Perform at the Highest Level

Jason Baca | 2017


This text takes a decidedly academic look at the real-world influences that motivate team members within an organization to buy into an organization’s mission, to take ownership of their roles and responsibilities within that organization, and to perform at their highest ability. This text provides a review of the research regarding the sociological and psychological facets of motivational influences including stress, incentives, power sharing, LMX theory, and leadership style. Ultimately, the text seeks to unpack and apply some of the academic research behind motivational influences within an organization in a way that leaders and team members in almost any arena can implement immediately.

Spirit of Excellence Workshop

Yolanda Brannen | 2017


Many organizations are faced with the challenge of providing consistent, excellent customer service that leads to customer loyalty and growth in profits. The challenge of excellent customer service stems from the lack of prescribed values in organizations, or the failure to interpret and practice organizational values. The inception and design of the workshop is to ignite the understanding of values as a guiding principle, which can be demonstrated and cultivated in the workplace and society at large with fundamental teaching and exercises.

Values are drivers of excellence. The workshop will assist organizational leaders in understanding the importance of uncovering values then stimulating, activating & motivating (S.A.M) a base set of values in followers in order to align those identifiable values with the organization’s values. The alignment of personal and organizational values will create a plausible solution that drives excellence in customer service in both for-profit and non-profit organizations.

The workshop will present several comprehensive value-based modules to develop the customer service skills of the most vital assets (workforce). Creating a mindset that wants to perform with a “Spirit of Excellence,” that promotes sustain competitive advantage, making the organization a leader in their industry.

The sole intent of this project after its design is to facilitate workshops in organizations to help organizations answer the question, “How excellent is thy name?” The workshop will promote Psalm 8 (KJV), “O Lord, our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth! Who hast set thy glory above the heavens.” While promoting the belief that excellence comes from wisdom. The delivery of the workshop will provide the wisdom, action, and guidance (W.A.G.) that will deliver measurable results month-over-month after implementation of proven motivational practices from workshop modules focused on understanding ‘values’ and the role they play instrumentally in order to reach a terminal end (goal).

The four-course module workshop’s final output will consist of a program of instruction, module slides, instructor’s notes, and evaluation forms. The overall mission of workshop is to equip and train leaders from a biblical perspective that changes the world by operating with a ‘Spirit of Excellence’ in order to change the world.

Police Leadership Development: An Application of Leadership Transparency and Leadership Role Modeling Through Ethical Leadership

Lonnie Cain | 2017


One of the most difficult challenges for law enforcement executives and training cadre is to find the time and resources to develop practical and formidable leadership curriculums for police officers in the junior years of their law enforcement careers. Leadership development is used to enhance the quality of leadership and leadership potential of individuals, teams, and organizations.[i] Law enforcement municipalities desire to attract the brightest, most ethical, self-motivated candidates to be employed in their respective agencies. Modern law enforcement officers are expected to solve many problems that range from domestic calls for service to mass casualty critical incidents. Naturally, the very best emergent leaders, those members deemed the most influential by people in the organization, should prepare themselves to promote from informal leadership roles to formal leadership positions.[ii]

The assurance of a successful transition from informal leaders to formal leaders rely heavily on the individual officers’ work performance, motivation and willingness to accept responsibility to shape the organization’s future. Mutually, the organization is charged to guide and provide the young officers with essential leadership development training. Leadership development programs are vitally important as they shall provide the framework and expectations of organizational leadership. Leadership development is more than an educational program; leadership development must be entrenched within the organizational virtue.

Successful leadership development embedded inside the organization support succession planning. Leadership curriculum fosters learning conducive to the organizational leadership expectancies of how officers shall lead followers. The most critical aspect of successful organizational leadership development is role model leaders, transparent in their leadership styles amid a firm ethical foundation.

Leadership and Prosperity of Nations

Kriz David | 2017


The search for sustainable source of prosperity of nations has been a long age adventure. As far back as 1776, Adam Smith, a Scottish philosopher and an economist advocated in his work, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, that the wealth of nations is premised on productivity and free market. David Ricardo (1817) in Principles of Political Economy advanced the thesis of comparative advantage for exploiting factors of productions to gain national advantage and prosperity. His theory dwelled on repository of factor endowments in geographical locations and inexpensive labour in some countries as source of national prosperity The Competitive Advantage of Nations by Michael Porter (1990) focused on microeconomics conditions to espouse source of national prosperity by identifying the four determinants of national advantage. Other researches on this subject focused on macroeconomic conditions as the foundation for economic growth and prosperity of nations. In their research, Why Nations Fail: The Origin of Power, Prosperity and Poverty, Acemoglu, D. and Robinson, J. A (2013) argued that geographical locations, cultural differences and ignorance of leaders are not the causes of poverty in nations, but the lack of inclusive polities and inclusive institutions.

One question that remains unanswered is: why are most countries of the world yet to experience development, let alone prosperity, even with the plethora of microeconomics and macroeconomics reforms being carried out by national governments and the expertise advice offered by international nongovernmental institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, United Nations and several others? The reason for the failure to achieve transformation and prosperity in most countries, despite the billions of funds invested in various reforms and transformation projects, is that those interventions are designed to address symptoms of the problems rather than their root cause. Many of such intervention projects have been counterproductive with unintended consequences to nations, thus leaving most nations underdeveloped, and to wallow in vicious cycle of poverty.

This research establishes that leadership makes the difference between prosperous and poor nations. A nation is a complex system, and it requires systems thinking approach to cultivate national prosperity. It therefore behooves leadership of nations to identify high leverage points in societies, cities and nations to unlock the source of sustained prosperity for their nations. The leadership model – Leverage Points or Pillars of Prosperity of Nations, developed in this research established that the prosperity of a nation is locked in a tripod, which are: faith – value systems, learning – productivity system and law – control system. The three systems interconnect and interact with six subsystems or pillars – human and social capital, cultural values, multifactor productivity, institutional framework, governance framework and market framework to impact on the entire social system called a society or a nation. It is expected that the model would be a veritable intervention tool for policy makers, leadership of nations and international nongovernmental organizations seeking to provide lasting solutions for nations to attain prosperity.

Called to Significant Service Servant-Based Strategic Leadership for Law Enforcement

Tyson Gage | 2017


The law enforcement profession is in a current leadership crisis. There are nearly 18,000 state and local law enforcement agencies in the United States which employ more than 1.1 million full-time, and approximately 100,000 part-time employees. Unfortunately, among this population, there is a general lack of leadership training along with a generation of personnel that is entering retirement. Many skills taught in criminal justice programs and academies have not evolved quickly enough to provide relevant training. There is a shift from one generation of leaders to the next without adequate preparation. Training has focused on the technical aspects of the profession and not on leading people. Promotional practices have often focused on seniority or technical competencies instead of leadership abilities and additionally focus on promoting without an identifiable leadership model. Some agencies have attempted to develop and implement leadership programs; however, those often are only offered to specified ranks of employees and focus on intensity instead of consistency.

Law enforcement agencies are uniquely structured government entities. They have differing hiring needs and requirements, organizational structures, cultures, demands, and challenges. They require leadership that is uniquely situated to deal with these factors. However, as with all organizations, a lack of leadership subsequently results in the ineffective organization of the agency. While there has always been a need for competent law enforcement leadership, in today’s climate, the need is greater than ever. The solution is for leaders to embark on an infinite journey and gain the ability to execute servant-based strategic leadership reforms within their organization.

This manuscript serves as a consultancy guide that specializes in servant-based strategic leadership in order to facilitate executive level leadership education to law enforcement agencies by providing specified subject matter expertise in criminal justice and strategic leadership. The provided content is relevant and industry-specific strategic leadership information for the entirety of organizational personnel delivered in a manner that is easily understood, resonates, and transpires throughout the organizational culture. As a note, information throughout this manuscript is rooted in research concerning both the public and private sectors. It stems from newspaper, academic and industry journal articles, universities, government entities, Bible, academia, industry experts, industry-specific personnel, and the social sciences. Examples of leadership concepts may specifically point to the private sector because there has been little to no research as related to law enforcement. With that said, that is a partial point of this manuscript; to introduce private sector leadership concepts to the public sector. References may be specific to general government, the federal government, law enforcement, or private sector industries; however, all have a specified relevance to servant-based strategic leadership for law enforcement.

The shared knowledge, information, and data facilitate the development of systems to solve law enforcement agency leadership puzzles. This serves as a facilitator of change by mutually engaging in dialogue, analysis, and reflection; encouraging an agency driven approach, and utilizing the agency’s expertise in creating a sustainable leadership platform. It creates an environment in which information is received by serving as an outside subject matter expert and a neutral party. This assists to bridge the gap between those who may have differing opinions of the facilitation of the agency mission. The results yielded from law enforcement specific leadership consulting will aid in targeting agency-specific missions and the allocation of agency resources to identify, create, and sustain a strategic leadership culture, develop workforce engagement, and create a lasting leadership legacy.

Thirteen Traits in Thirteen Years: A Leadership Journey from Shepherd to Prime Minister

Richard T. Hawk | 2017


Joseph’s ascension from Canaanite shepherd to Egyptian Prime Minister, second in power only to Pharaoh, was an arduous journey fraught with separation, heartbreak, accusations, and setbacks. Along the way, the favor of God was sovereignly displayed in Joseph’s life, resulting in the saving of Jacob’s family, the Israelite people, and all the inhabitants of Mesopotamia, from a seven-year famine. Joseph’s tenacious faith kept him tethered to his God and along the way Joseph grew in his leadership capacity, being equipped to accomplish his God-sized purpose. Emerging on the scene as a seventeen-year old shepherd boy and developing into a thirty-year old government official, he was exposed to every misfortune in between. Joseph embraced thirteen leadership traits in thirteen years that resulted in his grand achievement and noble success. Not contented to relegate that accomplishment to one person some four thousand years ago, this author argues that modern-day leaders can trust God to unfold His purpose and plan in their life, and through faith and obedience, they can realize their own life of significance.

Twelve Strategic Leadership Competencies for the 21st Century Leaders

Linda A. Heindl | 2017


Strategic leadership competencies are leadership skills and behaviors that encourage superior performance. By using a competency-based system of strategic leadership, organizations should be able to distinguish and develop their next generation of strategic leaders. The importance of strategic leadership competencies and skill development promotes better leadership for the 21st-century leaders. Nevertheless, skills needed for a specific position may change depending on the specific leadership level in the organization. By using a competency approach, organizations can determine what positions at which levels require specific competencies. Therefore, the overall structure of using a competency approach is divided into twelve important competencies for leading the organization, leading the self, and leading others in the organizations are listed below:

  1. Building Strategic Partnership
  2. Setting a Vision and Goal Outlook
  3. Making and Managing Change
  4. Solving Problems Productively
  5. Supporting Teams’ Empowerment
  6. Building Teams’ Direction
  7. Influencing Factors in Organizational Learning
  8. Building and Maintaining an Effective Organizational Culture
  9. Designing a Strategy and Structure
  10. Seizing Risks
  11. Consulting and Conducting Conflict Management
  12. Producing Effective Communication

Before we start focusing on those twelve strategic leadership competencies for the 21st century, I want to delve into three major areas: evaluating the 21st-century, projections for the 21st century, and characteristics of projections for the 21st-century that are becoming the front-runners for these twelve strategic leadership competencies.

LIVE Prolific “Leadership Lessons and the Strength to Move”

Alecia Jacobs | 2017


From spirituality to leadership development, leaders must have a complete connection from within to lead others to accomplish organizational, personal and global goals. A leader’s journey doesn’t begin externally; it starts within the walls of the leader’s body, mind, and soul. Within this book, the importance of Knowing Me (KM), self-examination and overall development will be explored to provide insight around how internal development for leaders impacts the performance of others. The gift of influence comes with a large responsibility for not only the follower or member but the leader.

Gaining the strength to drive direction, commitment and alignment among members is a task which starts with humility and ends with a personal relationship with God. The leadership journey discussed within “LIVE Prolific” is about embracing change, innovation, sharing the vision and acting strategically for tomorrow. The time to live abundantly is now, and there are several lessons for leaders young and old.

Christological Leadership in a Postmodern Construct

Scott D. Liebhauser | 2017


In the current age of chaos, confusion, and ever-shifting cultural mores, Christian leaders have the daunting responsibility of presenting objective truth to a society basking in the muddy waters of postmodern ambiguity. This work presents the definitions, acrimony, nuances, challenges, and advantages of postmodernity while encouraging and preparing Christian leaders to effectively and fruitfully lead amid an antithetical culture. In addition to dissecting postmodernity, this writing will cover leadership topics such as truth, conscience, vocation, agape love, leading through reformation principles, leading through change, leadership characteristics, servant leadership, and communication.

While postmodernity is difficult to define, the common thread involves a disconnection to anything empirical, historical, and authoritative. As each of these elements are consistent with Biblical Christianity, Christian leaders today are challenged with leading in both secular and religious environments due to the loss of connection of previously established norms. The postmodern era is a result of the failures of the modern era, in its heavy emphasis on scientific inquiry, to fix all the world’s woes. As a result, the pendulum of change has swung significantly from a time where truth could only be discovered in a lab to postmodernity, where each person determines their own truth without the need of a rational basis. Each of these eons present hazards to engaging Biblical truth.

In modern times, one would accept the premise of a man named Jesus Christ walking the earth over 2000 years ago due to the overwhelming historical evidence; while in the postmodern age, people might discount the existence of Christ simply because it is the way they feel. Furthermore, after discounting the life of Christ, the postmodern may take the liberty of developing their own “christ” and create their personal narrative of this god of their own device. Consequently, Christian leaders, although tempted to acquiesce to the postmodern intellectual gymnastics, must hold firm to the objective truth as presented in the Sacred Text.

Positioning Africa for the 21st Century: The Pivotal Role of Leadership and Think Tanks

James B. Magara | 2017


In the early 1960s, one would not have been faulted to predict a better future for sub-Saharan African countries in comparison with their East Asian peers. With abundant natural resources, vast amounts of arable land, and for some countries, a modest number of intellectuals and professionals, many newly independent African countries looked set for prosperous futures. Over the last fifty years, these sub-Saharan countries and their East Asian peers have charted different paths. The latter have prospered while the former are still floundering. What did the East Asian countries do differently? What can contemporary and emerging African leaders learn from their experience? Some of the answers are traceable to the type of leadership they had, how leaders exercised the practice of national management, and how they approached the thinking about the futures of their countries. The failure of leadership and dearth of adequate development think tank capacity has been a major constraint on Africa’s development. This treatise submits that if African countries address the question of the quality of their leadership, and maximize the prudent use of their intellectual potential through fostering the use of think tanks in policymaking and planning for the future, Africa’s pace of development would accelerate exponentially.

The book defines and discusses the concepts, types, and genesis of think tanks. It gives an overview of leadership and policymaking on the African continent from the pre-colonial era to the present-day, and covers the impact of failure of leadership and planning on Africa’s development. Botswana is studied as an outlier on the African continent, while lessons on transformational leadership and the use of think tanks are drawn from Malaysia, South Korea, and Singapore. The treatise explores the differing consequences of the shock waves of globalization on Africa and Asia with recommendations on how African countries can reposition themselves to ride the waves. It propositions a requisite African leadership paradigm for the twenty-first century and recommends roles that think tanks can play in the development of African countries. Finally, it considers the thorny issue of financing African think tanks.

The deficiency of think tanks on the continent has resulted in African countries mortgaging their long range planning function to outsiders, and in some cases to a few indigenes, thereby denying themselves the participation and input from some of the best minds in the countries. As the continent journeys deeper with the rest of the world into the 21st century, that constraint must be removed to unfetter African nations into accelerated development. This treatise is a contribution towards unlocking Africa’s leadership and thinking potential. It is a call for current and emerging African leaders to avoid mirroring the leadership mistakes of the first fifty years of independence; a call for clear-sightedness and decisiveness so that the growing opportunities for the continent do not slip through its fingers.

Nine Forces of Change

Victor Manyim | 2017


Leadership is a process of influence and action where wonderful things are realized with people and through people consistently. In the volatile world where we live today, consistency requires a lot of agility on the part of the company. This is where change comes in as an ever present factor in the leadership equation. Change itself may well have other components like technology or environment, but as Dan and Chip Heath say in their book Switch: How to Change Things When change is hard: “all change efforts boil down to the same mission: can you get people to start behaving in a new way?” This need for leading change is high everywhere, and even more so in emerging economies where current growth trends will necessarily lead to dramatic revolutions in companies.

We extend Joseph Grenny et Al’s six sources of influence and develop behavioral change methodology which we called Nine Forces of Change (9F). This methodology is based on two principles:

  1. People truly and durably adopt a new behavior only when: (1) they are willing to adopt it, (2) they are able to adopt it, and (3) they are free to adopt it.
  2. People’s willingness and capacity and freedom come from three sources: (1) people themselves, (2) the social network around people, and (3) the organizational system in which they live.

Thus the matrix of nine forces below which potentially play against you or could work for you –if you find creative ways to activate them in any change effort:


We have developed a coaching system that can be used both for individuals and for companies to help them move from here to there regarding people’s behavior. We have developed and delivered a two or days seminar where we explore the Nine Forces framework with participants. We apply the framework to a real change problem, formulate a change objective, run creativity workshops where dozens of Nine Forces activation ideas are generated by participants themselves. We finish the workshop with a beta change plan based on four to six selected ideas. We include simple instruments participants would use to measure behavior adoption and progress toward the change objective, in order to adjust the beta plan. To turn after-training motivation into real action on the ground, we follow-up the training using coaching conversations where recipients are encouraged to reflect on what they are doing, on what works and what does not, and on what to adjust.

Kenya’s Road to Sustainable and Inclusive Development

Felistus Mbole | 2017


Sustainable development is inclusive development. As economies advance from being agrarian to services-based as is expected with the continual social change for the better, human capital is becoming the most important asset of every nation. Sustainable and inclusive development policy interventions are thus those that are targeted at enabling most of the citizens to contribute to the economic growth of their country and to share in this growth. Such interventions entail building the human capital stock of the nation through education and training Kenya’s past economic performance has been minimal, chequered, and unequally distributed. Its current development roadmap, Vision 2030, has little prospects of delivering the rapid, lasting, and wide-ranging growth that typifies sustainable development. A look at Malaysia, a globally acknowledged development success story and Kenya’s peer in many aspects in the 1960s, shows a wide divergence in their growth from the early 1980s. This project applies evidence and lessons from Kenya’s past and Malaysia to build a human capital model for sustainable development. Based on this model, the project then uses scenario analysis to identify credible and practical policy interventions to get Kenya on to the path for sustainable and inclusive growth in the future.

Leadership and Values Tips for Leaders’ Success

Christopher J. McElveen | 2017


Leaders struggle to remain within the boundaries of biblical principles, ethics, and quality leadership characteristics despite possessing wisdom, values, and knowledge that can facilitate strategic success for themselves and their organizations. This project fills the gap of the lack of understanding of biblical principles and the development of foundational principles and values needed to guide leaders to operate within the boundaries of biblical principles while leading their organizations.

The Leadership and Values Workshop is a curriculum utilizing the extensive research and analysis of what causes leaders to move away from their principles and values while leading others. The workshop curriculum aligns with the manuscript “Leadership and Values Tips for Leaders’ Success” by the execution of five different modules to expose leaders to smart approaches for leading their organization. The objectives are centered on the awareness and application of biblical principles, developing principles (principles & values), the application of ethics in leadership, using leadership to conquer challenges, creating solutions for problems, and understanding how to make the right decisions for strategic planning. Each of these objectives is explored through the curriculum modules coupled with three distinct activities that challenge leaders to develop foundational principles, define key leadership traits, and assessing unique dilemmas for leaders. The presentations, dialogues, and activities captured in this robust workshop curriculum will enable leaders to become better leaders.

The overarching goal of this project is to assist leaders to become the leader they were meant to be. In the end, it is the leader who stands on the peripheral edge of right and wrong that must steer the organization within the boundaries of biblical principles.

Faith in God and Science: A Leader’s Guide to Using Both to See the Face of God

Josh Meléndez | 2017


This manuscript considers the complex questions of how our universe came into existence, how long has it been here, and if our existence is due to random chance or divine design. By comparing scientific evidence, traditional theories of naturalism, microevolution, macroevolution, creationism, and their limitations to socio-rhetorical interpretation, Christian leaders, parents, and young people can understand how to use science to appreciate the Bible. This manuscript intends to lay the framework for understanding God’s hand through science.

Three Foundations to Organizations Success

Steven Miller | 2017


This workbook considers the values that constitute the systems and structures of process improvement theories, and the principles that aid an organization to survive disruption. Several methods for both categories will be examined with fundamental values extracted. These values will be used to give leaders the tools to grasp organizational development at a deeper level. The proposed outcome of this workbook is to give leaders—aspiring leaders—in-depth knowledge and synthesis on how to manage human behavior and achieve long-lasting organizational excellence.

Narrative Coaching in the Leadership Development of Minority Executives in the United States of America and South African Corporations

Lovemore Moyo | 2017


The underrepresentation of women and non-white males in the leadership ranks of American and South African private sector corporations is a cost to these economies in terms of the suboptimal utilization of human capital and the lost marketing opportunities to a growing and youthful sector in the respective countries. The study examines the problem from the perspective of Black and other Minority Ethnic Executives (BMEEs), points out to the magnitude of the problem, in particular the percentages of these executives against their demographic group population numbers. The persistence of this underrepresentation over the past decades attests to the ineffectiveness of the earlier affirmative action measures and the current diversity and inclusion programs. The project, firstly, identifies the main challenges stifling the advancement of BMEEs and these are stigmatized individual identities, devalued social identities, lack of leader prototypicality, stereotype threat and the limited access to leadership networks. The case of women executives is also considered and analyzed as a special case. The other identified problem area is the absence of appropriate leadership theories needed to back-up the leadership development of minority executives. The observation is that current theories of leadership largely ignore the experiences of historically disadvantaged groups. Similarly, there are no leadership development interventions which are customized to the unique challenges of minority executives. Narrative coaching is suggested as the leadership development option which can overcome the identified challenges of minority executives. To this end, the nature and mechanics of narrative coaching are explained, in particular how this form of coaching relies on stories. The identities of individuals is a product of the stories these individuals tell themselves. People also live the stories they tell and problem saturated stories tend to dominate people’s lives. Narrative coaching helps coachees to migrate from these problem stories to those which are empowering and offer alternative ways of living. An important point made is that the ‘being’ issues of developing leaders need to precede the ‘doing’ of leadership. The current executive training interventions major on the latter and are exposed to the vagaries of identity, acceptance and belonging issues highlighted in the social identity and categorization theories of leadership. Taking the perspective of the organizations, the project explores the concept of unconscious bias, which drives the decisions individuals make and throws light into why biased hiring and promotions occur despite conscious diversity efforts. There are practices in narrative coaching which can be used to solve these challenges of minority executives. These practices, which are explained in the project, are the re-authoring of individuals’ stories to build a new identity, enacting identity entrepreneurship, using networking strategies, externalization of problems and using unique outcomes. It is pointed out in the project that unconscious bias is malleable, and, there are methods such as coaching for implementation intention which can be used to overcome unconscious bias. In that way the quest for diversity and an increased number and effective inclusion of minority executives in South African and American corporations can become a reality.

Small Church Leaders: A Coaching Primer for Growing Leaders & the Kingdom

Jason Newcomb | 2017


Globally, churches are in crisis. The number of Jesus’ followers is decreasing. Consequently, church attendance is in decline. With the majority of churches globally considered “small,” small church leaders need new ways not only to stay relevant, but also to grow. Small church leadership can no longer be set aside or neglected. Pastors are under different kinds of pressures today than ever before. As a result, church leadership faces new struggles in leadership development. The coaching process can meet the needs of small church leaders.

Coaching principles can be implemented for small church leaders to incorporate into their own leadership development program. Coaching is effective as a supplemental leadership development tool or as a stand-alone model. This work is meant to glorify God the Father and to serve as a primer for small church leaders to initiate coaching for leadership development. Devotionals are included to help set the tone. Basic coaching processes are explained such as questioning and building trusting relationships. A model of the coaching process is included as well as example forms. Challenges are included within the chapters, and actions steps are meant to help small church leaders move from learning to application.

Leadership Development Workshop for Bukedea Christian High School (BCHS) Leadership

Samuel Odeke | 2017


In line with Regent University’s School of Business and Leadership requirements for the Doctorate of Strategic Leadership final project; a leadership workshop was chosen as a final project. A leadership development workshop was designed to develop leaders was conducted for BCHS leadership. The workshop was a result of the assessment of the factors responsible for the poor organizational performance of BCHS. The assessment discovered the organization’s business and strategic challenges. It also identified the leadership needs and gaps that impact on the organizational performance. A customized specific initiative was designed; training and resource materials for the workshop were developed. Further, a customized workshop as the solution was delivered the solution and the impact evaluated and discerned.

The leadership development workshop was conducted for the BCHS leadership and management. A total of fifteen (15) participants attended a whole days’ workshop. The workshop was recommended by a rapid assessment that was carried out to establish factors responsible for the poor organizational performance of BCHS. The assessment report identified gaps in leadership, teamwork, healthy workplaces, and communication among others. The school authorities and leadership requested the facilitator to conduct the workshop to develop school leaders and managers to address the problems that the school faced. The leadership development workshop overall purpose was to expose leaders to better knowledge on leadership, healthy workplace, restoration of fallen leaders, effective communication and team building and teamwork.

The leadership development workshop with five modules and PowerPoint presentations were prepared to achieve the five objectives to meet the needs and gaps identified. The training methodology; the facilitator applied multiple methods for facilitation. Among the methods used were; group work discussions, lecture methods, question and answer, demonstrations, illustrations, collaboration, role plays, open dialogue and brainstorming techniques. Storytelling approach was also employed during the workshop. Classroom discussion methods and debriefing methods were also used. Also, selected photos were included in the PowerPoint slides for emphasis and reference.

A leadership development workshop evaluation was conducted at the end of participants. The evaluation had two tools completed; individual tool and group tool. The goal of the evaluation was to measure learning, knowledge, behavior change, and participant’s reactions. The results revealed that the workshop was successful, relevant, useful, and impactful. The members thanked the facilitator for the job well done and requested school authorities to organize more of such workshops. An after action report was prepared that captured all the events and how the workshop was conducted. The after action report summarized the workshop methodology, objectives, participant’s information, evaluation feedback and followed up action for the school leadership and management to improve the organization’s performance.

Coaching the Least of These: A Seminar to Build a Stronger Turnaround Tuesday

Anthony Perdue | 2017


In Matthew 25:31-46, Jesus speaks specifically of His judgment of all nations, admonishing those who did not serve Him, by serving the least of these – the sick, the poor, and those who are imprisoned. Baltimore Maryland is one of the most impoverished cities in America and continues to suffer from a litany of economic and social problems including joblessness. Turnaround Tuesday is a job placement movement, born out of the clash between frustrated citizens and Baltimore authorities, resulting in protests, riots, and an economic standstill within the city.

The Humility Factor

John Plastow | 2017


Humility is not usually high on the list of attention-getting goals to which pastors aspire, nor an ambitious state to be sought after and realized, even among pastors who have publicly expressed their commitment to spreading the good news of Jesus. Let’s face it, in this culture of self-promotion, inflated egos, and celebrity status-seeking, humble is just not sexy. It typically does not capture the spotlight nor draw crowds of people to a church, where they will dwell on every word one preaches. There are humble pastors doing the work of Christ excellently with growing vibrant churches, but don’t expect to hear about it from them. They quietly and faithfully execute their calling, trusting that their actions will speak for themselves and that God will bless them as He sees fit

These pastors authentically consider humility above hubris, calling above celebrity, and kingdom impact above personal reward. They possess the seven qualities found in the humility factor, as modeled by Jesus, which lead them to a state of humble intelligence, equipping them to lead their churches in a manner that is not always common today. This book is about how church lay leaders can identify these qualities, then hire and develop a leader with them.

With the premise that healthy churches are led by humble pastors, this book explores how, when the humility factor is applied to any leadership style, it is improved. The positive is amplified as humble intelligence enhances good qualities and the negative is lessened as humble intelligence dilutes qualities contrary to humility through the attributes of the humility factor modeled by Jesus. When a leader adopts the humility factor and attains humble intelligence, the result will be that they will lead more like Jesus led.

Beyond the Village: Engaging Parents as Agents of Change in Developing Future Leaders

Cortha McMillian Pringle | 2017


The job of developing leaders is plaguing the minds of many as we look at political and social leaders who often lack the temperament, moral fortitude, and judgment to be considered serious contenders in leading our nation and world. Since entering the 21st century, our world has changed rapidly. Our world has become more interconnected by the incredible power of the digital age of personal computers, iPads, cell phones, and social media. You can literally stay connected with anyone and everyone, anywhere and anytime, who has access to these electronic tools. Some research contends that leadership development should start before the age of 18. In reality, most leadership development opportunities do not start until a person is promoted to a management position after they have been working a few years. For years, many have focused on the village concept of preparing children for the future.

Globalization has created a need for leaders who have the conviction to connect across borders of diversity, change, and time where the status quo is no longer acceptable. During this time of change, leaders are needed who have the ability to share the vision with their followers to create organizations that can move past stereotypes, prejudices, and stagnant mindsets. This fast-paced environment needs leaders who are willing to push themselves and others towards a world that is bound together by our connections and able to move past the brokenness of our differences.

How do we move from an isolated village mentality to an engaged global community that is focused on growing leaders who are not only life-long learners, but culturally aware to handle the issues facing our world? As parents, we must understand the importance of our role in developing global thinkers and leaders. This project will focus on how parents can become agents of change by working with community partners to assist their child and schools in creating conditions for perpetual learning. This process is not simply learning a new system, but creating an environment wherein innovation and experimentation are not just tasks, but are an integral part of the learning process to develop leaders who are benefitting from collaborative teams made up of parents, schools, and the community.

The Importance of Succession Planning: Pastoral Leadership Transition at Its Best

Valerie Rodriguez | 2017


The basis of this paper is to review and analyze the pastoral transition of Crossroads Grace Community Church (Crossroads) in Manteca, California. Having had the same leader for 27 years, the Lead Pastor announced his retirement in the fall of 2014. Looking at leadership, succession planning and managing change, this paper will speak about what a successful transition process looks like. Taking into consideration what a successful transition may look like, how an organization can prepare for succession, and steps a leader can take to ensure success, this paper will evaluate Crossroads’ process in transitioning Lead Pastors.

Plan for the Creation and Operation of a Health Care Insurance Company for Christians

Michael D. Shenkman | 2017


The state of the health insurance market in the U.S. is currently in flux and has been since the passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010 (“ACA”). Premiums are rising, coverages are shrinking and private market carriers are withdrawing from state sponsored exchanges. The promises made by the Obama Administration that “if you like your plan you can keep your plan” and “if you like your doctor you can keep your doctor” have proven to be untrue. There is considerable dislocation among insureds and their doctors. The nature of the ACA “plans” are proving to be unaffordable (i.e. high deductibles and high premiums) and in some states, completely unavailable. Considerable adverse selection is affecting the pool of risks available for coverage under ACA, and premiums are proving insufficient to cover the loss and loss adjustment expense incurred by insurers, which is preventing them from earning a reasonable profit.

My proposal starts with a simple proposition. Christians are better health insurance risks than non-Christians because they incorporate certain values into their lives that increase health and longevity, and embrace certain truths, such as the right to life, that are ignored by secular health insurers. My solution is to create a Reciprocal Insurance Exchange (“Reciprocal”) that insures Christians only, and that holds true to Christian values. It is in this way that Christians can benefit economically from the restraint, propriety, and integrity with which they lead their lives.

This paper provides the framework for creating such a solution.

Prolific Influence: Modern Interpretation of Leadership in an Ambiguous Culture

Julius K. Smith | 2017


If you are a leader, change is coming your way, and your influence is an essential part of achieving goals and implementing an organizational vision. Influencing and leading is an exciting, and invigorating endeavor. How do you change what happens next? The decision maker in all of us cares about what will happen next for the organization. By several indications, culture, innovation, and leading change and on a direct course to influence which seems to be a common mission spanning across organizations worldwide. Change today can be required unexpectedly. Leading and influence are about creating a personal strategic approach, opportunities, and managing the change process. The Prolific Influence: Modern Interpretation of Leadership in an Ambiguous Culture is a reference guidebook of research on the upshot of the elements of leadership. The attributes that are required, influence, and the components that work this day in time. During a one-day senior leadership seminar session, this reference is a guide stemming from research, interviews, and reflections on the art of influencing people from various organizations and situations. It addresses practical approaches to meeting goals and establishing oneself for the task of accomplishing objectives with our greatest asset: people. In this one-day leadership session, presented within this volume, are the categories of creative influence in dealing with people at work, ministry, and politics which also includes insightful compositions from the wisdom of leaders with their perspectives on looking back at leadership and taking a look forward at influential leadership.

Believing…Belonging…Becoming: Walking in Wholeness, Purpose, & Destiny as Adoptees

Rudina Sobkoviak | 2017


To become all that God has called and designed us to be necessitates a strong sense of believing and belonging. Until those two foundational building blocks have been understood and established, running in this race and journey of life can be challenging. For those who have been adopted, this can become more complex and yet even more important for their psychological, emotional, spiritual, and even physical well-being. This paper sets out to explore and address this issue as it relates to adoption identity and how adoptees see themselves with the recommendation of employing a seminar that will promote healthy identity formation in adoptees led by the author, an adult adoptee herself. Ultimately, He who knew us before we were born and while we were yet being fashioned in our mother’s womb can be the hope and healer our heart, soul, and mind so desperately needs. This seminar aims to bring security among adoptees, create strong self-esteem and get them to a place to find peace in their adoptive identity for the beauty and purpose of adoption both spiritually and missionally is worth it.

Master of Design Thinking & Venture Development Curriculum Developmpent

Thomas M. Waller | 2017


Traditional “linear thinking” forms of marketing, product and service development, and problem solving have been challenged by businesses seeking to find new innovative ways of staying competitive in a global economy. Design Thinking offers a creative, successful alternative methodology to linear thinking for businesses, non-profit organizations and government entities. Design Thinking is the design of things, products, services, and problem solving and the thinking behind the design of things, products, services, and problem solving. It is a human-centered or customer-centric driven approach integrating the needs of people. The customer drives customer-centric design; it is about looking out from the inside, not outside in. It is about observing the customer experience and the way they see the world. Products and services must create intrinsic value and address specific customer needs. This cannot be accomplished unless the customer is an integral part of the entire product life-cycle, not as an afterthought. It is achieved through direct observation of and interaction with customers.

The twelve course Master of Design Thinking & Venture Development (DTVD) Curriculum Development fills a gap in Design Thinking education providing a comprehensive, sequential, and integrated curriculum for the practice and educational advancement of Design Thinking with Venture Development. The curriculum explores the origin and furtherance of Design Thinking’s emergence as a field of professional expertise, introduction and development of a product or service, problem solving, and innovative methods for an established organization.

The DTVD curriculum program and course objectives and learning outcomes engage requirements for moving a product, service or problem solving from customer observation and experience; needfinding and research; problem solving; human-centered design; rapid and rough prototyping; ideation, iteration, and failure; contextual design; design strategy; empathy and storytelling for better design; communications; product market introduction and success; to Design Thinking leadership and culture development. The vision for the DTVD curriculum is to empower individuals—unemployed and employed, start-up entrepreneurs and organizational entrepreneurs, designers and non-designers, and students with and without Design Thinking skills—with the tools enabling innovation and personal effectiveness for their ideas in the creation of products and services, user needs, and discovering solutions for resolving problems.

Law Enforcement Leadership Initiative to Develop Strategies to Establish New Baselines and Reset Law Enforcement Priorities. “A Notional Proposal”

George C. Washington | 2017


Criminal activity in the United States continues to increase particularly for violent crimes involving both citizens and the law enforcement community. Improving law enforcement policies and developing community outreach initiatives are fundamental to decreasing crime. This document introduces The Law Enforcement Leadership Initiative which proposes an effort among key members of the law enforcement community to identify unique and creative methods to curtail crime. Skilled and specialized law enforcement officials from all over the country will participate in specialized meetings providing an opportunity to engage in insightful discussions and collectively identify strategies that can be implemented across jurisdictions. It will identify ways law enforcement leadership partnered with other organizations and members of society can create an environment of peacefulness, safety, and security in a progressive nation reducing criminal activity that can be modeled around the world. Focused topics will allow members to engage constructive discussions concerning areas such as community policing, personal privacy, cross-training between law enforcement organizations, criminal profiling within the community, and messaging and outreach communication.

Partnering with the community is essential to providing better policing towards a safer and more productive society and through this effort will result in:

• There should be effective information sharing within the law enforcement community and the public to provide rapid information dissemination and a vehicle to support clearer understanding. This entails both law enforcement’s understanding of community needs and desires and public understanding of law enforcement needs and operational realities.

• The education and development of law enforcement personnel at every level should involve the latest technologies as well as the general development of personnel so they can adapt to whatever scenarios the future holds.

• There is a critical need to develop partnerships with the public, private sector, and other government agencies and nonprofit organizations with the objectives of developing a range of operationally effective communication channels. The results should yield a commission on a “better future” through continued collaboration and intuitive thinking among people that care. Consequently, everyone involved must be motivated to help turn the country around and influence others to change.

Major initiatives like the Law Enforcement Leadership Initiative can be instrumental in the deterrence of crime and change the lives of people who may need encouragement to make better choices. The Leadership Law Enforcement Initiative will provide opportunities for effective leadership and stewardship through the Word of God while providing inspiration and encouragement for all in the law enforcement community.

Christian Leadership Excellence by Design: Leveraging the Links Through Coaching

Kelly M.G. Whelan | 2017

It is paramount for today’s leaders to strive to understand and incorporate what is learned through Biblical Scripture is a way to honor God. He, the original and ever-present leader, has designed an unchanging manual to guide, develop, and sustain contemporary organizations. This book bridges the gap between sacred and secular leadership and talent management and development strategy. Leaders of today are required to strategize, develop, engage, and execute their visions. Fulfillment of these requirements does not happen in a vacuum. These continuous, interchangeable, managed aspects of leadership require the participation of others. Managing a talented workforce is not done by chance but by design. Your organization, no matter how big or small, public or private, start-up or established, secular or sacred, is a living, breathing body of people filled with an incredible breadth of untapped potential waiting to be recognized, embraced, and set into action. Sustainability begins at the heart of your organization, with your people. As you dive into the pages of this book, you will uncover age old, historical principles that are relevant for today’s 21st century organizations.

Establishing organizations that invite God as the center will establish cooperative, compelling relationships in the workplace that strengthen and rejuvenate your people. As Christian strategic leaders keep God central in their everyday business practices, they become an example to emulate. Once organizations link God’s word with vision and values coupled with definitive coaching strategies to maximize individual potential, the organization is positioned for excellence. When your people are doing what they do best; engagement, sustainability, and your bottom line will flourish. Developing strategies that align with God’s word allows leaders to have a broader vision – be ahead of the curve and think outside of the box. Coach practitioners offer a way forward. The coach advances the client by assisting in the design process of actionable steps and follow through toward goal achievement. An organizational coach practitioner brings an added level of competence to create formal structures that unite with the organization’s objectives. When an organizational coach practitioner partners to drive development down and throughout the organization by designing a coaching culture, a competitive advantage is created. This competitive advantage adds value by developing a pipeline of leaders for sustainability and positions the organization for success by design not by default.

Unlocking the Potential in Your Strategic Leadership Team

Karen Totten White | 2017


Leaders are the governing body who must keep systems moving in the right direction within an organization. They must understand their vocation to become an effective servant leader for the kingdom. This one-day seminar presenting the first in a series of leadership training modules is designed to enhance the current skills, knowledge, and abilities of present and future leaders. The project is developed to create a sequence of learning and teaching modules for the nonprofit faith-based sector. The modules include PowerPoint presentations accompanied by participant workbooks containing interactive activities.

The seminar poses three objectives. The first objective is designed to explore the individual’s characteristics by conducting a self-assessment to determine their leadership style. The result of the assessment is essential to assist each individual to identify how to maximize the utilization of their talents, gifts, and abilities. For as we have many members in one body, and all members have not the same office (Romans 12:4, NKJV). It is imperative for leaders to comprehend their own self-functionality in order to facilitate others.

The second objective evaluates decision-making techniques by conducting an interactive activity. The prototype for this particular module is based on financial stewardship. The leaders are divided into groups and provided with a case scenario of an individual requesting financial assistance from the organization. Following the group discussion, methods will be introduced for leaders to develop an intervention and resolution for each scenario. A prototype of this objective is conducted on test subjects prior to the seminar.

The third objective examines the application of the Strategic Leadership Action Plan (S.L.A.P.) to achieve personal and organizational goals. Leaders of the twenty-first century must be forward thinkers, creative, and goal-oriented. The seminar participants will walk away with a comprehension of how they can operate alone or function on a team internally or externally by enhancing their role as a servant leader while achieving their goals. The theory is that if an individual enables their own potential, then they increase their ability to be more effective in motivating others to do the same.

2017 Dissertations – Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership Program

The final requirement for School of Business & Leadership Ph.D. students is the scholarly research dissertation. To access full-text versions of these dissertations, please contact your university’s library or UMI Dissertation Services. Regent students, staff and faculty may access full-text versions from the Regent University Library.

Evaluating Fry’s Spiritual Leadership Theory in Nigeria

Michael Adebiyi | 2017


This quantitative research study examines the extent to which the spiritual leadership model previously evaluated by Fry, Vitucci, and Cedillo (2005) in the United States compares to a similar evaluation in Nigeria. Completion of this study in Nigeria, a culture differing from the United States on several cultural dimensions, further addresses the external validity of the spiritual leadership model. Fry et al. found strong support for spiritual leadership theory’s causal model and its measures in the United States with all standardized path coefficients in the hypothesized causal model positive and significant except for the relationship between calling/meaning and organizational commitment. Utilizing a sample of 252 employees from public, private, school system, military, oil and gas, and banking sectors in Nigeria, this study found that only 4 out of 12 of the path coefficients of spiritual leadership theory’s causal model in Nigeria are statistically significant. Interestingly, the relationship between calling/meaning and organizational commitment was found to be statistically significant in Nigeria. Organizational citizenship behavior was discovered not to be a possible outcome of spiritual leadership model in Nigeria. Implications of the study findings, research methodologies, limitations of the study, and recommendations for future research were discussed.

Experiences of Pentecostal Leadership: A Phenomenological Study among Norwegian Pastors

Truls Åkerlund | 2017


Despite the exceptional growth of Pentecostalism over the last century, little research has been done on the nature of Pentecostal leadership. This study offers a better understanding of the essential characteristics of the phenomenon through a phenomenological analysis of the lived leadership experience of Norwegian Pentecostal pastors. Utilizing Giorgi’s (2009) descriptive phenomenological method based on Edmund Husserl’s phenomenology, the study detected a general structure of Pentecostal leadership comprised of eight constituents: (a) motivated by a sense of higher, divine purpose—the leader’s motivation to lead comes from a deep sense of commitment to serve God’s plans and purposes for the congregation and the world; (b) derived leadership—pastors see their leadership as derived from God, implying that they lead on behalf of someone else; (c) human and divine agency in a seamless interaction between rationality and spirituality—the idea of being led by God liberates rather than limits the leader to proactively engage in organizational matters, and the Pentecostal belief that God is active in every aspect of life frees him to seamlessly combine spirituality and rationality in leading the organization; (d) pragmatic and eclectic stance towards the Pentecostal tradition—the leader draws on the Pentecostal tradition in eclectic and often unsystematic ways and approaches Pentecostal spirituality as a dynamic reservoir, something to be defined as much as defining; (e) persuasive communication—in setting the direction for the Pentecostal congregation, the leader relies more on persuasion than position, making verbal communication an important means of influence; (f) dialectic relationship between structure and agency—organizational structures simultaneously enable and constrain leadership agency, meaning that the leader’s ability to influence the organization depends on his ability to adapt to the organization; (g) adaptive to context—Pentecostal leadership considers and adapts to the sociocultural context in which it is situated; and (h) involving the leader’s entire life—the leader leads the Pentecostal organization with his life, having modeling as a prime source of influence. The findings’ implications for theory and practice are considered, as are comparisons with organizational leadership theory and suggestions for further research.

Paul’s Rhetorical Leadership in an Arena of Cultures: A Sociorhetorical and Content Analysis of Acts 21-26 and Romans 13:1-7 That Provides Guidance for Presidents of Christian Colleges During Challenges to Religious Liberty

Johathan Allbaugh | 2017


The current societal pressures regarding religious liberty and institutional sustainability for Christian higher education in America call for rhetorical leadership from presidents of Christian colleges and universities. This study provides a biblically rooted and theoretically sound, multifaceted approach using sociorhetorical criticism and content analysis of Acts 21-26 and Romans 13:1-7. The Apostle Paul was an exemplar of transformational leadership within a cultural context that contained similar societal pressures to the current climate of Christian higher education. Findings from the mixed methodology provided rhetorical, historical, philosophical, political, and theological insights that were subsequently analyzed through a construct of domains of influence with their resident cross-pressures and the arena of cultural conflict with its participating agents. The conclusions of these findings and subsequent analyses were incorporated into a model of transformational leadership with the intention of assisting presidents of Christian colleges and universities as they represent their institutions in the challenges of religious freedom in the public square.

Towards Developing Authentic Small Group Leaders: A Sociorhetorical Analysis of the Book of Exodus 18

Stuart Wayne Boyer | 2017


The study examined the leadership of Moses and the selection of developing leaders as found in Exodus 18. The focus was on the corresponding aspects of leadership, developing leaders, specifically small group leaders, towards contemporary leadership principles. Moreover, the contemporary leadership principles involved within the study included spiritual leadership and authentic leadership. The multidisciplinary exegetical process followed the methodology of sociorhetorical analysis towards the interpretation of aspects of leadership, leadership selection, and leadership development. Included within the process of leadership selection and leadership development, there remain cognitive and moral components. The textural interpretation generated 22 themes, which remain significant towards leadership. The 22 themes were then organized into five leadership principles drawn from Exodus 18. The themes and principles provided a similarity between both spiritual and authentic leadership. There were sufficient differences noted with greater connection towards authentic leadership. Nevertheless, adequate similarities exist within the themes and principles revealed towards spiritual and authentic leadership. All principles of leadership attributes were derived from the Holy Scriptures and included aspects of humility, remaining teachable and the necessity of a growing intimate relationship with God.

Unearthing the Moral and Authentic Leader: Understanding the Impact of Transcendental Leadership, Workplace Spirituality, and Corporate Social Responsibility on Performance

Mignon Sparks Burton | 2017


This study assessed a variable that might counteract a growing contemporary trend of immoral, corrupt, and self-serving leaders. It was posited that the spiritual nature of a transcendental leader promotes a work environment where spirituality is fostered, so corporate behaviors positively guide workers’ communal responsibility, which results in improved organizational performance in both the spheres of task and contextual outcomes. This study asked: Is there a positive relationship between transcendental leadership (TL) and organizational performance, and what effect do workplace spirituality (WS) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) have on this relationship? The relationships between the constructs of TL (independent variable), WS (moderator), CSR (mediator), and organizational performance (dependent variables: task and contextual) were reviewed. Two hierarchical regression analyses examined the criteria variables on their relationship with the two dependent variables (organizational performance task [OPT] and organizational performance contextual [OPC]), as well as the related descriptive statistics. The results detailed participants’ perceived TL positively predicts with both the organizational performance task and contextual variables at significant levels. Therefore, Hypothesis 1a, There is a positive relationship between TL and OPT, and Hypothesis 2a, There is a positive relationship between TL and OPC, were supported. The hypotheses relating to the WS’s moderating effect between TL and CSR as a mediating variable for the criterion variables (OPT and OPC)—Hypothesis 1b, WS moderates the relationship between TL and CSR such that at higher levels of WS the relationship is stronger; Hypothesis 1c, CSR mediates the relationship between TL and OPT such that higher levels of CSR the relationship is stronger; Hypothesis 2b, WS moderates the relationship between TL and CSR such that at higher levels of WS the relationship is stronger; and Hypothesis 2c, CSR mediates the relationship between TL and OPC such that at higher levels of CSR the relationship is stronger—were not supported.

The Dysfunction Junction: The Impact of Toxic Leadership on Follower Effectiveness

Richard Mark Bell | 2017


This study examined the effect of toxic leadership, as moderated by leader–member exchange (LMX), on a follower’s active engagement (AE) and independent, critical thinking (ICT). Schmidt’s (2008) toxic leadership theory describes the five dimensions of toxic leadership as abusive supervision, authoritarian leadership, narcissism, unpredictability, and self-promotion. LMX theory (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995) describes the dyadic relationship between leaders and followers with some followers forming the leader’s in group while others form the leader’s out group. Followership theory describes the role of followers and following in the leadership process, and Kelley (1992) described how follower style occurs based on the two behavioral dimensions of AE and ICT. Ten hypotheses considered the direct effects of the five dimensions of toxic leadership on the two follower behavior dimensions, and 10 hypotheses considered the moderating effect of LMX. A survey method was employed utilizing Schmidt’s (2014) Toxic Leadership Scale, the LMX-7 (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995), and Kelley’s (1992) Followership Styles Questionnaire. Data were collected from 203 nontraditional graduate students with professional work experience in diverse career sectors. Hierarchical multiple regression techniques were used to test the 20 hypotheses. The regression analysis indicated the self-promotion dimension of toxic leadership had a direct effect on the follower’s AE. Other direct effect hypotheses were unsupported. LMX had direct effects on both follower engagement and critical thinking, but no support was found for an interaction effect. Over 78% of the study’s participants indicated having experience as the follower of a toxic leader. The results of the study further the research related to both toxic leadership and followership, demonstrating the pervasiveness of toxic leadership in organizations and indicating the importance of LMX to the followership dimensions of AE and ICT.

The Relationship between Servant Leadership and Employee Engagement

Crystal M. Brown | 2017


Currently, little is known about servant leadership and its relationship with meaningfulness, safety, and availability as it relates to Kahn’s (1990) definition of employee engagement. Furthermore, definitions of servant leadership have varied over the past 30 years, making it difficult to clarify what it means to be a servant leader. For servant leaders to ensure employees are fully engaged in the workplace and to see if a relationship between servant leadership and meaningfulness, safety, and availability exists, a field-based, survey design with multiple regression analyses was conducted controlling for gender. A convenience sample consisted of full-time employees at a financial cooperative in the Charleston, South Carolina, area. The research findings align with most of the minimal literature that exists with respect to servant leadership and employee engagement—meaningfulness, safety, and availability. When controlling for participant gender and leader’s gender, servant leadership has a significant positive relationship with meaningfulness and safety but not with availability.

Leading from the Pews: Leadership Characteristics of Church Mothers in the Sanctified Church

Jane R. Caulton | 2017


During the 20th century, African American Pentecostal and Holiness denominations took on the moniker sanctified church (E. Y. Alexander, 2011; Synan, 2001) and represented assemblies that believed in the empowerment of the Holy Spirit evidenced through spiritual manifestations such as glossolalia, divine healing, and emotional worship. Early membership primarily was composed of poor and marginalized people, and within its structure, women found a place to contribute their skills and abilities (A. D. Butler, 2007; Gilkes, 1986b). Some of them were recognized as church mothers and gained power that they used to support and guide the direction of the church. Yet, these women were not ordained and did not have the accorded legitimate power. I conducted a phenomenological study to answer the research question: What were the leadership characteristics that enabled church mothers to gain and execute power in the sanctified church during a period when most women were denied ordination, leaving them to function in male-dominated spheres? I used the organizational leadership and courageous follower constructs and the variables of church mothers, the sanctified church, and leadership (Banks, 2013; Chaleff, 2009; Dixon, 2008; Gál, 2012). I engaged a purposive sample representing four denominations of the sanctified church: Church of God in Christ, Mount Calvary Holy Church of America, Pentecostal Assemblies of the World, and an independent interdenominational assembly to provide triangulation (Patton, 1999). I based this methodology on the social construction theory. I recorded interviews, transcribed them, dissected them to create a table for each question, and coded the data to identify themes (Creswell, 2003). I categorized the themes and inducted that the leadership traits of church mothers included influence, resourcefulness, modeling, and acclimatizing. This study contributes to the literature on ecclesial leadership, specifically female participation, and to follower studies. I limited the study to the leadership traits of church mothers and did not discuss the implications of recognizing church mothers rather than ordaining them. In the future, researchers may pursue these topics as well the roles of women in other denominations.

Religion and Spirituality in the Workplace: A Quantitative Evaluation of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

Debra J. Dean | 2017


Religion and spirituality were once considered taboo topics in the workplace; however, practitioners and scholars have been finding evidence of positive benefits to the triple bottom line—people, profit, and planet. Benefits include improvement in employee health, reduction of employee stress, more job involvement, increased job satisfaction, higher levels of organizational commitment, less organizational frustration, more organizational identification, and enhanced work unit performance. The first large-scale empirical study of religion and spirituality in the workplace revealed the urgency for organizations to “learn how to harness the whole person and the immense spiritual energy that is at the core of everyone . . . [or] they will not be able to produce world class products and service” (Mitroff & Denton, 1999, p. 84). Responding to the call to explore the two main instruments used to empirically test spirituality at work and contribute to the three most promising theoretical approaches to date, according to Benefiel, Fry, and Geigle (2014), this research used a quantitative, cross-sectional, field-based study to examine the relationships of religion and spirituality in the workplace to work outcomes of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The instruments used to measure six dimensions of workplace spirituality included the Spiritual Leadership Scale and the Spirituality at Work Scale. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire short-form and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire evaluated work outcomes of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Additionally, the Religious Commitment Index and demographic questions examined the control variables of age, education, gender, income, meditation experience, religion, and years of work experience. The findings of this research indicate that altruistic love is worthy of attention with regard to job satisfaction and organizational commitment. In addition to altruistic love, sense of community and meaningful work were significantly predictive of job satisfaction; however, altruistic love clearly stood out as the most important variable.

The Love-Empowered Leader: A Qualitative Case Study of a Pastoral Leadership Exemplar of an Evangelical Congregation in Virginia

Deborah Darlene Reynolds Harper | 2017


The construct of love is under investigation in this empirical qualitative case study. Love is a powerful force and thus can change landscapes. The landscapes under investigation in the study are in the domain of leadership. This is a study of a case exemplar, who demonstrates the practice and presence of love in lived experience. In this case study, love is presented from multiple perspectives so as to direct contemporary leaders to the consideration of a love-centered approach to leadership. The literature has revealed that leadership theory and praxis can be positively impacted by a strong love-empowered leadership approach. The empirical research in the study presents findings that are noteworthy in the modern application of contemporary leadership theory, as well as inspire paradigm shifts in how leadership in viewed from a leadership and organizational effectiveness perspective. Although there have been studies recently that have emphasized the need for love in leadership, not as much study has focused on how love is operationalized, how love can be the motivating factor behind a leader’s reason to lead, how love positively influences members of an organization, and the beneficial organizational consequences of a love-centered approach to leadership. Therefore, this study explored these elements further and presents finding that can contribute to an operational definition of love in leadership based on the sacred text of 1 Corinthians 13. A greater understanding of love as a viable construct in leadership was investigated through the presence and practice of love expressed in lived experience. This study sought to extend the scholarship and empirical research on the construct of love in organizational leadership.

The Effects of the Empowering Role of Followers on Leaders: A Phenomenological Perspective

Evelina Denise Harris-Wilson | 2017


Leadership and followership are interdependent phenomena; nevertheless, most of the past literature has focused on the critical role of the leader. Because of the changing landscape of the world and its economy as a result of globalization and evolving technology, scholars and practitioners have started to focus on the valuable role that followers play in achieving organizational objectives. Scholars such as Kelley (1988) and Chaleff (1995) were pioneers in the study of followership, emphasizing the mutual and complementary role of leaders and followers. Empowerment is an area in which these reciprocal roles manifest. While several scholars have focused on how leaders empower followers (Conger & Kanungo, 1988; Manz, 1992; Spreitzer, 1996; Thomas & Velthouse, 1990), little work has been conducted on how followers empower leaders. To address this gap in the literature, a qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to answer the question: How do followers empower leaders? The participants were assigned to six focus groups consisting of a leader and a follower from different organizations and diverse backgrounds in the Commonwealth of Virginia using the models proposed by Kelley (1988, 1992) and Chaleff, which highlighted components such as critical thinking, active engagement, the courage to challenge, participate in transformation, and take moral action. The perspectives of both the leader and the follower were considered. In-depth questions were formulated from literature to discover how followers possessing the characteristics of effective and courageous followership proposed by Kelley (1988) and Chaleff empowered leaders. Bracketing and triangulation were used to analyze data and to ensure validation and credibility. The findings revealed that leaders were empowered when effective and courageous followers demonstrated skills and qualities such as decision making and leadership, mindfulness, competence, commitment, conflict management, respect, communication, creativity, integrity, mindfulness, and being proactive and relational. When these attributes are utilized daily, it allows the leader to be more productive and focus on other priorities.

Towards a Theory of Leadership for Human Flourishing in a Global Community: A Hermeneutic, Phenomenological, and Process Theory Exploration of the Leadership of Jesus in the Four Gospels

Edward W. Hatch | 2017


Leadership as influence is at the root of most understandings of the phenomenon (Northouse, 2013; Yukl, 2006). Yet the myriad targets and means of influence at the individual, group/team, and social/collective levels give rise to competing values and theories of change (Cameron & Quinn, 2011; J. D. Hunter, 2006; Richter, 2011). There is, however, one common denominator of leadership change–influence that can focus all theories of change and strategies of hope. This one denominator is evident in the leadership of the life of the founder and followers of perhaps the most successful global movement the world has ever seen. Hoksbergen, Curry, and Kuperus (2009) claimed, “No question is more important for our time than what brings about human flourishing in a global community” (p. 11). Then-United Nations Secretary General Ban (2008) said the real global crisis was not a crisis of intractable problems but a crisis of global leadership. To bridge that gap, this study examined the leadership of Jesus of Nazareth in first-century Palestine with a view to developing a theory of leadership for human flourishing in global community. A comprehensive research methodology was crafted from the fields of phenomenology, process theory, and biblical hermeneutics and applied to the narrative texts of the four Christian Gospels. A three-dimensional leadership theory emerged from this study of the life work of Jesus. Following Ricouer’s (1976) phenomenological approach, three passes were made through the Gospels data set. Over 1,100 initially coded themes and patterns were synthesized through examination of recorded events as the central unit of qualitative analysis. Eleven core themes emerged leading to three macrocategories that, upon further study, became the three major leadership dimensions of the proposed theory. With an eye to theory building from the start, Whetten’s (2002) modeling as theory building methodology and the filtering questions of “‘what’s’-as-constructs” (p. 51) and “‘how’s’-as-relationships” (p. 55) further clarified the three leadership dimensions of people, process, and place as central to Jesus’ leadership and human flourishing in a global community. Pike’s (1982) tagmemic linguistic theory helped crystalize understanding of how the same things can be understood from different perspectives as particle, wave, and field. This study concluded by presenting and explicating the middle range theory called three-dimensional leadership theory. Support for the proposed theory was found in contemporary organizational leadership and philosophical and scholarly research leading to 11 supporting propositions. This study contributes to the field of leadership research by offering the first-ever leadership theory premised on the life of Jesus, who is generally accepted as one of the world’s greatest leaders (Lowney, 2003; Stark, 1997, 2006; Willard, 1997). This research also bridges a gap in biblical study by offering a blended methodology that allows other tools to combine with traditional hermeneutics of the narrative text to elicit process. Three-dimensional leadership theory is generalizable to contexts in the global community where leadership is required to raise people to new levels of flourishing, wholeness, and fruitfulness for their own good and the good of others.

Examining the Relationship Between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Organizational Performance: The Moderating Role of Organizational Learning

Michael James Mapalala | 2017


Although literature has highlighted the importance of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in stimulating the general economic development and performance and survival of individual organizations, research on the degree to which EO is related to organizational performance (OP) suffers from the following problems: (a) it has provided inconsistent results, (b) researchers have generally ignored calls for research that investigates how characteristics internal to the organization moderate this relationship, and (c) there is a general lack of research on how EO affects OP in developing countries. The current study examined the relationship between EO and OP as moderated by organizational learning (OL) with the intention of providing quantified answers to the following two research questions: Does EO positively influence OP? Does OL moderate the relationship between EO and OP? I drew on the resource-based view theory to examine this relationship. I collected survey data from 298 selected Tanzanian organizations from a variety of industries as represented by their senior managers using previously validated instruments. I used a series of moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses to test the study’s hypotheses. I found no evidence to support the generally held belief that EO is universally beneficial to OP; rather, I found evidence to suggest that the relationship between EO and OP is much more complicated than it is generally assumed, and that under certain circumstances, the five EO dimensions may vary independently, implying that entrepreneurial activity or processes could sometimes lead to desirable results on one performance dimension and undesirable results on a different performance dimension. I found evidence to suggest that different OL dimensions may have different moderating effects on the relationship between the different EO and OP dimensions. I discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this study and recommend areas for future research.

How Ecclesiological Values Influence Leadership Construction and Leader-Follower Alignment: A Heuristic Inquiry

John Thomas Moxen | 2017


This research sought to determine whether ecclesiological values influenced leadership construction and leader–follower alignment within an ecclesial setting. The study was a heuristic inquiry, which calls for in-depth interviews with individuals connected to a community as well as the insights that can be useful from the experience of the primary researcher. The interviewees were members of Church of the Holy Apostles—a local ecclesial community comprised of Episcopalian and Roman Catholic Christians in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Of the eight individuals selected by the two senior members of the church, seven elected to participate. The in-depth interviews sought to determine whether there are ecclesiological values that are held in common by the members. Four values were found to be most commonly held amongst the members, including a respect for tradition, a sense of urgency, humility, and unity. From the data compiled in the interviews, the researcher discovered that these values play an influential role in how the members at Holy Apostles understand leadership construction as well as how well they align with their various leaders. Future research ought to include the study of a similar ecclesial organization, such as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, interreligious organizations such as UNICEF, communities that experience the coexistence of citizens who follow different faiths, as well as nonreligious organizations.

Examining the Relationship of Follower Perceptions of Leaders’ Servant Leadership Behaviors to Leader Immunity to Corruption: Perspectives from Kenya

Nancy Nkirote Muriuki | 2017


The philosophy of servant leadership differentiates servant leaders as those who put the well-being of those served in the larger society as their highest priority. Servant leadership behaviors are manifestations of inner-directed choices that compel one to want to serve first as opposed to leaders who may desire to exercise power and accumulate wealth through their leadership positions. This study employed a quantitative design to examine follower perceptions of the relationship between servant leadership and leader immunity to corruption expressed as corruption propensity. A structured questionnaire was distributed to 135 followers of leaders working in organizations within the city of Nairobi, Kenya. Furthermore, the inquiry sought to establish whether leader–member exchange (LMX) had a moderating effect on the relationship between followers’ perceptions of their leaders’ servant leadership and leader immunity to corruption. The results of the study confirm that a statistically significant relationship exists between followers’ perceptions of their leader’s servant leadership behaviors and leader immunity to corruption. However, the study found that LMX does not strongly influence the strength of the relationship between perceived servant leadership and leader immunity to corruption as a positive relationship was found only in two of the seven dimensions of servant leadership studied. The study proposes to advance the theory of leadership in general and servant leadership in particular in relation to enhancing the understanding of the role of leadership in curbing corruption in organizations in diverse contexts. Theoretical and practical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Epistemic Motivation and Actively Open-Minded Thinking’s Impact on Innovative Behavior as Moderated by a Leader’s Tolerance for Disagreement within a Dental School Community

Wes Parham | 2017


The rise of globalization has resulted in an organizational atmosphere that has been described as volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA; Horney, Pasmore, & O’Shea, 2010). The increasingly VUCA environment present in the 21st century has served as a catalyst for the emergence of the concept of innovation as a vital element of organizational success. Many scholars have argued that innovation is a key component of organizational success (Amabile, 1988; De Dreu, 2006; Hammond, Neff, Farr, Schwall, & Zhao, 2011), and “organizations benefit by knowing who is most likely to suggest and implement new ideas and what conditions best foster these processes” (Hammond et al., 2011, p. 99). However, despite the interest in innovative behavior, C. H. Wu, Parker, and De Jong (2014) argued that “to date, we know relatively little about how dispositional and contextual aspects might work together” (p. 1512). The current study utilized an interactionist approach to answer the questions of “who is most likely to suggest and implement new ideas and what conditions best foster these processes” (Hammond et al., 2011, p. 99) and examined both dispositional and contextual aspects. It also examined the cognitive dispositions of epistemic motivation and actively open-minded thinking and their impact on individual innovative behavior as a way to identify who is most likely to suggest and implement new ideas while also considering whether the contextual aspect of the leader’s tolerance for disagreement moderates the relationship between these two cognitive dispositions and innovative behavior. Six hypotheses were generated to test these relationships. The study findings support the idea that epistemic motivation and actively open-minded thinking are positively linked to individual innovative behavior but have mixed results on the role of a leader’s tolerance for disagreement as a moderator of this relationship.

The Influence of Authentic Leadership Dimensions on Organizational Commitment and Follower Job Performance of Romanian IT Workers: The Mediating Role of Trust

Ligia Petan | 2017


Authentic leadership represents a values-based approach focused on the development of both leaders and followers (Avolio & Gardner, 2005; Gardner, Cogliser, Davis, & Dickens, 2011). Authentic leadership is characterized by self-awareness, relational transparency, internalized moral perspective, and balanced processing (Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008). Through their examples, authentic leaders inspire followers to change (Avolio & Gardner, 2005). Authentic leadership has been previously linked to a series of positive organizational outcomes. The study of authentic leadership is relevant for the Romanian context, as the country has been struggling to minimize corruption at various institutional and organizational levels. The present study explored the influence of authentic leadership dimensions on organizational commitment and follower job performance directly and indirectly, via trust in supervisor, in a sample of Romanian information technology employees (N = 135). The results indicate that authentic leadership dimensions positively influence organizational commitment, and trust in supervisor partially mediates the positive influence of authentic leadership dimensions on organizational commitment. More specifically, self-awareness and internalized moral perspective were found to significantly influence employee organizational commitment. No significant relationship was found between authentic leadership dimensions and follower job performance. A discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of these findings along with limitations and recommendations for future research conclude the present endeavor. The research makes an important contribution to authentic leadership theory by exploring the influence of authentic leadership on organizational outcomes in Romania.

The Relationship of Followership Style with YMCA Employee Outcomes

Amber Quarles | 2017


Followership is the study of an individual’s ability to follow a leader. Previous studies that have investigated followership have primarily focused on job satisfaction and organizational commitment and have either considered followership as a whole or only considered the dimension of active engagement (Blanchard, Welbourne, Gimore, & Bullock, 2009; Gatti, Claudio, Tartari, & Ghislieri, 2014). Both Blanchard et al. (2009) and Gatti et al. (2014) confirmed a connection between followership, commitment, and job satisfaction; however, each study also offered some incongruous information, suggesting a need for further research in this area. The current study investigated the relationship between two critical dimensions that make up followership style—independent critical thinking and active engagement—with employee in-role and extrarole behavior and person–organization fit. Taking into consideration that these relationships are impacted by the nature of a follower’s interaction with his or her current supervisor, the moderating effect of leader–member exchange was also tested. This study used cross-sectional data collected through a convenience sample of employees (n = 154) in a regional YMCA comprised of five branch locations within Virginia Beach and Chesapeake, Virginia. This study revealed that positive relationships between the follower dimensions of independent critical thinking and active engagement existed between performance (in-role behavior and extrarole behavior) and person–organization fit. This study also rejected leader–member exchange as a moderator between follower dimensions and organizational behavior and person–organization fit. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are presented, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

An Examination of the Role of Leadership Fatigue and Trauma in Ethical and Moral Leadership through a Sociorhetorical Analysis of 2 Samuel 11:1-27

Carlo A. Serrano | 2017


This study examined the role of leadership fatigue in ethical and moral decision making through a sociorhetorical analysis of 2 Samuel 11:1-27. The study of ethical and moral leadership was drawn from the literature on ethical leadership as it relates to values-based leadership theories, such as servant leadership, authentic leadership, transformational leadership, and spiritual leadership. The research followed the exegetical methodologies outlined in the relevant textural layers of sociorhetorical analysis. The data were interpreted for principles connecting to ethical and moral leadership and leadership fatigue. The study results yielded four themes that we expanded to five principles for ethical and moral leadership and leadership fatigue as found in 2 Samuel 11:1-27. The results of the study demonstrate a connection between the presence of leadership fatigue and unethical and immoral decision making and behavior. The five themes summarize the findings of the sociorhetorical analysis and serve as a practical guideline for future leadership practice and research.

Understanding How Transformational Servant Leadership Affects Student Leadership Development in a Higher Education Program in China

Marie Shaw | 2017


Both transformational leadership and servant leadership are dominant theories in leadership studies. I conducted a study to advance both theories in a higher educational setting in the country of China. Based on the existing literature, both transformational leadership and servant leadership have significant effects on leadership development. Though each theory shows its inadequacy when used alone, analysis of the similarities and differences demonstrates a great potential of the two theories to be synergized. This study was designed to engage a synergistic conceptual framework of transformational servant leadership (TSL) and used the conceptual framework as the theoretical foundation for the study of leadership development. The purpose of the study was to understand how TSL affects student leadership development in higher education in China. Guided by the purpose, I formulated research questions to determine how TSL was experienced in a higher education program in China and how the experiences affected student leadership development in terms of calling, character, chemistry, and competency. I engaged multiple case studies of qualitative inquiry and collected data from eight graduated students from the program of Master in Leadership (MIL) through interviews and document examination. The findings indicated that TSL, as a theoretical concept, is a dynamic balance between transformational leadership and servant leadership. It is an integration of leadership factors of values, behaviors, serving relationships, performance, and transformation. TSL has a capacity to develop and equip leaders. In the application of leadership practice, the TSL learning experience affects students’ leadership development in terms of pursuing goals through value-based behaviors, developing people holistically, building relationships and collaboration, improving individual and organization efficacy, and transforming organizations through highly effective teams. In conclusion, TSL is a powerful theoretical concept that maximizes the strengths of transformational leadership and servant leadership theories. It facilitates higher educational programs such as the MIL program to develop students into value-based leaders who can transform organizations through relationships. It was also concluded that TSL, when applied in academic program like the MIL, facilitates the fulfillment of the program’s mission by strengthening the faith of Christian believers and raising the awareness of non-Christians to seek the ultimate purpose and meaning of life.

Japanese Young Adult Female Professional Elevation and Fertility

Noriyo Shoji-Schaffner | 2017


In effort to reverse Japan’s declining fertility rate, researchers have contemplated the causal connection between gender equality, female labor participation, and female fertility. Since Japan’s economic recession began in the 1990s, coupled with globalization of finance- and production-based markets exerting neoliberal pressures on the Japanese employers to increase competitiveness by introducing market-oriented corporate strategies, the female workforce has undergone profound transitions as an increasing percentage of women has sought to establish long-term careers. However, the demographic evidence has indicated only one fourth of young adult women entering the workforce have remained on the long-term career track while the remaining three fourths of young adult women have dropped out of the workforce to pursue domestic responsibilities. For those young adult women who have chosen to remain in the workforce, the question has remained whether they are committed to pursue marriage and fulfill parenthood thus to prove the positive correlations between gender equality, female labor participation, and female fertility. This study applied a qualitative psychological phenomenology approach to discover the actual experiences of seven Japanese young adult female professionals as the representation of new female labor force creating new social identities through the mutual conditioning of work and family life structures. Through psychological phenomenological approach, consisting of content analysis of varied methods of interview findings, this study explored what motivates these young adult female professionals to identify with one fourth of young adult women in Japan who have chosen to stay on the long-term career track and how they reconfigure notions of committed relationships, marriage, and parenthood.

Leadership Style, Innovative Work Behavior, and the Mediating Effect of Innovation Climate on Individual Job Satisfaction and Team Effectiveness

Carl Preston Weaver Jr. | 2017


Creativity and innovation are increasingly important to organizational success in a progressively more connected global economy that seeks the latest new idea or product. Research has supported several major influences on creativity and innovation such as leadership and certain contextual factors. While these factors appear important in supporting subordinate efforts at creativity and innovation, studies are limited on the relationship of leadership style to contextual factors and subsequently on organizational outcomes. Using interactionist theory as the foundation for the research, this study examined the direct and indirect effects of servant leadership on innovation climate, innovative work behavior, intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction, and team effectiveness at the individual level of analysis. The study used cross-sectional survey data from 131 participants across six industry sectors. The data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis to test both direct and mediated relationships. Results indicate servant leadership has a direct positive relationship to innovation climate and both servant leadership and innovation climate have a direct positive relationship to intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction and team effectiveness. There was no mediation effect for innovation climate and a small mediation effect for innovative work behavior on intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction and team effectiveness.

Ph.D. Student Publications

Students enrolled in the Ph.D. program in the School of Business & Leadership are provided opportunities to engage in research, writing, presentations and other scholarly activities in the early stages of their academic studies. Our emphasis on publishing and presentations permits our students to:

  • Pursue their research interests with viable ends
  • Collaborate with faculty, student colleagues and other external resources
  • Gain exposure to national and international academic conferences
  • Build a curriculum vitae

Listed below are some of the most current works and activities of our Ph.D. students.

2016 January – December

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • Åkerlund, T. (2016). Missional Leadership: A Critical Review of the Research Literature. Australasian Pentecostal Studies, 18. Retrieved from
  • Åkerlund, T. (2016). “To live lives worthy of God:” Leadership and Spiritual Formation in 1 Thessalonians 2:1-12. Journal of Spiritual Formation & Soul Care, 9(1), 18–34.
  • Åkerlund, T. (2016). “When the Fire Fell”: Historical and Narrative Perspectives on the Charismatic Leadership of T. B. Barratt. PentecoStudies, 15(1), 7–24.
  • Huizinga, R. B. (2016). Breaking Faith: A Quantitative Examination of Followership During Termination. Journal of Strategic and International Studies, 11(2), 5–14.
  • Huizinga, R. B. (2016). An Understanding of Humility-Based Leadership Impacting Organizational Climate. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 9(1), 34–44.

2015 January – December

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • Åkerlund, T. (2015). Pentekostale former for ledelse i fortid og framtid. In K. I. Tangen & K.-W. Sæther (Eds.), Pentekostale perspektiver (Vol. 23, pp. 187–202). Bergen, Norway: Fagbokforlaget.
  • Åkerlund, T. (2015). Son, sent, and servant: Johannine perspectives on servant leadership theory. Scandinavian Journal of Leadership and Theology, 2. Retrieved from
  • Roof, R. A. (2015). The association of individual spirituality on employee engagement: The Spirit at work. Journal of Business Ethics, 130(3), 585-599. DOI 10.1007/s10551-014-2246-
  • Perry, A. (2015). Lift up the lowly and bring down the exalted: Gender studies, organizations, and the Ethiopian eunuch. Journal of Religious Studies 14(1), 45-66. and development. Journal of Practical Consulting, 5(2), 19-28.
  • Starbuck, C. R. (2015). An investigation of the relationship between follower perceptions of leader openness to experience and follower job satisfaction. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communication and Conflict, 19(1), 118-130.
  • Martin, R. (2015). Exploration of the research and development of the concept of followership since 2008: The importance of relationships and emotional intelligence. Sage Open, (October-December 2015: 1–9, DOI: 10.1177/2158244015608421)

Academic Presentations

  • Roof, R. A. (2015). Spiritual Self-Care: The Power of Spiritual Disciplines for Leadership Development. Workshop within the Leadership & Organizational Psychology track of The American Association of Christian Counselors’ (AACC) World Conference, Nashville, TN, September 2015.
  • Watley, B. (2015). A Theoretical Framework for Examining the Effects of Innovation Training. Presentation at the Autonomous Learning World Caucus, Oxford, England, March 2015.
  • Hernandez-Hernandez, C. N. A. (2015). Implementing ISO17025 in a research laboratory: A study case of episodic change. Conference: XII Coloquio Internacional de Cuerpos Académicos y Grupos de Investigación en Análisis Organizacional, At San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chis. México, Volume: XII
  • Hernandez-Hernandez, C. N. A. (2015). Ethical development for insurance sales agents: Insights from stewardship theory. Conference: XII Coloquio Internacional de Cuerpos Académicos y Grupos de Investigación en Análisis Organizacional, At San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chis. México, Volume: XII.
  • Malangwasira, T. E. (2015). The moderating effects of strategic thinking on the relationship between self-directed learning and leader effectiveness in small organizations. Presentations at the Autonomous Learning World Caucus: Autonomous Learning: Human Resource Development: Organizational Leadership: Education. Worfson College and Exeter College, University of Oxford, England. UK. March, 2015.

2014 January – December

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • Åkerlund, T. (2014). Leadership in Corinth: Reciprocity and leader-member exchange in 2 Corinthians 6:11-13. Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership, 6(1), 162–175.
  • Åkerlund, T. (2014). Preaching as Christian leadership: The story, the sermon, and the prophetic imagination. Journal of Religious Leadership, 13(1), 79–97.
  • Ling, S., Huizinga, R., Mayo, P., Larouche, R., Freitag, D., Aspeslet, L., & Foster, R. (2014). Cytochrome P450 3A and P-glycoprotein drug-drug interactions with voclosporin. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 77(6), 1039–1050.
  • Mayo, P., Ling, S., Huizinga, R., Freitag, D., Aspeslet, L., & Foster, R. (2014). Population PKPD of voclosporin in renal allograft patients. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 54(5), 537–545.
  • Toulassi, B. (2014). Understanding chaordic groups in Africa: Christian responses. International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship, 1(12), 188-213.
  • Toulassi, B. (2014). Does global leadership mean ‘no leadership’? International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship, 1(12), 340-351. Full Text PDF:
  • Ball, R. (2014). Christian leadership and the crippling effect of narcissism: A historical intertexture analysis of Judges 13-16. Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership 6(1), 16-26.
  • Roof, R. A. (2014). Authentic leadership questionnaire (ALQ) psychometrics. Asian Journal of Business Ethics, 3(1), 57-64. DOI 10.1007/s13520-013-0031-2

Academic Presentations

  • Huizinga, R. B. (2014). Courage to Act: A Study of Nehemiah’s Actions in Nehemiah 2: 4-9. In Regent University 9th Annual Biblical Perspectives in Leadership Roundtable.
  • Watley, B. (2014). Scale Development: Innovative Behavior Instrument. Presentation at the Autonomous Learning World Caucus, Oxford, England, March 2014.
  • Watley, B. (2014). Experiential Learning in Entrepreneurship Education. Presentation at the International Assembly of Collegiate Business Education (IACBE) National Conference, San Diego, CA, April 2014.
  • Starbuck, C. R. (2014). An Investigation of the Relationship between Follower Perceptions of Leader Openness to Experience and Follower Job Satisfaction. Allied Academics International Conference, Nashville, TN.
  • Fletcher, P. (2014). Ethical Leadership’s Influence on the Organizational Identity of Narcissism: A Socio-Rhetorical Analysis of 2 Chronicles 30:1-27. Presentation at Virtual Conference on Moral Leadership, Regent University, December 2014. Retrieved from

2013 January – December

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • Ling, S. Y., Huizinga, R. B., Mayo, P. R., Freitag, D. G., Aspeslet, L. J., & Foster, R. T. (2013). Pharmacokinetics of voclosporin in renal impairment and hepatic impairment. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 53(12), 1303–1312. doi:10.1002/jcph.166.
  • Malangwasira, T. E. (2013). Demographic differences between a leader and followers tend to inhibit leader-follower exchange levels and job satisfaction. Journal of organizational culture, communication and conflict, 17(2), 63-106.
  • Mayo, P. R., Huizinga, R. B., Ling, S. Y., Freitag, D. G., Aspeslet, L. J., & Foster, R. T. (2013). Voclosporin food effect and single oral ascending dose pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in healthy human subjects. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 53(8), 819–26. doi:10.1002/jcph.114.
  • Tonkin, T., (2013). God’s timeless change management plan: An exegetical view of Revelation 19. The American Journal of Biblical Theology, 14(02).
  • Tonkin, T., (2013, Winter). Authentic versus transformational leadership: Assessing their effectiveness on organizational citizenship behavior of followers. International Journal of Business and Public Administration, In-press.

Academic Presentations

  • Watley, B. (2013). The Effects of Innovation Training on Individual Innovative Behaviors. Presentation at the Autonomous Learning World Caucus, Oxford, England, March 2013.
  • Watley, B. (2013). Enlarging the World of Entrepreneurial Studies. Presentation at the International Assembly of Collegiate Business Education (IACBE) National Conference, Orlando, FL, April 2013.
  • Watley, B. (2013). Antecedents of Individual Innovative Behaviors. Presentation at the Conclave for Leadership Research and Analysis, Regent University.
  • Toulassi, B. (2013). Moral leadership: The morality of leadership. Regent University.
  • Roof, R. A. (2014). Decisions in Context: How Culture Shapes the Decision Process. Presentation [virtual] at the Thirteenth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, June 2013.
  • Malangwasira, T. E. (2013). Faith in Uncertain Times for Christian Leadership: A Social-rhetorical Analysis Based on Hebrews 11:23-29. Presentation at the 2013 Biblical Perspectives Roundtable, Regent University, May 2013.
  • Roof, R. A. (2013). Born or made? The influence of personality on leadership effectiveness. Presentation at the American Association of Christian Counselors (AACC) World Conference, Leadership Coaching and Organizational Psychology Track, September 2013.
  • Tuggle, M., (2013). Training in the workplace: A self-directed learning model. International Academy of Business and Public Administration Disciplines (IABPAD), 2013 Proceedings, Las Vegas, NV.
  • Tonkin, T., (2013). Assessing Innovation in the Boardroom:Evidence for a Dual Process Model of Creativity Judgement with the Context of Innovation. International Academy of Business and Public Administration Disciplines (IABPAD), 2013 Proceedings, Dallas, TX.
  • Tonkin, T., (2013). The Effects of Locus of Control and Gender on Implicit Leadership Perception. International Leadership Association (ILA) Women and Leadership Affinity Group Inaugural Conference, 2013 Conference Proceedings Pacific Grove, CA.

2012 January – December

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • Watley, B. (2012). Transformational power of divine empowerment: An intertexture analysis of Acts 2; (Published). Emerging Leadership Journeys (ELJ), 5(3), Spring 2012.
  • Huizing, R. L. (2012). Mentoring Together: A Literature Review of Group Mentoring. Mentoring and Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 20(1), 27-55.
  • Huizing, R. L. (2012). In Search of a Healthy Church: A Meta-Ethnographic Study. Great Commission Research Journal, 4(1), 43-59.
  • Caulton, J.R. (2012). The Development and Use of the Theory of ERG: A Literature Review. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 5(1).
  • Holloway, J. B. (2012). Leadership Behavior and Organizational Climate: An Empirical Study in a Non-Profit Organization, Emerging Leaders Journey, 5(1), 9-35.
  • Holloway, J. B. (2012). Jesus as Agent of Change and Guiding. The American Journal of Biblical Theology, 13(24).
  • David Hartley (Cohort 2007). Sun Tzu and Command Assessment: A Study on Commander’s Courage, The International Journal of Leadership Studies, 6, 2, 263-273.
  • Daniels, T. L. (2011). Decision Making in Afrocentric and Eurocentric Organizations, Journal of Black Studies, 43(3), 324-335.
  • Huizing, R. (2011). Bringing Christ to the table of leadership: Moving towards a theology of leadership. Journal of Applied Christian Leadership, 5(2), 58-75.
  • Gandolfi, F., Renz, L., Hansson, M., & Davenport, J. (2012). Post-downsizing implications and consequences: a global perspective. In C. Cooper, A. Pandey & J. Quick (Eds.), Downsizing: is less still more. (356-388). Cambridge University Press.
  • Metheny, G. (2012). Christian Stewardship. Gospel Advocate, 154(8), 34-35.

Academic Presentations

  • Toulassi, B. (2012). Educational Leadership: Educational Renaissance in Francophone Africa. Riverside University, California. GLOBAL Mindset Development In leadership and Management Conference. Proceedings, 3, p. 69.
  • Tonkin, T., O’Connell, P., & Cole, D. (2012). Bridging the Gap for Women Leaders: The Perfect Storm for Shattering The Glass Ceiling. International Leadership Association (ILA) Global Conference, Denver, CO
  • Lenz, K. (2012). Cultural impact of entrepreneurial influencing tactics between America and Ghana. United States Association of Small Business & Entrepreneurship. New Orleans.
  • Bryant, D. W. (2012). Exploring Approaches to Understanding the Spiritual/Religious Entrepreneur. Presentation at 2012 Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Boston, MA., August 2012.
  • Coggins, E., & Bocarnea, M. (2011). Testing Servant Leadership Theory with Cambodian Students. Presentation at the 2011 Annual Servant Leadership Roundtables, Regent University, May 2011.
  • Coggins, E. (2011). The Christian Virtues – Characteristics of Christian Followers. Presentation at the Journal of Biblical Perspectives of Leadership Roundtables, Regent University, May 2011.
  • Coggins, E. (2012). Contrasting Leadership Styles in Postexilic Judaism – A Comparative Analysis of Ezra 9:1-5 and Nehemiah 13:23-27. Presentation at the Journal of Biblical Perspectives of Leadership Roundtable, Regent University, May 2012.
  • Coggins, E. & Bocarnea, M. (2012). The Potential Impact of Servant Leadership on Followers’ Psychological Capital – A Literature Review and General Conceptual Framework. Presentation at the Servant Leadership Roundtable, Regent University, May 2012.
  • Coggins, E. & Bocarnea, M. (2012). Exploring the Relationship between Servant Leadership and Psychological Capital in Two Diverse Eastern and Western Cultures. Presentation at the 2nd Global Servant Leadership Research Roundtable, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, June 2012.
  • Holloway, J. B. (2012). Leadership Behavior and Organizational Climate: An Empirical Study in a Non-Profit Organization, presented at the 2nd Annual Mid-Atlantic Leadership Conference, Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA, March 2012.
  • Holloway, J. B. (2012). The Controversy Surrounding Emotional Intelligence, A Panel Discussion, presented at the 2nd Annual Mid-Atlantic Leadership Conference, Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA, March 2012.
  • Tonkin, T. (2011). Authentic versus Transformational Leadership: Assessing their Effectiveness on Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Followers. International Academy of Business and Public Administration Disciplines (IABPAD), 2012 Proceedings, Orlando, FL. Recipient of the International Academy of Business and Public Administration Disciplines (IABPAD) Research Award (2012) for the research study.
  • Bosch, D. A. (2011). Divine Empowered Leadership: An Intertextual Analysis of Acts 2. Presentation at the Biblical Perspectives in Leadership Roundtable, Regent University, May 13-15, 2011.
  • Bosch, D. A. (2012). The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Leader-Follower Work Value Congruence. Presentation at the Conclave for Leadership Research and Analysis, Regent University, May 11-13, 2012.
  • David Hartley (Cohort 2007). Scale Development and the Courage Intentions of the Adult Self-directed Leader, Northeastern Association of Business, Economics and Technology, October 2011.
  • David Hartley (Cohort 2007). Courage Intentions of the Adult Self-directed Leader, Autonomous Learning World Caucus, Oxford England, March 2010.
  • David Hartley (Cohort 2007). Components of Commanders Courage, Northeastern Association of Business, Economics and Technology, October, 2009.
  • Babyak, A. T. (2012). An Exploratory Investigation of Self-Directed Learning in Senegal, West Africa and its Implications for Human Resource Development. The Autonomous Learning World Caucus, University of Oxford, UK, March 12, 2012.
  • Babyak, A. T. (2012). An Unquenchable Thirst for Learning in the Desert: Senegal, West Africa. Conclave of Leadership Research and Analysis, Regent University, May 11, 2012.
  • Methany, G. (2012). The Critical and Creative Thinking Process with an HRD Perspective. The Autonomous Learning World Caucus, University of Oxford, UK, March 13, 2012.
  • Methany, G. (2012). Critical Thinking: An Empirical Examination? Presentation at the Conclave for Leadership Research and Analysis, Regent University, May 11-13, 2012.

2011 January – December

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • Rohm, R. (2011). Cross-Cultural Virtual Team Development and Motivation. International Leadership Journal.
  • Huizing, R. L. (2011). What was Paul thinking? An ideological study of 1 Timothy 2. Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership, 3(2), 14-22.
  • Sonny Mathew (Cohort 2007): “Leading Across Global Cultures through Servant Leadership.” Leadership Advance Online, XIX.
  • Winston, B., & Tucker, P. A. (2011). The Beatitudes as leadership virtues. Virtuous Journal, 2(1), Regent University, Virginia Beach, Virginia.
  • Ma, A. & Osula B. (2011). The Tao of complex adaptive systems (CAS). Chinese Management Studies, 5 (1), 94 – 110. doi: 10.1108/17506141111118480
  • Ma, A. (2010). The Effect of a Cross-Cultural Leadership Training Program on the Cultural Intelligence Score of Chinese Students, Global Studies Journal. 3(1), 213-232. Retrieved from :
  • Harrison, J.L. (2011). Female roles in leadership and the ideological texture of 1 Timothy 2: 9-15, Journal of Inner Resources for Leaders, 3(1), 1-9.
  • Harrison, J.L. (2011). Instructor leadership and student outcomes, Emerging Leadership Journeys, 4(1), 91-119.
  • Harrison, J.L. (2011). Moral global Leadership and the Seven Capital Sins: Pride vs. Humility, Annual Virtual Conference on Moral Leadership. Virginia Beach, VA: Regent University.
  • Tomlinson, J. C., & Winston, B. E. (2011). Romans 12 motivational gifts and college professors: Implications for job satisfaction and person-job fit. Christian Higher Education, 10, 45-56.
  • Huizing, R. L. (2011). The Effects of God Control on Cognitive Resource Theory. International Journal of the Academic Business World, 4(2), 55-65.
  • Huizing, R. L. (2011). The Seasons of Ecclesial Leadership: A New Pardigm. Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership, 3(1), 81-90.
  • Huizing, R. L. (2011). Leaders from Disciples: The Church’s Contribution to Leadership Development. Evangelical Review of Theology, 35(4), 333-344
  • Steven Crowther (Cohort 2008). Integral Biblical Leadership. Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership, volume 3 issue 2, pages 60-76, School of Global Leadership and Entrepreneurship Regent University, Summer 2011.

Academic Presentations

  • Rohm, F. W. (2010). 3M under James McNerney: A Case Study in Servant Leadership. 2010 CBFA Conference, October 2010.
  • Rohm, F. W. & Osula, B. (2010). Scouting and Servant Leadership. 2010 Annual Roundtables of Leadership Research and Practice, Regent University, May 2010.
  • Huizing, R. (2010). The Effects of God-control on Cognitive Resource Theory. Academic Business World International Conference & International Conference on Learning and Administration in Higher Education, 2010 Proceedings, [PGS], Nashville, TN. Received a Presentation Excellence Award and Best Paper Award.
  • Huizing, R. (2010). Mentoring together: A literature review of group mentoring. Northeastern Association of Business, Economics and Technology 33rd Annual Meeting, 2010 Proceedings, State College, PA.
  • Tucker, P. (2011, March). College Students with Learning Disabilities: The effects of Autonomous Learning Theories to Succeed: Presentation at the Autonomous Learners World Caucus Roundtable Discussion, OxfordUniversity, Oxford, England.
  • Tucker, P. (2011, April). Learner Autonomy and Human Resource Developers/Practitioners: St. Leo’s University Human Resource Management class. Dr. Kenneth Moss open forum discussion for graduates.
  • Tucker, P. (2010, May).The Beatitudes as leadership virtues: Presentation at the Servant Leadership Roundtable Forum, Regent University.
  • Tucker, P. (2010, March). A perspective on Self-Efficacious Autonomous Learners, SEAL-Team-8: Presentation at Autonomous Learners World Caucus Roundtable Discussion, Oxford, University, Oxford, England.
  • Steven Crowther (Cohort 2008). Measuring Two of the Fruits of the Spirit, Roundtable Presentation, Biblical Perspectives in Leadership Research, Regent University, May 2011
  • Steven Crowther (Cohort 2008). Humility and Leadership: Relevant Concepts from Benedict of Nursia, Conference Presentation, 2011 Virtual Conference on Moral Leadership: The Classic Virtues in Moral Leadership, Regent University, December 2011

2010 Roundtables of Leadership Research and Practice, Virginia Beach, VA

  • Mathew, Sonny (Cohort 2007). Peter’s Leadership Formation: A Biblical Proto-type for Leader Development. May 16, 2010, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA

First International Conference on the Integration of Spirituality & Organizational Leadership – February 8-10, 2007; University of Delhi, New Delhi, India:

  • Sonny Mathew (Cohort 2007). Spirituality at workplace: Changing management paradigm.”
  • Mathew, S., & Winston, B. E. (2007). Spirituality at workplace: Changing management paradigm. Integrating Spirituality and Organizational Leadership Conference, University of Delhi, India, February 8-10.

Book Chapters

  • Mathew, S., & Winston, B. E. (2007). A study of the role of spirituality in the practice of values at call centers in the U.S. and India: Contrasting the difference between dogmatic religiosity and personal spirituality to promoting universal core values in the workplace. In S. Singh-Sengupta and D. Fields (Eds.) Integrating spirituality and organizational leadership. India: Macmillian Press.

2010 January – December

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • Rohm, F. W. (2010). American and Arab Cultural Lenses. Inner Resources for Leaders.
  • Tucker, P. A. (2010, Winter). Christian Leadership and Prudence: Globally is there a connection? Journal of Biblical Perspectives on Leadership, 3(1). Regent University, Virginia Beach, Virginia.
  • Copeland, M. (2010). Benefits, Limitations and Best Practices of Online Coursework. . . Should Accounting Programs Jump on Board? American Accounting Association, 2010 Northeast Proceedings Publication.
  • Copeland, M. (2010). Marketing and Advertising for the CPA: Leading-Edge Strategies. The CPA Journal, Aug 2010.
  • Copeland, M. (2010). Values Based Leadership. In Gandolfi, F. (ed.) Leadership: Fundamentals, Concepts, and Perspectives, Koln, Germany: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. (accepted and forthcoming in Winter 2010).
  • Vondey, M. The relationships among servant leadership, organizational citizenship behavior, person-organization fit and organizational identification. International Journal of Leadership Studies, (2010). 6(1), 3-27.
  • Riesenmy, K. (cohort 2007). Physician sensemaking and readiness for electronic medicalrecords. The Learning Organization Journal, (2010) 17 (2) 163-177
  • Early, J. & Davenport, J. (Cohort 2008). Desired qualities of leaders within today’s accounting firm. CPA Journal, (2010) vol. 80:3, 59-62.
  • Copeland, M. (Cohort 2008). “Strategies for Developing Entrepreneurs: Nature or Nurture.” MBA Review, (2010). 9(4).
  • Davenport, J. (Cohort 2008). Portfolio diversification: where it goes wrong. Disclosures Journal, (2010) Vol. 23 (4), 18-21.
  • Steven Crowther (Cohort 2008). Implications of Integral Theory for Contemporary Leadership, Leadership Advance Online, volume XX, School of Global Leadership and Entrepreneurship Regent University, December 2010.

2009 January – December

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • Copeland, M. (Cohort 2008). “Marketing and Advertising for the CPA: Leading-Edge Strategies.” The CPA Journal, Aug 2010.
  • Copeland, M. (Cohort 2008). “HR Strategies in Seemingly Adverse Economic Times.” HR Review, (2009). 9(5), pp. 48-53.
  • Copeland, M. (Cohort 2008). “An Entrepreneurial Mindset: The Essential Component for a Competitive Edge.” MBA Review, (2009). 8(7), pp. 32-36.
  • Copeland, M. (Cohort 2008). “The Impact of Authentic, Ethical, Transformational Leadership on Leader Effectiveness.” Southern Management Association 2009 Proceedings Publication
  • Marshal, J. (Cohort 2009). Comparison of Pashtun and American Values: Origins and Effects. Joint Center for Operational Analysis Journal, (2009). 11 (3), 1-5.
  • Davenport, J. & Early, J. (Cohort 2008). The power-influence dynamics in a consultant/client relationship. Journal of Financial Service Professionals, (2010). 64 (1), 72-75.
  • Daniel Keebler (Cohort 2008). “Online Teaching Strategy: A position Paper” Journal of Online Learning and Teaching 5 (3) 546-549.
  • Daniel Keebler (Cohort 2008). “Metaphors Used As Imagery to Describe Organizations” International Leadership Journal February 2010 (in-press)
  • William Lamb (Cohort 2008). “Marketing in a Downturn: Leadership Strategies.” Effective Executive: The Icfai University Press, July 2009 (90), pp. 29-33. (with Dr. Paul Carr).
  • Daniel Keebler (Cohort 2008). “Baby Boomer Generational Impact on Human Resource Theory.” Human Resource Management.
  • Brian Carroll (Cohort 2008). “Making Decisions God’s Way.” National Men’s Ministries.
  • Mary Kay Copeland (Cohort 2008). “HR strategies in seemingly adverse economic times: Lead and change.” HRM Review, April 2009 issue (special edition).
  • Steven Crowther (Cohort 2008). “Organizational Learning and Organizational Leadership: Some Paramount Considerations for the Global CEO.” Global CEO, volume VIII (12), pp. 21-24. (with Dr. Paul Carr)
  • Matthew P. Earnhardt (Cohort 2007). “The successful expatriate leader in China.” Graziadio Business Report, 12(1).
  • Matthew P. Earnhardt (Cohort 2007). “Identifying the key factors in the effectiveness and failure of virtual teams.” Leadership Advance Online, XVI.
  • Andrew Ma (Cohort 2008). “Comparison of the origins of altruism as leadership value between Chinese and Christian cultures.” Leadership Advance Online, XVI.
  • Joy A. Jones (Cohort 2008). “Gender dissimilarity and leader-member exchange: The mediating effect of communication apprehension.” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 2(1).
  • William Lamb (Cohort 2008). “Danger ahead: Five road signs of abusive leadership.” MinistryToday, January/February 2009, p. 36.
  • William Lamb (Cohort 2008). “Power over pretense.” MinistryToday, March/April 2009,p. 22.
  • Thomas J. Norbutus (Cohort 2008). “Acts 2: The divine empowerment of leaders.” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 2(1).
  • Gregory Okaiwele (Cohort 2008). “John 21: An exegetical study of leadership within the Mediterranean context and the 21st century.” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 2(1).
  • Steven Pierce (Cohort 2008. “The impact of leaders: Economic crisis.” Having Church Ministries, March/April 2009,pp. 12-13 & 16.
  • Lisa M. Renz (Cohort 2008). Organizations as Culture and Psychic Prisons. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 2(1).
  • Dennis C. Rittle (Cohort 2006). “Talent management through leadership: Some profound considerations for the human resources practitioner.” In G. P. Sudhakar (Ed.), Global talent management: New perspectives. Hyderabad, India: Icfai University Press. (with Dr. Paul Carr)
  • Jake Stum (Cohort 2008). “Kirton’s adaption-innovation theory: Managing cognitive styles in times of diversity and change.” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 2(1).
  • Jon Tomlinson (Cohort 2004). “The Great Commission: Discipleship and followership.” Inner Resources for Leaders, 2(1).
  • Tucker, P. A., & Carr, P. B. (2009, October). Empowering women: Promoting women to leadership positions in global organizations. HRM Review 9(10). The ICFAI University Press.
  • Tucker, P. A., & Carr, P. B. (2009, November). Change management: A perspective on behaviors. Global CEO 9(11). The ICFAI University Press.
  • Tucker, P. A., & Carr, P. B. (2009, December). Developing emotional intelligence: An interpersonal process in leadership positions. MBA Review. The ICFAI University Press.

Academic Presentations

2010 Roundtables of Leadership Research and Practice, Virginia Beach, VA

  • Copeland, M. (2010). Benefits, Limitations and Best Practices of Online Coursework. . . Should Accounting Programs Jump on Board? May 19, 2010, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA
  • Vondey, Michelle (Cohort 2007). Leadership wisdom: A socio-rhetorical analysis of James 1:2-8 and 3:13-4:10. May 19, 2010, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA
  • Steven Crowther (Cohort 2008). Biblical Concepts of Leadership for the Contemporary Era. Roundtable Presentation, Biblical Perspectives in Leadership Research, Regent University, May 2009

Northeastern Association of Business Economics and Technology, 33rd Annual Meeting

  • John Bennett (Cohort 2010). “Global Business Ethics and Leadership: A Grounded Theory Approach” – October 19-20, 2010 State College, PA

21st Century Management Conference – Wilmington College

  • Porter, T., (Cohort 2007). “Are Confidence and Self-Efficacy Interchangeable: A Critical Literature Review” February 2010 Wilmington, OH

The 17th Annual Conference for the American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences

  • Davenport, J. (2009). “Leadership Style and Organizational Commitment: The Moderating Effect of Locus of Control” February 2010 Las Vegas, NV
  • Davenport, J. (2009). “The Disconnect between Portfolio Construction in the Financial Services Industry and the Principles of Modern Portfolio Theory” February 2010 Las Vegas, NV

Midwest Academy of Management 2009 Annual Conference – October 23-24, 2009; Chicago, IL

  • Michelle Vondey (Cohort 2007). “An aesthetic of imagination and creativity for leaders.”
  • Tracy Porter (Cohort 2007). “A New Leadership Perspective”

The 17th Annual National Conference for the Institute of Behavioral and Applied Management

  • Davenport, J. & Early, J. (2009). “Retirement Benefits and Organizational Commitment: The Employer/Employee Disconnect” October 2009 Washington, DC (Selected Best Paper of the Division)
  • Tracy Porter (Cohort 2007). “Positive Organizational Behavior in Human Resource Development: The Role of Confidence”

Fifteenth Annual National African-American Student Leadership Conference (NAASLC), January 16-17, 2009; Rust College, Holly Springs, MS:

  • Thomas Adams & Maurice Buford (Cohort 2007). “The Audacity of leadership: 21st century strategies to transform a nation.” (panelists)

Second International Conference on the Integration of Spirituality & Organizational Leadership – February 9-12, 2009; University of Delhi, Pondicherry, India:

  • Vivian Petties (Cohort 2007). Good governance: A Socio-rhetorical analysis applied to corporate responsibility.”

Liberty University Society of Human Resource Management Chapter Conference, February 26, 2009; Liberty University, Lynchburg, VA:

  • Robert Van Engen (Cohort 2007).Embracing a biblical worldview in human resource development for an improved global perspective.” (panelist)

Society of Industrial Organizational Psychology and Industrial/Organizational Organizational Behavior 30th Annual Conference, February 27 – March 1; Chicago, IL:

  • Kelly Riesenmy (Cohort 2007). “The moderating role of follower identification in the relationships between leader and follower visionary leadership”

Tobias Center’s 2009 Multi-Sector Leadership Forum – March 5-7, 2009; Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN:

  • Ronald Cook (Cohort 2007). “Authentic leadership: What does it look like? A brief examination of Lincoln’s leadership.”
  • Yolonda Sales (Cohort 2007). “Investigations into potential causes and solutions for female attrition in science and technology: The Role of leadership and organizational culture.”

Women and Spirituality Symposium – March 12 – 14, 2009; Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH:

  • Funmi Akinyele (Cohort 2008). “Understanding Yoruba and Latin American Women experiences in Christianity (The good, bad, and ugly).”
  • Tracy Porter (Cohort 2007). “Jesus as leader: A sacred texture analysis of Philippians 2: 5-11.”
  • Catherine Self (Cohort 2005). “Incarnational leadership as reflected in St. Clare’s third letter to Agnes: A sensory-aesthetic study.”

Alliant International University’s Student Leadership Conference, March 18, 2009; San Diego, CA:

  • Kathryn Adamson (Cohort 2007). “Leadership through a cultural lens.”

The Global Business Development 11th Annual Conference, March 22-25 2009; Las Vegas, NV:

  • Sharon Norris (Cohort 2007). “A grassroots emergent strategy of global human research development: Social network ties, relationship.”

Georgia Association of Special Programs Personal and South Carolina Council of Educational Opportunity Program Personnel’s 36th Annual Spring Training Conference, March 31 – April 3 2009; Savannah, Georgia:

  • Tonya F. Mack (Cohort 2007). “Spring forward… Providing access for student success.”

Virginia Community College System New Horizons Annual Conference, April 1-3, 2009; Roanoke, VA:

  • Kelly Gillerlain (Cohort 2007). “Successful online teaching strategies.” (panelist)

Second Annual Women in Leadership Forum, April 8, 2009; Atlantic Cape Community College, Mays Landing, NJ:

  • Joy A. Jones (Cohort 2008). “Leadership and gender stereotyping: Two faces of the double bind.”

Midwest Decision Sciences Institute Conference, April 16 – 18, 2009; Miami University, Oxford, OH:

  • Tracy Porter (Cohort 2007). “The global culture within Midwest banking: A case study of leadership competencies.”

Higher Ground Leadership Summit, April 24-25, 2009; Biola University, La Mirada, CA:

  • Richard S. Franklin (Cohort 2006). “Developing self-efficacy to enhance ministerial effectiveness: A spiritually-based approach.”
  • Richard S. Franklin (Cohort 2006). Directed and hosted the “Higher Ground Leadership Summit” academic symposium with students and faculty from Regent University, Biola University, Azusa Pacific University, and Fuller Seminary participating. HGLS is a scholarly forum dedicated to the study of integrating biblical faith, organizational studies, and leadership studies as well as to developing emergent scholars.

2008 September – December

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • Thomas Adams (Cohort 2007). “Impact of prayer on the relationship between supervisory support and employee’s perception of workplace equity.” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(2).
  • Waldo Best (Cohort 2007). “Grace from the U.S. Government: The moral hazard problem.” Regent Global Business Review: Global Business Brief, 2(3), p. 1.
  • Steven Crowther (Cohort 2008).”The spirit of service: Reexamining servant leadership in the Gospel of Mark.” Inner Resources for Leaders, 1(3).
  • Matthew P. Earnhardt (Cohort 2007). “Testing a servant leadership theory among United States military members.” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(2).
  • Loventrice Farrow (Cohort 2007). “The experiences of minority women leaders as mentees in U.S. organizations.” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(2)
  • Rick Franklin (Cohort 2006). “Developing next generation leaders: Christian universities answer the call.” Cover article in December 2008/January 2009 edition of Outcomes published by Christian Leadership Alliance.
  • Kelly Gillerlain (Cohort 2007). “Strategic blunders are not necessarily failures.” Effective Executive, 83-86. September 2008. (with Paul Carr).
  • Mark E. Hardgrove (Cohort 2006). “The Christ hymn as a song for leaders.” Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership, 2(1), pp. 19-31.
  • William Hunsaker (Cohort 2006). “Servant leadership: A cross-cultural biographic look at leaders as martyrs.” Korea Review of International Studies, 11(1), 51-68.
  • Laurie McCabe (Cohort 2005). “Jesus as agent of change: Transformational and authentic leadership in John 21.” Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership, 2(1), pp. 32-43.
  • Kirk Mensch (Cohort 2004). “Military leader development and autonomous learning: Responding to the growing complexity of warfare.” Human Resources Development Quarterly, 19(3). (with Tim Rahschulte, 2008 Ph.D. alumnus)
  • R. Bruce Moore (Cohort 2005). “Business values affect a business’s priorities.” Idaho Business Review, 29(43), p. 3F; September 15, 2008, focus guest column.
  • Sharon E. Norris (Cohort 2007). “An examination of self-leadership.” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(2).
  • Kelly Rouse Riesenmy (Cohort 2007).
    • “The moderating role of follower identification in the relationship between leader andfollower visionary leadership.” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(2).
    • “Mergers and acquisitions: Some paramount concerns for the human resourcedevelopment practitioner.” HRM Review, 14-19. (with Paul Carr)
  • Dennis C. Rittle (Cohort 2006).
    • “Streamlining rich media communications in a non-profit organization: Makingmeetings meaningful.” Journal of Business and Leadership: Research, Practice, &

      Teaching, 4(1).

    • “Talent management or
    • leadership: Some profound considerations for the humanresources practitioner.” HRM Review, 8(10). (with Paul Carr)
    • “Foremost considerations for effective leadership within diversified top managementteams.” Global CEO Journal, 8(5), pp. 29-33. (with Paul Carr)
  • Jon Tomlinson (Cohort 2004). “Of chaos theory and universal coverage.”
  • Bud West (Cohort 2007). “An overview of asynchronous online learning.” In M. Khosrow-Pour (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology (2nd ed.), Volume VI, pp. 2948-2952. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. (with Mihai Bocarnea)

Academic Presentations

4th Annual Business and Leadership Symposium – September 29-30, 2008; Fort Hays State University, KS

  • Dennis C. Rittle (Cohort 2006). “Streamlining rich media communications in a non-profit organization: Making meetings meaningful.”

Midwest Academy of Management 2008 Annual Conference – October 2-4, 2008; St. Louis, MO

  • Valerie Arguello (Cohort 2007), Waldo Best (Cohort 2007), and Loventrice Farrow (Cohort 2007). “Informal communications in organizations: The grapevine.”
  • Michelle Vondey (Cohort 2007). “Effect of follower self-concept and self-determination on organizational citizenship behavior from a servant leadership context.”
  • Ronald Cook (Cohort 2007). “Implications of social constructivism for leaders.”

Southern Management Association 2008 Meeting, Doctoral Student Consortium – October 29-November 1, 2008; St. Pete Beach, FL

  • Roger Givens (Cohort 2007) received a $500 stipend from the SMA to attend the Annual Doctoral Consortium.

Northeastern Association of Business Economics and Technology, 31st Annual Meeting – October 30-31, 2008; State College, PA

  • Tracy Porter (Cohort 2007). “An exploration of the relationship between motivation and the intention to stay in a higher education program.”
  • David Hartley (Cohort 2007). “Closing the loop: Assurance of learning and organizational learning in business education.”

Christian Business Faculty Association, November 6-9, Indianapolis, IN

  • Jeff Hale (Cohort 2003).
    • “A philosophical inquiry into the meaning of leading organizations in chaotic timesthrough an application of Ricoeur’s interpretation theory to John’s apocalypse.” (first

      chapter of his dissertation selected for presentation in CBFA’s Dissertation


    • “Virtual teaching through asynchronous dialog: A self-evaluated experience.”

American College Unions International (ACUI) – November 7-9, 2008; Springfield, MO

  • Alina Lehnert (Cohort 2005). “Maximizing strengths based development for your staff, students and yourself.”

International Leadership Association Conference – November 12-15, 2008; Los Angeles, CA

  • Jay Gary (Cohort 2004). “Assessing Wilber’s model of integral leadership.”
  • Alina Lehnert (Cohort 2005). “Facilitating leadership: A discussion of effective educational tools and tactics that develop 21st century leaders.”
  • Melissa McDermott (Cohort 2004). “Culture and leadership in transition: Comparing perceptions of cultural values, cultural practices, and leadership preferences across generations.”
  • Jan Spencer (Cohort 2006). “Spiritual leadership and St. Francis: Integrating ancient insights with contemporary practice for greater productivity.”

2008 May – August

Academic & Popular Press Publications

  • G. R. Bud West (Cohort 2007). “An alternative method to investigate organizational effectiveness: An adaptation and expansion of Robert Terry’s model,” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(1).
  • John P. Smith, II (Cohort 2007). “Acts 2: spirit-empowered leadership,” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(1).
  • Michael Patrick (Cohort 2004). “The leadership aesthetics of Saint Francis of Assisi,” Inner Resources for Leaders, 1(2).
  • Kelly Riesenmy (Cohort 2007). “Mergers and acquisitions,” HRM Review, August 2008. (with Paul Carr)
  • Michelle Vondey (Cohort 2007). “Follower-focused leadership: Effect of follower self-concepts and self-determination on organizational citizenship behavior,” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(1).
  • Robert B. Van Engen (Cohort 2007). “Metaphor: A multifaceted literary device used by Morgan and Weick to describe organizations,” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(1).
  • Roger J. Givens (Cohort 2007). “Transformational leadership: The impact on organizational and personal outcomes,” Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(1).

Academic Presentations

Annual Roundtables of Contemporary Research & Practice – May 16-17, 2008, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA

  • Catherine Self (Cohort 2005).
    • “Incarnational leadership as reflected in St. Clare’s third letter to Agnes: A sensory-aesthetic study.”
    • “The leadership of Jesus: A literature review and research proposal.”
  • David Wright (Cohort 2005). “The leadership of Jesus in the succession process of the disciples: A dual focus of servanthood in small groups.”
  • Dennis Rittle (Cohort 2006). “Managing the conflict from within: A spiritual model.”
  • G. R. Bud West (Cohort 2004).
    • “Servant leadership and organizational outcomes: Relationships in United States andFilipino higher educational settings.” (with Mihai Bocarnea)
    • “Implications for leadership in the evaluation of Scripture: An ideological review ofMatthew 8:5-13.”
  • Jan Spencer (Cohort 2006). “Peter: A phenomenology of leadership.”
  • Jane Waddell (Cohort 2005). “Is emotional intelligence related to servant leadership attribution?”
  • Jody Hirschy (Cohort 2007). “Servant leadership: A case study of Jamaica Link Ministries.”
  • Joel Baldomir (Cohort 2007). “Servant leadership as a model for unifying first and second generation Chinese American churches.”
  • Louis Morgan (Cohort 2005).
    • “Beyond serving others: Continual self-sacrifice as normative Christianity.”
    • “The admonitions of St. Francis: Implications for servant and transformationalleaders.”
  • Matthew Earnhardt (Cohort 2007). “Testing a servant leadership theory among United States military members.”
  • Randy Poon (Cohort 2006). “Emotional intelligence and engagement – Exploring definitions and the relationship between the constructs.”
  • Vivian Petties (Cohort 2007). “A biblical perspective on women in leadership: A fresh look at I Timothy 2:8-15.”
  • William Hunsaker (Cohort 2006). “Spiritual leadership in a South Korea cultural context.”

First Global Servant Leadership Research Roundtable – July 9-11 2008, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

  • G. R. Bud West (Cohort 2004). “Servant leadership constructs as antecedents of organizational commitment and job satisfaction in the Philippines.” (with Mihai Bocarnea and Dioscoro P. Marañon)

Eighth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organisations – 5-8 August, 2008, Cambridge University, Cambridge, United Kingdom

  • Jan Spencer (Cohort 2006). “Knowledge, culture, service, and “The next”: An excursion forward into neo-organizational structures.”

2016 Doctoral Projects – Doctor of Strategic Leadership Program

The final requirement for School of Business & Leadership Doctor of Strategic Leadership (DSL) students is the DSL Project. Doctoral students develop and conduct innovative research projects that enhance the field of leadership one project at a time.


The New Rules of Teaming in a Global Economy

David Mack Arrington Sr. | 2016


In the last decade globalization has changed the rules regarding how organizations conduct business. With the introduction of ubiquitous high-speed internet access, the availability of less expensive workforces, and advances in communications technologies virtual teams have become more commonplace. Leading virtual teams poses new and different challenges than leading co-located teams such as working across multiple time zones, trust-building, cultivating connectedness, and effective communication. In many cases, virtual teams have become global virtual teams. Global virtual teams present a number of challenges above and beyond virtual teams such as navigating cultural differences, understanding differing worldviews, traversing language barriers, and cross-cultural communication to name a few. While there are many overlapping competencies, leading in a global context differs from domestic leadership and it has been argued that there is a shortage of globally aware leaders. Global leaders require additional competencies to effectively lead in a geographically dispersed and culturally diverse work environment. Global leaders will need to understand the value and challenges of diversity, the role culture plays in influencing leadership styles, and how to manage conflict in a global virtual setting. This project explores the new rules of teaming in a global economy and the competencies global leaders will need to work effectively in a rapidly shifting, global virtual work environment. This project was presented in seminar format to a group of nine that consisted of managers, non-managers, and students. A pre-assessment and a post-assessment was conducted and feedback was received using Likert scales and open-ended questions. The post-assessment feedback established that the impact of globalization, the elements of heightened diversity-awareness and self-awareness, and conflict resolution were the some of the most stimulating topics presented.


Coaching Adolescents – Developing Good Followers Today to Build Effective Servant Leaders Tomorrow

Robin N. Beauregard | 2016


Leadership is a hot topic. There are books, articles, and seminars geared toward effective leadership, but unfortunately, there is far less on effective followership. Leaders must be built, and to be a truly effective leader a person has to first be a mature follower. Successful leaders have a servant heart, so in order to build future Servant Leaders, we must start with our young people. Teaching adolescents how to build their values and beliefs on a Biblical foundation will prepare them by building the followership skills necessary to develop into leadership skills later in life. This workbook, written for adolescents to work through with an adult coach, presents seven lessons, each containing a core trait and three related competencies. Adolescents will learn not only follower skills, but how to base everything they do on God’s Word. Further thought and discussion is provided through powerful journal questions and relevant homework and activities. Adolescents are developmentally at a point where cognitively and emotionally they are ready to establish their character traits, values, and goals. This workbook will help them base their development on God’s Word in a fun, interactive, but serious way, and provides coaches with relevant and thought-provoking materials to share with adolescents. Adolescents are inundated by worldly influences, so teaching them Biblical character traits, the importance of putting God first in their lives, effective communication skills, dealing with diversity, developing a future-oriented viewpoint, making positive decisions, and doing what’s right no matter what others are doing will prepare them for life, and whatever leadership or follower role God calls them for.


F.A.C.T.S.© – Future ACTS: 10 Leadership Development Workshops to Promote Learning and Change

Kathleen Cabler | 2016


Future ACTS Leadership Workshops is a collection of 10 ready-to-use workshops that will engage participates, accelerate learning, and promote change. These ten training designs have been selected as the ‘core’ information necessary for seasoned and new leaders. Not only do they represent the ‘best practices’ of active training programs, but also include relevant topics in the current world of training and development.

Future ACTS Workshops provide customizable material for either one-day, two-day or half-day designs. Sufficient information is included for the trainer/facilitator to understand the objectives, key points, and instructions for each activity. At the end of each workshop are reproducible handouts for the participants. Additionally, a power point presentation is designed to accompany each workshop.

Although each workshop is a unique active learning experience, it is also ideal as a complete interpersonal skills and business acumen Leadership Development Curriculum package.


Turning Point: From Subject Matter Expert to Leader

Joed I. Carbonell-Lopez | 2016


As one transitions from a program manager, subject matter expert, or team member to a leadership position, their priorities must shift. Their priorities can no longer be projects or tasks and their focus can no longer be themselves. People become the focus and priority. Turning point is a workshop curriculum created to equip transitioning subject matter experts with the tools needed success in the new role of leader. It equips new leaders with the ability to relate with others and the ability to communicate, influence, and mentor others. It teaches the true meaning of leadership and prepares new leaders to lead authentically through the understanding of borders and culture. It uncovers the power of overcoming borders and leveraging individuals’ strengths within an organization. Additionally, it teaches the art of communication and how to utilize it to influence others. It prepares new leaders to define success, provide a vision, and shape organizational culture in order to posture it for success. It explores strategic foresight in order to create an organization’s future, because, as a leader, an organization’s future is in the hands of its leader. One can either create it or let it happen. Turning point enables new leaders to create it and provide the blueprint for doing so. Ultimately, Turning Point is about preparing new leaders for the leadership journey they are about to embark on. As such, the workshop ends with a look in the mirror. Individuals will analyze their strengths, their weaknesses, and their opportunities for improvement. The workshop ends with personal leadership development plan for new leaders to leverage throughout their leadership journey.


Reignite: The Formation of the Strategic Plan for Agape Family Worship Center, Rahway, NJ

Juanita Jones Daly | 2016


The purpose of this project is to apply the SOAR (strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results) framework and the 6-I Strengths-focused Innovation Approach (initiate, inquire, imagine, invent, implement, and improve) to a church operation to formulate its strategic plan. The plan extracts five strategic drivers influenced by the church’s five stated goals. Aspects of leadership including followers, communication, culture, and analytics will be considered. Relevant organizational strategy, design thinking, venture development, change management, organizational learning and human resource development will also be presented. This project explore how churches can strategically, creatively and innovatively approach fulfilling The Great Commission regionally, locally, nationally and globally and how it can serve as a resource to burgeoning churches, para-churches, and Christian organizations.



Jason Graber | 2016


We are living in an era where opportunities for business growth and innovation are unparalleled to any moment in history, yet productivity and long-term viability are at an all-time low. Today, operational costs are much cheaper due to the advancement of technology and globalization, allowing businesses greater access to resources and opportunities. At VISTA CO., we coach and develop business leaders to acquire the necessary skills, mindset, and knowledge to take advantage and engage with global business opportunities.

VISTA CO. is a purpose-driven global strategic advisory and consulting firm that focuses on mid-market companies, while taking a socially responsible approach in giving back 50% of profits to the business community by providing investments for startups and small businesses who can’t traditionally afford consulting and professional services. We make it a priority to build global bridges and apply our innovative resources built on a strong training program and coaching system to deliver amazing outcomes. Our strength lies in the diverse network of consultants and professionals we have built, allowing us access and insights to vast markets and industries.

VISTA CO. is focused on building meaningful and innovative companies that are positioned to achieve long-term results. We have created a hybrid model, that not only focuses on solving our clients’ current problems, but guarantees a legacy to pass on. Our cohort methodology fosters and facilitates continuous learning experiences, entrepreneurship, and knowledge sharing between our global partners and industries. VISTA CO.’s consultants are relentlessly positive, determined to hold our clients accountable, and won’t stop doing what we can until our clients succeed.

What makes VISTA CO. unique is the full-service consulting approach that uses technology based analytics to develop, deliver and capture the essentials that matter the most. Change is hard, but when implemented and engrained as part of the business model, it becomes the life-line of success. Leaders today must realize that if they don’t continuously disrupt, they will be disrupted. At VISTA CO., we coach, mentor, and roll up our sleeves to ensure amazing outcomes. Along with our training and cohort programs, we connect our clients to the real world where together we interact and work side-by-side with other global business leaders.


Youth Leadership Coaching Matters: Developing At-Risk Youth: The Introduction of the Herbin Youth Leadership Coaching Concept (HYLC2)

Serelda Herbin | 2016


Normal–what does normal look like to an at-risk child in an underserved community? Normal. When one’s normal standards of life fall below the acceptable societal level, crime is created, unwed mothers are multiplied, and success in life is substandard or never achieved. Further, goals and dreams of at-risk youth in these environments are negatively altered (Walsh D., 2008). Luckily, for the little girl who set the tone of this paper, she did not take any of those routes and ended up with a much more successful life, which brings me to the purpose of this paper. This paper uncovers at-risk youth, what makes them at-risk, ways to help at-risk youth, ways to groom and develop at-risk youth into leaders, and how the concept of coaching at-risk youth can lend to their development. Secondly, this paper introduces a coaching concept, my brainchild developed through research, experience, and findings, known as the Herbin Youth Leadership Coaching Concept (HYLC2). I have created this concept specifically to target at-risk youth in order for them to better understand who they are, where they are in life, where they are going, and effective ways to get there. The HYLC2 is based on the rationale that underserved youth are not receiving that dedicated time needed to be developed as upstanding citizens. It is designed to stand in the gap of those children who need just a little more tender loving care and motivation to excel. Studies have shown that exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods has a much greater negative impact on the chances a child will graduate from high school than earlier research has suggested (Fowler, 2011). What does all of this have to do with the leadership training? It has much to do with this training concept because if the family life is not stable, with positive leadership within the family unit itself, those who are a part of the family unit will not be stable; the motivation to succeed will be limited or even non-existent.


The Inverted Donut, the Lattice, and the Starfish: Designing the Organizational Architecture for All

Peifeng Mary Tzen Ho | 2016


All Nations Family—also known as All Nations—is a mission organization that exists to start church planting movements among the least reached peoples of the world, as part of the global church endeavor to finish the Great Commission in this generation. All Nations currently has two sending hubs which have workers church-planting in 34 countries. To be part of finishing the Great Commission in this generation, All Nations believes that it must train and send more local and near-cultural workers, not just Western cross-cultural workers. Therefore, All Nations aims to multiply 40 sending hubs and church planting communities in strategic cities and locations around the world to mobilize more local and near-cultural workers to ignite church planting movements over the next ten years.

This paper seeks to design a global organizational architecture for multiplying hubs and church movements. To do so, this paper has: 1) analyzed the existing literature on organizational structure, global networks, lattices, federations, and loosely-coupled structures; 2) revisited the historical structures that propelled mission and church planting movements in the previous centuries, and 3) interviewed ten mission organizations and churches that are focused on multiplying hubs and catalyzing church movements. This paper concludes that All Nations—as a global mission organization focused on multiplication—require the scalable configurations of a federal “inverted donut” structure, a lattice structure, and a “starfish” network structure.


Disruptive Leadership: Apple and the Technology of Caring Deeply – Nine Keys to Organizational Excellence and Global Impact

Richard Kao | 2016


Disruptive leadership is a topic generating intense interest. Companies all over the world are trying to upend their industry through innovative products or services. Becoming a disruptive organization however, is easier said than done. Even more difficult is being a company that continually disrupts. Is it possible to discern a code for how companies can achieve this? In this book, a disruptive leadership framework is proposed in which caring deeply is placed at the center of the model. By turning care into a focal point, a triphasic model is proposed that moves from the personal realm (individual), to the corporate arena (organizational), and then to the global stage (impact). Nine keys are identified along this path for how companies can realize organization excellence. While care may seem like a soft concept in the rough and tumble world of business, it is argued how it is actually an inspired manner for providing direction, structure, and know-how that leads to powerful outcomes. Apple is profiled as a leading example of leveraging what is termed the technology of caring deeply. Other companies, such as Nike, IKEA, Zappos, Starbucks are also profiled. Finally, a leadership canvas is provided to help activate the lessons shared in the book.


Leading Strategic Change: The Application of Strategic Influence

Timothy S. McWilliams | 2016


Today’s rapidly changing, hypercompetitive, and increasingly globalized strategic environment is filled with competing ideas and interests that divide people, lead to conflict, and create significant challenges for nations and organizations alike. These competing ideas not only create obstacles to success in the external environment, but also create dissention and division within. Amid this environment, governments and organizations often expend considerable resources attempting to shape public opinion, cultivate support across diverse audiences, or influence the thinking or behaviors of others. Unfortunately, many of these efforts miss their mark because their strategic communication efforts lack holistic, long-term direction, credibility, or even power. There are number of reasons for this, but they essentially come down to the failure of strategic leaders to: (1) understand the complex dynamics that exists within the arena of ideas that is part of today’s strategic environment; (2) demonstrate leadership; and (3) communicate strategically.

This book is about the effective application of strategic influence to create strategic change—both in the external strategic environment and internally in the form of organizational culture and climate change. Strategic influence is the ability to influence the attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors of multiple differing audiences in the strategic environment simultaneously to achieve long-term strategic goals. It is the product of effective strategic leadership rooted in legitimate power and authority, and is manifested in both strategic actions that focus on strategy implementation and strategic communication that focuses on conveying specific messages to different target audiences. This book is unique because it not only explains the symbiotic relationship between strategic leadership and strategic communication required to produce effective influence, but also demonstrates how to leverage this symbiotic relationship to affect strategic change to address an important issue in every organization or institution—ethical change.


Exploring the Electronic Health Record, Interoperability and Patient Engagement: The App Solution

Stephanie Morish | 2016


The healthcare industry in the United States is considered broken based upon published reports which rank the United States healthcare system last compared to other industrialized nations (Commonwealth Fund, 2014). The ranking of 8th (The Commonwealth Fund) has government agencies (The Department of Health and Human Services, through the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services-CMS) and healthcare organizations scrambling to address cost, decrease waste and utilization while remaining viable entities in their communities. The facts state 31% of primary care physician’s (PCP’s) in the U.S are able to receive routine notifications electronically of a patient encounter in the hospital setting, although the use of electronic health records has increased from 10% in 2012 to 69% in 2015 (Health IT Dashboard).

The issues around the lack of effective communication are rooted in understanding the internal and external culture and subcultures that inhibits organizational goals in healthcare institutions nationally. The American Hospital Association reports approximately, “100,000 people die annually in hospitals from medical errors—and 1 out of every 370 people admitted to a hospital dies due to medical errors”. These numbers also state that hospitals are becoming very dangerous environments, where there is vulnerability and the absence of detail (Houle and Fleece, 2012).

A major contributing factor associated with the aforementioned statistics is receiving medical histories and relevant facts with the details that are buried in electronic folders within the electronic health records (EHR). Most EHR’s inhibit the ability to make effective care decisions timely, and in the case of the transient patient—the correct past medical history is absent and therefore inhibits proper care management. The U.S. is respected internationally for initiating the best trauma services, but weak providing concurrent care (continued care post trauma care) contributing to low quality scores. Within the healthcare arena, emergent care is supported in most cases by an assigned hospitalist physician whose potential practice patterns are absent of co-management by the PCP (who has the best knowledge of the hospitalized patient). Another factor is increasing hospital length of stay (LOS) with physicians waiting on pertinent health details that could impact the treatment plan and prevent hospital-borne (nosocomial) infections and sentinel (adverse) events that contribute to readmissions.


The Impact of Globalization, Culture and Ethics on the Leadership Development Process in the Global Consulting Industry of the Sub-Saharan Africa Culture

Taiwo Ojo | 2016


This study examines the important role, globalization, values, and ethics played on the entire leadership development process in the global consulting industry of the Sub-Saharan Africa culture. The concept of organizational strategy and design, values, culture and ethics, strategic and global leadership, and other human sides of leadership development shall be critically examined. However, the resultant effect of globalization coupled with the dominant force of culture especially in the context of the Sub-Saharan Africa culture and how they affect the global consulting industry both in a profit (commercial business) and non-profit based entities with further recommendations for any future research are made. Furthermore, the two basic consulting tools that could bring about a positive improvement on the organization’s effectiveness and change the entire consulting landscape in this cultural cluster shall be deployed by the researcher. The consulting interventions are Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) and Strategic Team Review Action Tool (STRAT) which shall be administered in the two nations of Nigeria and Ghana, where relevant data are to be collected and collated using questionnaires and surveys to support this research and consulting reports shall be prepared. Lastly, the values and visions of a global consultant that want to operate effectively within the Sub-Saharan Africa culture are listed and explanations about the heart of the matter where some biblical perspectives are given.


Three Cords of Apostolic Leadership

Amy Olson | 2016


Inspire and challenge your ministry leaders and significantly improve the impact of your church administration with this thorough study of leadership and organizational development. This resource presents a realistic approach to help you build a team with powerful direction.

The Three Cords of Apostolic Leadership addresses three central aspects of church leadership:


  • The spiritual disciplines upon which apostolic leadership is built;
  • Leadership practices, with in-depth models of servant leadership and transformational leadership; and
  • Innovation, outreach, and team-building practices to improve the community aspect of your church.


Whether you’re new to church leadership or you’re looking to improve a long-standing institution, you will gain clarity in how to empower every aspect of your church. From its spiritual core to the outer community, your church will grow from the inside out.


Wielding the SWORD of Leadership: Using the Paladin Approach© to Leadership Development

Thom Owens | 2016


This course curriculum is an answer to a perceived gap in Christian leadership in business and is the culmination of three years of work at refining my knowledge, skills, and attitudes of what it means to be a Christian leader on a course to change the world. This curriculum, the leadership model it is based on, and the leadership development journey it represents, encapsulates that refinement and allows me to fulfill my purpose. Designed to develop Christian leaders, at all levels, to embrace their own unique purpose, this approach seeks to imbue the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of a spiritual warrior using a biblically-based leadership model known as the Paladin Approach© Leadership Model.

Knowing that God has a purpose for each of His children that include plans to prosper us and not harm us but to give us a hope and a future (Jeremiah 29:11) is not enough. We must develop the life infrastructure to carry the weight (responsibility) of that God-sized dream before we can take part in that plan. Between the God-sized dreams, the center of which is our purpose, and the solid foundation of Christ, lies the main beam of our character that keeps the support pillars of the structure, stewardship, worship, ownership, relationship and discipleship, in contact with the foundation of our lives – Jesus.

Using the Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluate (ADDIE) Model, this seven-module course was created to highlight the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed in those critical areas by students of the course. The final output for this project is the course curriculum for “Wielding the SWORD of Leadership” complete with a program of instruction, courseware including slides, instructor notes and evaluation sheets, and a student workbook. Students who complete this course are better able to embrace their role as Paladins – warriors for Christ and engage in the spiritual battle to develop as a leader as they fulfill their purpose through the integration of their faith in business.


The Transformer in You

Lawrence Powell | 2016


Leadership may involve many things, but it is primarily about influence. The power of influence is the standard of leadership in leading others toward achieving shared goals and turning visions into living realities. Leaders are not lone soldiers. They function in partnership with followers to make change happen. In the absence of capable followers, leaders are ineffective and destined to fail in their attempts to realize transformation. Today’s societal issues are complex and many. Even so, there is really nothing new under the sun. Since the rise of humanity history’s pages reveal that there has always been scores of problems to solve, hurdles to overcome and crises to manage. Repeatedly without exception, extraordinary men and women have risen to the occasion as leaders and faced each dilemma head on to initiate and implement significant change with favorable outcomes. Change is an inevitable part of life. Things change every day and all the time. Change may be welcomed or it may be resisted, but change will always occur in life and business. Exceptional leaders understand this well. These individuals are notably proactive rather than reactive. They anticipate change and respond accordingly leading the way to creating a preferred future. Inside every leader is the potential to conceive and create positive change. Often this capacity is overt, common among certain leaders and in constant display. However, sometimes its covert and simply needs to be stirred a bit to get the leader’s creative juices flowing. Whatever the case, there’s always room for improvement in every leader regardless of competence and experience. This manuscript is about the power of leadership to affect change in society, organizations and groups of every kind. It presents practical and critical insights for leaders who earnestly desire to improve their leadership skills and capacity. Some argue that individuals are born leaders. Others contend leaders are developed. Actually, it is correct to say prospective leaders are “born to be made” leaders. Hence, with this view in mind, this book is fundamentally about leader and leadership transformation.


Coca-Cola, IBM, The Red Cross and The Salvation Army: Similarities and Dissimilarities in Risk Management Between For-profit and Non-profit International Organizations

James Martyn Rickard | 2016


Risk management styles and techniques vary from organization to organization and this manuscript will briefly touch upon differing techniques used by four major companies both non-profit and for-profit. The research criteria for this project consists of viewing four diverse organizations that have successfully been in existence for over one hundred years. Each organization is wide-ranging and international in scope in providing products and services to people without regard to their country of origin or their culture. Each company will be viewed from its historical basis, with the risk section of each company viewed in its relationship with other standard functional departments and how risk relates to each, as a total organizational body. The Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s) or Metrics will also be reviewed along with the presence and strength of any Succession Planning and Management programs within each organization. Also within this manuscript will be a definition and comparison of Risk Management versus Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) and the benefits and differences of each method. Each view of the various risk departments will follow the same format for ease of comparison during review and for further research.


The Latino Initiative: A Ten Year Forecast of U.S. Hispanics in Higher Education

Peter Rios | 2016


This report is a three part documentation for a Latino Initiative at Indiana Wesleyan University, College of Adult & Professional Studies. Part one of the series forecasts the future of Latinos in the U.S. out to 2025, the second on higher education concentrating on Christian higher education, and the third delivers recommendations. The goal of this report was to analyze demographic trends, economic uncertainties, and possible paradigm shifts within the Latino community and higher education, report findings for strategic partnerships with the Latino community, and propose a strategic plan for the College of Adult & Professional Studies on how to recruit, retain, and best serve Latino students. Unique to this report are the scenarios presented throughout, so the reader can get a glimpse of what can be, in the midst of uncertainty in society. Strategic foresight is applied as a key element to maximize the opportunity to think outside the box for innovative education towards the U.S. Latino community.


Full-orbed Leadership: The Five Phases of Church Leadership

Marcus Streater | 2016


Welcome to Full-orbed Leadership: The Five Phases of Church Leadership! Throughout this series of courses, you will discover a Christ-centered leadership approach which encompasses a holistic range of spiritual and practical disciplines. Full-orbed Leadership offers several contemporary leadership paradigms through a biblical worldview and is intended, but not limited, to supporting sustained Christian discipleship and church organizational development. To illustrate the progressive path toward becoming a full-orbed leader, I utilize the moon as an analogous symbol throughout the curriculum. Conveniently, the moon offers its illumination in phases, and I believe that contemporary church leaders can illuminate the lives of others in an ever-increasing way. This curriculum will be delivered in five courses (or Phases). Throughout these courses, I will highlight eight distinct leadership competencies and demonstrate how they coalesce into the Five Phases of Church Leadership. First, in the New Phase, we will explore how leaders learn to perceive and understand themselves and their potential influence through authentic leadership. In the Crescent Phase, we will examine how leaders learn to scan, envision, and innovate by applying strategic and anticipatory leadership skills. Next, in the Quarter Phase, ethical and transformational leadership provide the means through which leaders learn to value and transform their followers. In the Gibbous Phase, we engage servant leadership, which offers leaders the opportunity to enrich and serve their followers in highly impactful ways. Finally, in the Full-orbed Phase, allied and global leadership are added to the rest as leaders learn to collaborate, adapt, and reach beyond geographic and cultural boundaries. Altogether, these Five Phases will demonstrate how applying Full-orbed Leadership can enhance the growth and development of the leader and those who are being led.


The Right-Fit Leadership Coaching: Leveraging Western and Eastern Principles and Practices for Success

Sim Cheok (Janice) Tan | 2016


This manuscript seeks to answer the question: “What is the ‘right-fit’ for leadership coaching practice to support Malaysian leaders to develop their leadership talents and behavior?” The primary intention of this manuscript is to introduce the Right-Fit Leadership Coaching Model, a balanced leadership coaching practice, using the Western way of explaining leadership coaching but utilizing Malaysia’s cultural values and within the local cultural context. Right-Fit leadership coaching has to be culture-specific. The Right-Fit leadership style coaching harmonizes the Malaysian culture with the most effective Western coaching theories and practices to elevate leadership practices in Malaysia. The Right-Fit Leadership Coaching Model has two parts, the leaders’ transformational component, and the coaching component. Firstly, the leaders’ transformational component consists of honoring values, principles of change, learning, and leading, leadership competencies, and the transformational leadership style. Secondly, the coaching component includes coaching skills – active listening, questioning, and feedback, and coaching support – support, encouragement, and accountability. The Right-Fit Leadership Coaching focuses on coaches designing a coaching framework within the local cultural context to support their clients to develop transformational leadership behavior to lead followers and organizations forward. The Right-Fit Leadership Coaching is an honoring relationship where coaches honor their clients’ ability to change, learn, and develop new leadership behavior to lead and transform their followers and organizations to new frontiers. The Right-Fit Leadership Coaching template also exemplifies how cross-border leadership coaching could work for coaching leaders from diversified cultures, team-coaching to a diversified group of team members, foreign coaches working in their host countries, and other coaching involving diversity areas.


Ethical and Unethical Leadership in the Church: Leadership Principles and Theory

NaDene Tucker | 2016


John 1:1-2, 5 states, “In the beginning was the Word (Christ), and the Word (Christ) was with God, and the Word (Christ) was God. 2 He (Christ) was in the beginning with God…5 The light (Christ) shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it” (ESV). This passage mentions that Christ is the light and how the darkness (man) failed to comprehend the light (who was Christ). God and Christ are the genesis of values; they existed from the very beginning before theories, values and ethics came into existence. Adam and Eve made the first ethical decision when Eve listened to the serpent and Adam listened to Eve. This began the ability of man to make choices based on what they valued and what they thought was ethically sound at that time. Applying values and ethics biblically gives leaders in the church the ability to problem solve in various situations through knowledge development, evidence, practice or methods, and scriptural protocols in innovative and creative ways. In order to find effective leaders in the church, identifying leadership with a human side is critical to God’s divine assignment. Each leader must not only have the expertise to establish a successful organization or ministry, but a set of values or ethics that lets others identify who they are as an individual and understand why they have been called. This manuscript will examine a variety of leaders within Christendom (biblically and currently) whose set of values or ethics (whether good or bad) changed those who chose to follow.


Reinventing the California State Military Reserve

Joseph von Sauers | 2016


The California State Military Reserve (CSMR) is the official State Defense Force (SDF) for California. California is one of twenty two states plus Puerto Rico which has an SDF. The SDFs are under the control of state governments, and in California, the governor is the CMSR’s Commander. SDF’s are the modern successors to the militias, those “citizen soldiers” who fought in America’s wars since before the revolutionary war. Similar to other SDFs, the CSMR is not considered to be a part of the U.S. federal armed forces. Hence, while the CSMR is part of the California State Military Department, together with the National Guard, the CSMR is not part of the National Guard and cannot be federalized with it. In contrast to the California National Guard, which has dual State and Federal missions, the CSMR is not expected to be prepared to deploy outside the state as a warfighting force. Therefore, the CSMR mission is twofold. First, it is assigned to support the National Guard in both the Guard’s state and federal missions. Second, it has state specific missions. These missions include State Civil Affairs (including Emergency Management, Civilian-Military Liaison Officer (LNO), and Search and Rescue), State Military Police (SMP) and medical, legal and chaplain support. CSMR soldiers include both those with prior military experience as well as those who have no prior service. While the CSMR has significant potential, it also faces significant challenges. Chief among them is the lack of financial support for CSMR operations, training and pay. There are also issues related to organizational design, structure, mission, leader development, culture, learning, recruitment, regulatory support, strategic planning, and political dimensions which have significantly impacted the CSMR’s ability to be a more fully effective component of the California Military Department. Hence, the focus of this project is to analyze the above issues and associated problems and to propose comprehensive solutions.


The Seventh Dimension of Leadership

Kathy E. Williams | 2016


The Seventh Dimension of Leadership is a documentary, a guidebook, and a leadership manual to explore the journey of 21st century leadership. The project uses the woman at the well from the Gospel of St. John, Chapter 4 and her seven relationships of five husbands, a live-in, and Jesus Christ overlaid to the seven dispensations of time – innocence, conscience, authority, promise, law, grace, and sovereign reign. Using her life journey from a traditional upbringing through drug addiction and dropping out of high school, continuing through the saga of single parenting and dealing with poverty, K. Williams offers a road map for others to trace the roots of their own development in leadership. Each chapter includes an application section that speaks as the consultant and executive coach to activate the content into the reader’s organization.

The project includes sections between each chapter titled “Reading Between the Lines” that contain in-depth stories from the author’s experiences. One such story includes a story of the author’s then 8-year old daughter questioning her mother’s feeling about having biracial children. Another includes the story of the shooting of one of her sons with the admonition of “Walk wobbly if you need to, but keep walking.” Other sections address micromanagement, more commonly known as control freaks (and how to be healed from that plague) and the arrival at sovereign reign as the seventh dimension of leadership. The entire project is written toward the perspective of being a leader who is Christian and mastering “love with no agenda.” In our multicultural, global world of the 21st century, this project offers effective tools for truly operating as ambassadors of Christ.

2016 Dissertations – Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership Program

The final requirement for School of Business & Leadership Ph.D. students is the scholarly research dissertation. To access full-text versions of these dissertations, please contact your university’s library or UMI Dissertation Services. Regent students, staff and faculty may access full-text versions from the Regent University Library.


Authentic Leadership: A Model for Professional Moral Courage

Ava C. Abney | 2016


The general purpose of this quantitative research study was to determine the relationship between authentic leadership and professional moral courage. The ultimate goal of this study was to extend understanding of the underlying principles of authentic leadership and how each affects a leader’s ability and motivation to act with unwavering moral courage. The participants of this study were a diverse sampling of leaders selected from my LinkedIn network connections, the world’s largest professional network. All data collected for this quantitative research study used a cross-sectional method with the data collected over a period of 6 days through use of electronically administered online surveys. A correlational research design was used to test for a positive or negative relationship between authentic leadership and professional moral courage. It was found that a positive relationship existed between authentic leader and professional moral courage. Implications for future research are also included.


Ethical Leadership Under Duress: An Exegetical Study of Daniel 1-6

Robert D. Ball | 2016


Leadership is often exercised in environments where there are expectations that clash with a leader’s personal, moral, and ethical standards. A leader may feel the pressure or even coercion to sacrifice certain ethical standards for the sake of expediency in advancement, achievement of goals, financial gain, or even preservation of personal comfort and status. This study employed the combined application of socioscientific and sociohistorical exegetical analysis to examine ethical leadership under duress in the life of Daniel as described in the first six chapters of the Book of Daniel. This study adds to the body of literature concerning ethical leadership with findings that show ethical leadership is (a) fully functional when exercised in environments of coercion and duress, (b) fully effective when exercised in environments of coercion and duress, and (c) powerfully influential when exercised in environments of coercion and duress. Furthermore, this study shows a close connection between ethical leadership, servant leadership, and spiritual leadership.


The Effects of Pastoral Servant Leadership and Commitment of Members to the Organization in Latin American and Anglo American Congregations: As Mediated by Leader-Member Exchange and Identification with the Leader

Xavier Humberto Becerra | 2016


Servant leadership is maturing in its theoretical development. Although initially introduced to the literature over four decades ago by Greenleaf (1970), the relationship of the effect of servant leadership and commitment has not been quantitatively explored until recently. Scholars, such as Sokoll (2013) and Drury (2004), have performed studies in the USA, but no quantitative empirical study has been published from Latin America. A call for the expeditious and quantitative investigation of servant leadership theory applicability in non-Western cultures seems to be emanating from within the academy and across organizations around the world (Northouse, 2015). This study, utilizing validated psychometric instruments, examined the essence of servant leadership and found it to have a significant (p < .001) effect on member commitment, especially on affective organizational commitment. This effect was most accentuated in the Latin American culture. The current study also found leader–member exchange to have a strong mediation significant (p < .001) effect on normative commitment and a modest significant (p < .001) effect on affective organizational commitment. The leader–member exchange effect was found to be more accentuated in the Latin American culture. The mediation role of members’ level of identification with the leader was also a significant (p < .001) effect, but there were no significant contrasts across the two cultures. The study was conducted in churches and online among a robust sample of 431 responses in the USA and 328 in Latin America comprised of multiple Evangelical Christian denominations. Respondents to the study’s survey were highly diverse in regards to age, gender, and involvement. This study offers empirical evidence for organizational decision makers to consider servant leadership as an emerging leadership approach that has a superior effect on cultivating member commitment, even in cultures where it was thought not to be a viable leadership style.


Examining Dark Side Leadership and Impression Management of King David: A Social–Culture Texture Analysis of 2 Samuel 11

Darius M. Benton | 2016


This exposition serves as a biblical foundation toward future theoretical development regarding the variables of impression management and dark side leadership within assumed morally charged public leadership roles such as those serving in religious and/or political contexts. In recent years, there have been numerous reports of the drastic measures these types of leaders exude in response to moral failings and the general mistrust of the public toward these types of leaders in response to such incidences. The present exegetical analysis explores 2 Samuel 11 through social–culture texture analysis. Using an exegetical methodology offered the opportunity to thoroughly examine the intersection between biblical exegesis and organizational theory, particularly dark side leadership and impression management as presented in 2 Samuel 11—a prevalent biblical narrative where King David, a beloved yet flawed leader, is a featured character. This study is significant because there exists a plethora of recent research on dark side leadership; however, there is not much directly relating impression management techniques to this phenomenon nor is there research that makes the connection between dark side leadership and a classically adored biblical leader, until this discourse. The researcher determined that in the narrative of 2 Samuel 11, King David exhibits dark side leadership; in attempts to hide the consequence of his indiscretion, he used extreme impression management tactics. This research narrows the gap between organizational leadership theory and a narrative of biblical leadership while providing multiple opportunities for future research.


Examining the Impact of Leader Member Exchange (LMX) Theory on Employee Engagement and Employee Intent to Stay With an Organization

Keyonna S. Beverly | 2016


Research has shown that there is a current issue in leader member exchange (LMX) literature that needs to be addressed through empirical research (Hussain & Ali, 2012). LMX theory has been shown to be related to outcomes such as “employee performance, employee turnover, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job climate, innovation, organizational citizenship behavior, empowerment, and procedural and distributive justice” (Graen & Uhlbien, 1995, p. 228). But, there has been very limited research relating LMX to employee engagement and intent to stay with an organization. This quantitative study contributes to the literature on LMX theory as it provides empirical evidence that LMX is positively related to employee engagement and employee intent to stay with an organization.


The Distinctive Characteristics of Religious Leadership: A Case Study of the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel in the United States

Stephen Bialowas | 2016


Religion and religious leadership continue to have a profound influence on society. However, there is a shortage of scholarly research on religious leadership, especially regarding the characteristics that are distinctive of religious leadership as compared with leadership in general (Ehrlich, 2001; Lindt, 2005; McClymond, 2001). The current study is designed to fill some of the gap in the literature through a qualitative research strategy in the form of a case study on the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel, commonly known as the Foursquare Church, a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a network of over 1,600 churches in the United States. The study collected data on the distinctive characteristics of Foursquare leadership by examining four core documents of the church and the church’s website and through semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with eight prominent national leaders of the organization. The researcher then analyzed the data through a systematic coding process to identify key themes related to Foursquare leader characteristics and then categorized them. The study also compared the characteristics of Foursquare leadership to the characteristics of leadership as described by Weber’s (1963) theory of religious leadership and with five contemporary leadership theories to discover similarities and differences. The results indicated there were several similarities and differences between Foursquare leadership and leadership described by Weber’s theory and the five contemporary leadership theories. The findings show that Foursquare leadership has much in common with leadership described by the five contemporary theories, but only Weber’s theory accounted for the distinctly religious characteristics of Foursquare leaders. The study concluded that religious leadership as practiced in the Foursquare Church is best described by a combination of the five contemporary theories and Weber’s theory. Discussion describes the implications and limitations of the study as well as recommendations for future research regarding religious leadership.


Measuring Leadership Competencies to Avert Crisis: Development and Validation of an Instrument to Operationalize a Conceptual Model

Jamie J. Brownlee-Turgeon | 2016


Relatively minimal research has been conducted around effective leadership before, during, and after a crisis occurs. More specifically, the precrisis stages lack empirical data and measurement instruments on effective leadership in terms of identifying and averting a crisis. Wooten and James (2008) provided a conceptual model that describes leadership competencies surrounding a crisis. The current study focused on leadership competencies required in the first two stages of the conceptual model: identifying and averting a crisis. The purpose of the study was to develop a measurement tool to evaluate key crisis aversion competencies: sense making, perspective taking, issue selling, organizational agility, and creativity. The measurement tool was developed through a four-step process: (a) item development, (b) item reduction and content validation through the use of a Delphi panel of experts, (c) item evaluation through the use of a large sample and factor analysis, and (d) assessment of construct validity. The study addressed content validity through the utilization of a Delphi panel. Once the Delphi panel refined and reduced the items, the measurement was sent to a large sample (N = 278). Factor analysis supported three factors: participatory management, resourcefulness, and sense making. All scales showed internal reliability. Predictive validity and discriminant validity of the measures were examined and generally supported.


Impact of Servant Leadership and Pay Satisfaction on Affective Commitment of Haitian School Employees.

Duky Charles | 2016


The impact of servant leadership and pay satisfaction on affective commitment among Haitian school employees was explored. Three hypotheses predicting positive effects for the two independent variables on the construct of affective commitment were tested. Data were collected for this cross-sectional study from a combination of three questionnaires pertaining to servant leadership, pay satisfaction, and affective commitment. Items related to age, gender, tenure, and position—four variables that were supposed to be controlled for as has been suggested in leadership literature—were also added to the survey questionnaire. Six schools with a total of 359 employees and all located in the north of Haiti constituted the research population. These schools included (a) North Practice School, (b) Classic Study Center, (c) Drop of Love School, (d) Ignace Nau School, (e) Upper-Limbe Baptist School, and (f) Limbe School. Based on Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson, and Tatham’s (2006) suggestion on how to calculate the sample size for multiple regression, a random sample of 150 employees was selected. A four-model multiple regression, through SPSS, was used to analyze the data, test the three hypotheses, and answer the research questions. The model summary tables showed that all the models were weak and seemed to be of no use. However, the coefficient tables indicated significant statistical effect for servant leadership on affective commitment for the second model (p = .001), significant statistical effect for pay satisfaction on affective commitment for the third model (p = .003), and significant statistical effect for servant leadership for the fourth model (p = .018).


Leading Through Instruction of Work: A Socio-Rhetorical Analysis in the Book of Proverbs

Keith GeLarden Dayton | 2016


This paper offers an intertexture analysis of the book of Proverbs that reflected an exegetical analysis of (a) oral–scribal intertexture, (b) historical intertexture, (c) social intertexture, and (d) cultural intertexture. The methodology used was from the work of Robbins (1996a; 1996b) through socio-rhetorical criticism in an exegetical interpretation. The New Revised Standard Version of the Bible (NRSV) and the Hebraic text of the book of Proverbs were considered in this investigation. The analysis provided an additional framework of questions which developed themes that helped shape the overall interpretation and understanding of selected verses in Proverbs, specifically on work and instruction of work by leaders in Proverbs. The results of that analysis were then applied for both instruction and work in developing themes to organize the discussion in this final chapter. Each theme followed both areas of interest in the study, instruction and work. Six themes aggregated from the socio-rhetorical analysis data emerged: (a) agriculture, (b) types and styles of instruction, (c) work as a skill, (d) outcomes, (e) transition, and (f) Yahweh. Two subthemes were developed from the theme of outcomes: hunger and poverty. Based on support from these sources, a working conceptual definition of work was brought forward. The study identified appropriate leadership styles through the leadership theories of charismatic and distributive leadership coupled with an understanding of how the culture and context of an era determined how work may have been instructed. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of the research findings, limitations, implications for contemporary organizations and the framework for future research regarding the notion of work, applicable leadership style, and instruction within the study of historical socio-rhetorical criticism.


From ABD to PhD: Scale Development of Doctoral-Level Learning Environments in Context of Autonomous Learning

Dinah Lynn DeFord | 2016


Many doctoral students reach the final stage of their doctoral matriculation and for one or more reasons withdraw from the program prior to degree completion. The purpose of this study was to develop the Autonomous Learning Environment Scale (ALES), an instrument to measure doctoral-level learning environments in the context of autonomous learning. This study investigated one suspected cause of graduate-level attrition: the learning environment experienced by the PhD candidate during the coursework phase of his or her doctoral journey. Two populations of interest were studied: individuals self-identified as permanent, all-but-dissertation adults (noncompleters) and doctoral program graduates (completers). Each participant must have been enrolled in a dissertation-required doctoral program. The method for the development of the ALES required thorough research of current autonomous learning and learning environment literature. Participants were located initially via snowball methodology and then by cluster sampling via U.S. community colleges. Principal component analysis was used to determine factor loadings. Reliability was evaluated via Cronbach’s alpha (? = 0.961) and test–retest, r = 0.801. Inferential statistics indicated the survey was not a good predictor for noncompleters, but some interesting statistics were revealed regarding graduation odds of ethnicity, gender, and public versus private institutions.


Complexity Theory: An Integration of Spirituality and Moral Competency

Erik Doherty | 2016


This quantitative study advances the existing knowledge of the theoretical and practical applications of complexity theory. The study had a sample of 210 participants from the unionized maritime industry in the Hampton Roads area of Virginia. A two-model multiple regression analysis was used to test the relationship between four variables relating to spirituality as an organizational dimension and three variables relating to moral competency as an organizational dimension on employee performance. This analysis was done to examine if the variables pertaining to the spirituality and moral competency dimensions have a distinct, significant, and positive relationship to employee performance, suggesting that these dimensions should be included within the paradigm of complexity theory. The results support a significant and positive relationship for one of the spirituality variables (meditation) and two of the moral competency variables (impression management and responsibility). Future research is needed to clarify why meditation was the only significant variable for spirituality and also to explain why the remaining variable for moral competency (integrity/honesty/authenticity) was significant but had a negative relationship to employee performance. An enhanced understanding of how these organizational dimensions fit into the framework of complexity theory is beneficial for its application in the knowledge pertaining to the dynamic and unpredictable influences upon contemporary organizations.


Transactional and Transformational Leadership Styles, Organizational Commitment, and Leader Effectiveness in Nigeria

Samuel Olutade Fadare | 2016


This study had a three-part purpose: (a) examine the relationship between dimensions of transactional and transformational leadership styles and dimensions of organizational commitment within sub-Saharan Africa, (b) explore the relationship between dimensions of transactional and transformational leadership styles and leadership effectiveness within sub-Saharan Africa, and (c) determine whether dimensions of transactional and transformational leadership styles were moderated by dimensions of organizational commitment within sub-Saharan Africa to produce effective leadership. A sample of 228 Nigerian employees from a variety of industries who were selected from both the LinkedIn professional networking site and from members of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria completed an online survey. The hierarchical regression technique was subsequently applied to test 40 separate propositions. Findings from this study confirmed that relationships among workers in sub-Saharan Africa were significant and positive in all the following cases: (a) contingent reward and affective commitment, (b) contingent reward and continuance commitment, (c) management-by-exception (active) and continuance commitment, (d) idealized influence (behavior) and continuance commitment, (e) intellectual stimulation and continuance commitment, and (f) management-by-exception (passive) and leadership effectiveness. Gender was found to be consistently significant when predicting dimensions of organizational commitment as well as when determining effective leadership among employees in sub-Saharan Africa. Finally, findings established that no significant relationship existed between dimensions of transactional and transformational leadership styles and effective leadership among sub-Saharan African employees when the relationships were moderated by dimensions of organizational commitment.


The Welcoming Organization Assessment: How the Culturally Intelligent Leader Influences the Newcomer Experience Toward Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

Christine Clare Gibson | 2016


This study explored the newcomer experience and the influence that organizational welcome, as moderated by leader cultural intelligence, has on an individual’s socialization experience as it relates to job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Further adding to the body of research is the Welcoming Organization Assessment (WOA)—an instrument that measures an organizational welcoming as perceived by the newcomer. The study hypothesized, based on the existing body of research connecting newcomers’ socialization tactics with organizational commitment and job satisfaction, that the measure of welcome experienced by the newcomer would be positively correlated to his or her level of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Further, the study hypothesized that the leader’s cultural intelligence would moderate the relationship between the newcomer welcome experience and job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The research supported the relationship between the newcomer welcoming experience and job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Also supported was the hypothesis that leader cultural intelligence moderates the relationship between newcomer welcoming experience and organizational commitment. The WOA was found to be reliable and valid for measuring the level of welcome perceived by the organizational newcomer.


The Impact of Leadership Styles on Employee Entrepreneurial Orientation and Innovative Behavior: A Comparative Analysis of American and Indian Immigrant Entrepreneurs

Raushan Gross | 2016


There is a dearth of literature on leadership styles’ effect on innovative behavior and entrepreneurial orientation within the context of American and Indian immigrant firms. This study fills the gaps in the literature with focus on the leadership styles’ impact on American and Indian immigrant employees employed in small- and medium-sized firms. Theses styles have been understudied regarding the impact germane to employee behavior, despite the current rise in American entrepreneurial firms and the recent spike in Indian immigrant entrepreneurial venture firms operated in the United States. The quantitative research design made it possible to garner a rich amount of data, collected from both American and Indian immigrant firms located in the Research Triangle Park area. The firms in which the samples were drawn represented industries that include technology, sales, grocers, hospitality, and finance. The total overall sample size was 321. The American sample respondent size was 161, and Indian immigrant sample size was 160. These data were analyzed with hierarchical regression analysis and multivariate analysis of variance. After analyzing and testing the hypotheses, results showed there are statistical significant differences in leadership styles between American and Indian immigrant entrepreneurial leaders. The results indicate that transformational leadership style has a statistical significant positive impact on innovative behavior in the context of an Indian immigrant firm; transactional leadership style had a statistical significant positive impact on innovative behavior in American firms and a statistically significant positive impact on entrepreneurial orientation in Indian immigrant firms. The study findings reflect the importance of leadership styles and the impact they have on employee behavior in the workplace. Ingenuity, idea creation, and idea implementation in the workplace play a large part in remaining competitive. Risk taking and proactiveness are behaviors that enable employees to harness future-orientated opportunities for the firm. Therefore, transformational and transactional styles are positively related to increasing employees’ innovative and entrepreneurial behaviors.


The Relationship Between Managers’ Cognitive Style and Leadership Type as Moderated by Organizational Culture

Alireza Hejazi | 2016


This study explored the relationship between a manager’s cognitive style and his or her leadership type as moderated by organizational culture through the perception of his or her subordinates. The manager’s cognitive style was the independent variable, the manager’s leadership type was the dependent variable, and the organizational cultural orientation of unit was the moderator variable. The members of LinkedIn social network and the Association of Professional Futurists listserv who were working under a manager at least for three years shaped the population of this study of which 140 subordinates made the sample through snowball sampling method. Quinn and Cameron’s (1983) competing values framework (CVF) formed the theoretical foundation of this study. Its associated measures at the individual and organizational levels of analysis generate 12 leadership types functioning within four orientations: create, compete, collaborate, and control. Kirton’s (1976) Adaption–Innovation Inventory measured managers’ cognitive style. Lawrence, Lenk, and Quinn’s (2009) Managerial Behavior Instrument measured managers’ leadership type. Quinn and Cameron’s Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument measured the organizational cultural orientation of the unit. This quantitative study applied a hierarchical multiple regression analysis method to test 24 hypotheses derived from the relationships between the independent, dependent, and moderator variables. The regression analyses supported more than one third of the hypotheses. While the adaptive cognitive style could be a predictor of competitor, producer, regulator, and monitor leadership types under the moderating effect of market and hierarchy organizational cultural orientations. The innovative cognitive style only could be a predictor of innovator leadership type in the adhocracy culture. The findings of this study contribute to the study of behavioral complexity in leadership by introducing a new paradigm in which the effectiveness of managers originates from the coordination between their cognitive style and leadership type.


Kenotic Alterity: An Exegetical Study of the Ontological Essence of Leadership as the “Death” of the Leader In Johannine, Pauline, and Petrine Scriptures

Dale T. Huffman | 2016


Although previous studies have attributed empowerment and trust to a leader’s use of generalized reciprocity (Coyle-Shapiro, Kessler, & Purcell, 2004; Gouldner, 1960), this dissertation posited that the relational context flowing from a leader’s ontological acceptance of kenotic alterity may be identified in terms of generalized norms of reciprocity (i.e., low concern for equivalence of exchange, low concern for immediacy of reciprocation, and shared focus of interest rather than self-interest). This qualitative exegetical analysis of John 21, Colossians 3:3, and 1 Peter 4:1 (RSV) presented a biblical perspective on the essence or starting point of leadership in death, inability, and external locus of control resting in God. Based on an exegetical analysis of these passages, this study qualified the meaning of kenosis (exiting or emptying oneself formulated as death per exegesis) for the benefit of others (alterity) recognizing an external locus of control in the work of Christ, rather than internal self–control or self–constraint, or assumption of skill sets. The study explored the extent and function of the death analogy used in Johannine, Pauline, and Petrine Scriptures to describe kenotic alterity and suggested that resulting affective trust leads to generalized norms of reciprocity. Research presented here further suggested that Scripture’s thematic teaching of kenotic emptying using the objectionable figure of death is actually the essence of God-designed leadership.


Examining Learning Antecedents to Entrepreneurial Success

Joseph Daniel Johnson | 2016


In an effort to improve entrepreneurial success outcomes in the United States, researchers have focused on examining variables that promote entrepreneurial activity. The challenge for practitioners is to determine variables that help improve entrepreneurial success. Although there is adequate research in the literature on relationships between variables that precede start-up activity, relatively few studies have investigated the role of entrepreneurial learning on entrepreneurial success. To address these gaps, the current study examined the empirical relationships between entrepreneurial instructional learning, entrepreneurial mentorship learning, entrepreneurial experiential learning, and the self-efficacy of entrepreneurial knowledge on start-up success, income improvement, and net worth improvement. With a cross-sectional sample of entrepreneurs in the United States, the study revealed that entrepreneurial mentorship learning and self-efficacy of entrepreneurial knowledge had a significant and positive relationship with start-up success, income improvement, and net worth improvement but only when examined prior to adding control variables. The study also found that the dimension of the highest level of specific business education achieved within the construct of instructional learning had a significant and positive relationship with income improvement and net worth improvement prior to control variables but not start-up success. Furthermore, the study also found that the dimension of years of start-up experience within the construct of entrepreneurial experiential learning had a significant and positive relationship with net worth improvement and income improvement prior to control variables but not start-up success. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are presented, and suggestions for future research are discussed.


Enabling Disruption: Predicting Firms’ Likeliness for Disruptive Success through Scale Development

Dustin Kelley | 2016


Researchers operating within the field of innovation have continually revisited market exploitation beyond the assertions posed within traditional management theory by shifting theoretical and practical interests toward examining organizational refinement and redirection as a basis for competition. Within this context, disruptive innovation, as an innovation refinement approach, has produced paralyzing effects on competition by way of altering market identities. As the complex nature of innovative markets continues to grow, so too do educator and practitioner interests for further interpreting influences on strategic innovative proficiency. The concept of disrupting market conditions necessitates a paradigm shift from traditional technological focus toward examining innovations from a much larger business modeling perspective, requiring realignment of organizational key capacities. Under such assertions, this dissertation provides an analysis and validation of various organizational characteristics and their measured impact on the disruptiveness of innovations when applying toward disruption as a calculated growth strategy. A reductionist approach used within an ex post exhaustive examination of case evidence on disruptive innovation uncovered causal indicators and their respective compiled causes for possible representation of those characteristics pertaining to firms’ likeliness for disruptive innovation success. The disruptive innovation enabler instrument provided the empirical evidence for extending the literature by assigning a prescriptive response from the ex post findings. Specifically, the use of a U.S.-based development sample constructed from 659 founders of entrant firms currently considering themselves disruptive uncovered that (a) disassociation from systematic processes, (b) enhancement of managerial capacities, (c) autonomy for disruptive development and commercialization processes, (d) aligned value innovations, and (e) avoidance of entrenched perspectives, as enabling characteristics, contributed to the grandest degree for improving likeliness for disruptive innovation success.


Influence of Leader Listening Competency on Follower Career Commitment and Leader–Follower Relationship in Public Education

Sandra Kay Kimmel | 2016


Leadership and communication may be the most studied constructs in academic, political, and business contexts. While numerous aspects of these constructs and their effectiveness have been explored, little has been done to understand the implications of leader listening competency (LLC) as a significant component of leader style or behavior affecting follower outcomes. In fact, most leadership theories neglect LLC as a salient component of leadership (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009). Rooted in the theoretical underpinnings of leadership, communication, and career commitment, this study investigated the relationship between LLC and follower career commitment as mediated by the quality of the principal–teacher relationship (i.e., leader–member exchange [LMX]) in a K-12 public school context where teacher career commitment is a central issue (Ingersoll, 2001). Based on a cross-sectional sample of teachers in one rural county in a West Virginia public school district, this study revealed that LLC and the quality of the LMX are not significantly related to teacher commitment. However, the study did find significant and positive relationships between LLC and LMX and between LLC and two of the three control variables—leader task-oriented behaviors and leader relationship-oriented behaviors. The study proposes to advance leadership theory by adding to understanding of the significance of LLC on follower outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are presented, and suggestions for future research are discussed.


Profiles of Entrepreneurs: Discriminant and Cluster Analyses of the Romans 12 Motivational Gifts and Locus of Control as Predictors of Entrepreneurs and a Canonical Analysis of the Romans 12 Motivational Gifts and IEO

Lydia R. Knopf | 2016


The purpose of this quantitative exploratory research was to conduct discriminant and cluster analyses to see if the Romans 12 motivational gifts and locus of control (Brandstätter, 2011; Hansemark, 2003; J. R. Lumpkin, 1985; Mueller & Thomas, 2001; Rauch & Frese, 2007; Rotter, 1966) predict membership in the entrepreneurial member group and consequently discover the gift profiles of entrepreneurs (DellaVecchio & Winston, 2015; Pierce, 2015). Canonical correlation analysis was used to investigate relationships between the seven motivational gifts—perceiver, server, teacher, encourager, giver, ruler, and mercy—and the three dimensions of individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO)—innovativeness, risk taking, and proactiveness (Bolton & Lane, 2012; D. W. Bryant, 2015). This investigator extended the scholarly work of DellaVecchio and Winston (2004, 2015), Earnhardt (2014), McPherson (2008), Pierce (2015), Tomlinson and Winston (2011), and Winston’s (2009) Romans 12 motivational gifts profiles; generalizability was ascertained. A random sample of 400 business leaders of all faith traditions from throughout the globe were sought to participate in an online survey comprised of validated scales from prior research—the Motivational Gift Test (DellaVecchio & Winston, 2015), the Brief Locus of Control instrument (J. R. Lumpkin, 1985), and the IEO instrument (Bolton & Lane, 2012). Scholars have indicated individuals with entrepreneurial orientation behaviors of innovativeness, risk taking, and proactiveness, as well as internal locus of control, embody an entrepreneurial human capital advantage not easily replicated; yet, no studies have been conducted to explore these connections (D. W. Bryant, 2015; Smith, 2011). All three hypotheses were supported, revealing all seven motivational gifts predicted those who were entrepreneurial and those who were not. Consequently, five distinct entrepreneurial gift mixes/profiles were established. Additionally, there were relationships of significance between the seven motivational gifts and the three IEO dimensions. Similar to Bosch’s (2013) research, this author provided practical implications for governmental and organizational leaders, business incubators, and academic institutions to foster greater entrepreneurial activity.


A Phenomenological Study on Employee Tenure and Resistance to Organizational Change Initiatives

Kory Kubiak | 2016


The purpose of this study was to explore employee tenure and resistance to organizational change initiatives. Research has indicated that employees’ resistance to organizational change is abundant; however, further insight into the specific tenure of employees’ resistance to change is needed. In this qualitative phenomenological study design, I conducted interviews at two flagship organizations—Target and Wal-Mart—to better understand how specific employee tenure affects resistance to change. These interviews were conducted with eight participants in which saturation was achieved. I conducted four interviews with employees who had 1-5 years of service and four interviews with employees who had 10+ years of experience. After the interviews were finished, thematic text analysis began. Coding units emerged from the interview data. After the categorization of these codes, themes were developed. The findings revealed that short-tenured (1-5 years) employees are more adaptable to organizational change initiatives and have a positive comradery with their leaders. The findings also revealed that long-tenured (10+ years) employees are more resistant to organizational change initiatives and have a more negative comradery with their leaders. The results of this research contribute to the theoretical as well as practitioner literature on the phenomenon of resistance to organizational change. I examined and discussed the findings and proposed recommendations for future researchers.


What Organizational Leaders May Learn From the Relationship Between Vocational Calling and Resilience

Juliana Melissa Lesher | 2016


A quantitative study was conducted to study the relationship between vocational calling and resilience among the employees of a private healthcare system. With healthcare organizations impacted by high turnover rates of healthcare employees, studies that reveal why healthcare employees may be more resilient and more likely to remain committed to their profession are pertinent. Dik, Eldridge, Steger, and Duffy’s (2012) Calling and Vocation Questionnaire along with Wagnild and Young’s (1993) Resilience Scale were employed in this quantitative study. Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to test the first three hypotheses of how the presence of a transcendent summons, the presence of purposeful work, and the presence of a prosocial orientation within the organization may have a positive relationship to a greater sense of resilience for healthcare employees. Hierarchical multiple regressions were further exercised to test the last three hypotheses of how the search for a transcendent summons, the search for purposeful work, and the search for a prosocial orientation within the organization may have a negative relationship to resilience for healthcare employees.


The Impact of Servant Leadership on Courageous Followership and Supervisor-Related Commitment

Scott Christopher Lincoln | 2016


This study helped determine the extent to which perceived servant leadership behaviors in an immediate supervisor encouraged courageous followership behaviors and supervisor-related commitment in their subordinates. This relationship was expected to be moderated by organizational proximity to the leader and the length of time working for that same supervisor. This study measured the perceived servant leadership behaviors of supervisors using The Servant Leadership Survey (Van Dierendonck & Nuijten, 2011), the followers’ courageous followership levels were measured by the Followership Profile (Dixon, 2003), and their supervisor-related commitment was measured by the Supervisor-Related Commitment Scale (Becker, Billings, Eveleth, & Gilbert, 1996). The relationship between the dimensions of servant leadership and both the dimensions of courageous followership and supervisor-related commitment were analyzed using multiple regression analysis moderated by the organizational proximity to the supervisor and length of time spent with the supervisor. While the predicted moderating effects were largely unsupported by the findings, all hypotheses were partially supported and at least one servant leadership behavior was found to be a significant predictor of each aspect of courageous followership and each aspect of supervisor-related commitment. Organizational proximity was also found to be a significant predictor of supervisor-related commitment.


An Empirical Comparative Examination of the Relationships Among School Leadership Behaviors and Teacher Commitment to Students in Malawi

Teddie Edward Malangwasira | 2016


This cross-sectional quantitative research examined the extent to which a model relating leadership behaviors and teacher commitment previously investigated in the United States of America by Freeman (2014) applies in Malawi, a culture differing from the USA on several dimensions. Freeman found that transactional leadership behavior of school principals in the USA has a positive and significant relationship with teacher commitment to students. In addition, he found that collective efficacy fully mediated the relationship between transactional leadership behavior of school principals and teacher commitment to students’ academic achievement and social well-being. No previous study had examined the external validity of these findings. Utilizing a sample of 184 teachers from public primary and secondary schools in Malawi, Freeman demonstrated results that did not support these findings. In fact, this research found the following: (a) intellectual stimulation behavior of school principals, a dimension of transformational leadership behavior, was positively and significantly related to teacher commitment to both students’ academic achievement and students’ social well-being; (b) transactional leadership did not have any effects on teacher commitment to students, and (c) no mediating effects were present for either organizational trust or collective efficacy in Malawi. Implications of the study findings, research methodologies, limitations of the study, and recommendations for future research are discussed.


Spirituality in Law Enforcement: An Exploration of Possible Correlations of Spirituality to Burnout and Job Satisfaction for Police Officers

Richard Vincent Martin | 2016


The vocation of policing is considered a spiritual calling (G. Charles, 2009), yet the day-in-and-day-out stressors of professional police work can lead to depleted spirituality (Friedman, 2005), burnout (Martinussen, Richardson, & Burke, 2007), and reduced job satisfaction (McCreary & Thompson, 2006). This quantitative study fills the existing gap in the quantitative theoretical research on spirituality in policing (G. L. Patton, 1998) to increase understanding and support in the field for spirituality in police officers (Ursitti, 2011) and inform the field on ways to address health and fitness issues of police officers, including officer burnout (J. A. Smith & Charles, 2010). Specifically, this study used correlation analysis, t tests, and analyses of variance to analyze survey results and test for correlations between spirituality and burnout and between spirituality and job satisfaction from a sample of 312 full-time police officers from a midsized urban police department in the state of New York. Results support the existence of a strong positive correlation between spirituality (measured through meaning in life) and job satisfaction; a small negative correlation between spirituality and two dimensions of job burnout, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; and a moderate positive correlation between spirituality and the personal accomplishment dimension of burnout. The study points to the need for police executives to take the spirituality of their officers into account when considering the overall health and welfare of their officers. Additional studies are needed to further explore spirituality to determine whether it can predict job satisfaction or burnout and whether spiritual experiences can reverse the negative effects of the toxicity of policing and enhance the officers’ overall well-being as suggested by Travis (2009).


Exploring the Relationship Between Learner Autonomy and Leadership Effectiveness in the Healthcare System

David Alan Miles | 2016


Leadership and learning are two essential concepts within modern organizations. There has been much investigation, research, and inquiry into finding a deeper understanding of both of the constructs of leadership and adult learning. Investigation of specific relationships between leadership and self-efficacious autonomous learning builds upon the collective body of knowledge for both constructs and the link between leadership and learning. A central focus of the study is what Vaill (1996) called the learning premise, which asserts that “leadership is not learned . . . leadership is [emphasis added] learning” (pp. 126-127). The purpose of this study is to address the identified gap in the existing academic literature by examining the relationship between autonomous learning and leadership effectiveness. The study examines leaders within the healthcare industry and examines the relationship between the leader’s level of learner autonomy (self-reported) and their effectiveness as a leader (subordinate-reported). The findings of the study indicated no statistically significant relationship existed between learner autonomy and leadership effectiveness. There were no differences found in the effectiveness of leaders when comparing groups with functional and dysfunctional levels of learner autonomy. Limitations of the study include sample size, which met statistical criteria and was valid although a larger size may improve external validity. Other recommendations for further research include replication of the study in other industries than healthcare, possible further investigation using the additional scales found in the instruments utilized in this study, and research utilizing the individual component inventories that make up the learner autonomy profile.


The Relationship Between Spiritual Engagement and Authentic Leadership: Exploring the Core of Leadership

Richard A. Roof | 2016


Authentic leadership has garnered recent interest with some theorists suggesting it is a root construct of all positive leadership theories (Avolio & Gardner, 2005) and a developable construct that holds promise for advancing leadership (Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008), yet few antecedents have been investigated. Responding to the call to explore potential antecedents, this research used a quantitative, cross-sectional, survey-based study to examine the relationship of authentic leadership and spiritual engagement. Spiritual engagement is defined as a complex spiritual transformative process of spiritual practices and the attitudes and beliefs that motivate spiritual disciplines and are consequently enhanced by the practices (Roof, Bocarnea, & Winston, 2015). Data were collected from a diverse sample of 65 leaders who self-reported spiritual engagement and 266 associated followers’ perceptions of the leaders’ authentic leadership using previously validated instruments including the Authentic Leadership Questionairre (Walumbwa et al., 2008) and the Spiritual Engagement Instrument (Roof et al., 2015). The potential influence of social desirable responses, age, and gender was tested and found to be not significant. The relationship of the four spiritual engagement constructs—worship, meditation, fasting, and rest—were analyzed using multiple regression and found to not be significant predictors of second-order authentic leadership. Post hoc analyses revealed greater reported measures of spiritual engagement worship and fasting in not-for-profit leaders compared with for-profit leaders, but no significant difference in authentic leadership measures was found. An analysis of the relationship of first-order authentic leadership constructs to spiritual engagement found worship positively related to the relational transparency and balanced processing dimensions of authentic leadership. Implications for advancing spiritual engagement and leadership theory, suggestions for practitioners, and future research directions are examined.


The Effect of American and Nigerian Culture on Antecedents of Ethical Leadership

James D. Rose | 2016


This study addresses the question: How do individual characteristics and organizational environmental factors relate to ethical leadership behaviors of American and Nigerian leaders? Based on a comprehensive review of ethical leadership research, including recent cross-cultural studies, ethical leadership can be defined as modeling ethical normatively appropriate behavior (exemplified by demonstrating integrity, consideration of others, and ethical decision making) and the promotion and reinforcement of such behavior. The study identifies three antecedents researchers have shown to have a significant relationship with ethical leadership: internalized moral identity, individual spirituality, and organizational ethical culture. Nigerian and American cultural differences are identified, most notably, power distance, collectivism, and performance orientation. Six hypotheses are proposed regarding the relationship of the three antecedents to ethical leadership and the moderating effect of American and Nigerian culture. The study utilizes a quantitative approach to test the hypothesized relationships. Results indicate that (a) internalized moral identity is positively associated with ethical leadership behavior in both the American and Nigerian cultures, (b) individual spirituality is positively associated with ethical leadership behavior in both cultures, and (c) organizational ethical culture is positively associated with ethical leadership behavior in the Nigerian sample. Societal culture was not found to moderate the influence of any of the antecedents assessed. These findings further the understanding of antecedents of ethical leadership in both Nigerian and American cultures.


Exploring the Relationships Between Leadership Styles and Job Satisfaction Among Employees of Nonprofit Organizations

Lawanne Shanta Ross-Grant | 2016


This nonexperimental study aims to explore the relationship between leadership styles and job satisfaction among employees of nonprofits. Specifically, the goal of the study is to determine the strength of the linear relationships between job satisfaction and transformational leadership, servant leadership, authentic leadership, and transactional leadership. The research addresses two research questions: Do leadership styles have a positive relationship with job satisfaction among employees of nonprofit organizations? Do leadership styles differ in levels of job satisfaction among employees of nonprofit organizations? The study has five hypotheses. H1: Transformational leadership is positively correlated with job satisfaction. H2: Servant leadership is positively correlated with job satisfaction. H3: Authentic leadership is positively correlated with job satisfaction. H4: Transactional leadership is negatively correlated with job satisfaction. H5: Transformational, servant, authentic, and transactional leadership styles display significantly different levels of job satisfaction. The study employs snowball sampling securing 132 participants who completed the survey electronically. ALQ measured Authentic Leadership; SLQ measured Servant Leadership; MLQ measured Transformational and Transactional Leadership; and JDI measured Job Satisfaction. Age, tenure, and workforce were identified as covariates (categorical control variables). Following analysis, H1, H2, H3, and H4 are supported. With the covariates age and tenure, H5 is supported when considering the significant differences between transformational and authentic leadership and between transformational and transactional leadership. Without the covariates, H5 is supported when considering the significant difference between transformational and authentic leadership.


Authentic Leadership: A Quantitative Study of the Effect of Authentic Leadership on Group Cohesion and Work Engagement in Student Organizations in Mexico

Jorge Fernando Salcedo | 2016


Authentic leadership, as a construct, has caught researchers’ attention, and it has gained recognition and position within leadership studies. Authentic leadership’s predictive capacity is in the developmental and discovering phase. Empirical studies on authentic leadership have less than 8 years, and there is still much to analyze and discover regarding this construct. This quantitative research aimed to add value and knowledge in the exploration of authentic leadership in Mexico. The authentic leadership construct includes four dimensions: (a) self-awareness, which refers to how leaders understand their strengths and weaknesses and the motives they exposure to others; (b) balance processing, which refers to how leaders analyze all relevant data before coming to a decision; (c) internalized moral perspective, which refers to how leaders make decisions based on values and high internal ethical standards; and (d) relational transparency, which refers to how leaders are open in presenting one’s true self to others (Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008). Utilizing previously validated instruments, this study explored whether or not a relationship exists between authentic leadership behaviors of the leader (as perceived by the group members) and group cohesion and work engagement (as reported by the group members) within the Mexican context. This study worked with a sample of undergraduate students from Universidad de Monterrey who are members and active participants of student organizations and who are between 18-29 years old. Using a sample of 226 participants (N = 226), it was clearly demonstrated that there is a positive relationship between the authentic leadership behaviors of the leader and the members’ group cohesion (r = .56, ? = .54, p = .000) and that there is a positive relationship between the authentic leadership behaviors of the leader and the members’ work engagement (r = .54, ? = .54, p = .000). The study’s findings demonstrate the need to advance the research of authentic leadership in Mexico and Latin America.


The Role of Learner Autonomy in Avoiding Leader Derailment

Wayne R. Sass | 2016


The purpose of this research study was to explore whether or not a significant correlation exists between learner autonomy and leader reserved behavior. Through this correlational study, I examined the relationship between learner autonomy and leader reserved behavior to determine if higher levels of learner autonomy may be associated with lower levels of reserved behavior in leaders and, therefore, lower risk of leader derailment. I reviewed the autonomous learning and leader derailment literature and posed the question: Is there a correlation between learner autonomy and leader reserved behavior? Additionally, from the extant literature, I synthesized a composite illustration, the Sass model, to more fully explicate the development of behavioral intentions toward autonomous learning. I presented the variables of interest, learner autonomy and reserved behavior, along with the instruments used to measure them: the Learner Autonomy Profile-Short Form (LAP-SF) and the Hogan Development Survey (HDS). While, to date, no other researchers have explicitly investigated a correlation between learner autonomy and leader reserved behavior, prior research in the two fields has provided a plausible theoretical basis for the hypothesis that there is a significant, negative correlation between total LAP-SF scores and HDS Reserved scale scores. This self-reporting, cross-sectional, survey-based correlational study utilized a complete sample of managers employed by four firms that comprise a major U.S. healthcare organization’s southern California region. I analyzed the collected data using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (Pearson r). The data supported my hypothesis, revealing a statistically significant, moderate, negative correlation between the two variables of interest. An analysis of the data also revealed additional significant associations between learner autonomy and several potentially derailing leader behaviors. This study made important, original contributions to the quantitative-based literature and bodies of knowledge of two fields—autonomous learning and leader derailment—by discovering new, previously unknown, significant correlations. I make recommendations for future research to ascertain causality.


Managing Insidious Barriers to Upward Communication in Organizations: An Empirical Investigation of Relationships Among Implicit Voice Theories, Power Distance Orientation, Self-Efficacy, and Leader-Directed Voice

Craig Robert Starbuck | 2016


Organizations whose employees can freely voice ideas, suggestions, and problems to decision makers have a competitive advantage in effectively navigating the vicissitudes of today’s hyper-competitive business environment. Studies have amassed considerable evidence related to individual and contextual influences to explain why members of organizations often choose to withhold rather than speak up to superiors. An emerging stream of research has shown that employee silence may stem from self-protective implicit voice theories (IVTs): taken-for-granted rules of self-censorship (Detert & Edmondson, 2011). Building on prior research, this study investigated IVTs, individual power distance orientation, problem-solving self-efficacy, and creative self-efficacy as predictors of leader-directed voice using data collected from 1,032 employees (individual contributors: n = 696; supervisors: n = 336) in an investment firm. This study also tested problem-solving and creative self-efficacy as moderators of the relationships between IVTs and individual power distance orientation with leader-directed voice. All hypotheses were tested with supervisor-reported voice as the dependent variable and compared in post-hoc tests with self-reported voice as the criterion. Two tests using supervisor-reported voice were significant: the don’t embarrass the boss in public IVT was a significant predictor of voice beyond the controls, and the interaction effect of the need solid data or solutions to speak up IVT with creative self-efficacy was significant, though it masked a pattern of amplified negative impact antithetical to the hypothesized nature of moderation. Post-hoc analyses using self-reported voice as the criterion variable revealed that the composite IVTs scale, all individual IVTs apart from the don’t embarrass the boss in public IVT, problem-solving self-efficacy, and creative self-efficacy were significant predictors of voice beyond the control set. In addition, creative self-efficacy attenuated the negative effects of both the presumed target identification and don’t embarrass the boss in public IVTs on self-reported voice. Additional post-hoc testing, theoretical and practical implications, and limitations and directions for future research are discussed.


Testing the Reliability and Validity of the 108 Skills of Natural Born Leaders Self-Assessment

R. Lewis Steinhoff | 2016


There are many leadership self-assessments. Warren Blank’s (2001) 108 Skills of Natural Born Leaders Self-Assessment (NBLSA) is one that has never been statistically validated. The current study, administered in the form of a survey, quantitatively examined the NBLSA for reliability and validity. Face validity draws upon the relationship of the NBLSA items to leadership theory, convergence measured against the Taking Charge instrument developed by Morrison and Phelps (1999), and discriminant validity compared against both the Interpersonal Deviance Scale and the Organizational Deviance Scale of the Deviant Behaviors instrument developed by Aquino, Lewis, and Bradford (1999). This study used DeVellis’ (2012) scale development guidelines. However, given the scale already exists, only the last three of eight steps were required. Analysis revealed there are six factors that capture the major categories of the NLBSA. The new factors showed good internal consistency, strong Pearson correlation coefficient reliability, and convergent validity. The six factors failed to show test–retest reliability and discriminant validity. Therefore, the NBLSA remains a nonvalidated instrument.


Exploring the Social, Psychological, and Organizational Factors Affecting Founder/Executive Departure

Christopher Kenneth Turner | 2016


Executive/Founder transition is a phenomenon that occurs in every organization. While organizations are aware of the need to plan for transition, the common experience of this change is negative for both the leader and organization. Existing studies predominantly have focused on the mechanics and practical outcomes of change with some research assessing the emotional and psychological state of stakeholders. However, theoretically grounded thinking that assesses the wider dynamics and motivations that shape the phenomenon beneath the emotion and psychology of change are obvious in their omission. The stakes of organizational leader transition are too high not to develop a broader theoretical model for how the process is experienced by the departing leader and his or her organization. This thesis frames executive/founder transition in a conceptual framework that draws on anthropological, sociological, psychological, and new scientific theories regarding transitional dynamics. Using a case study methodology, six organizations were investigated to interrogate positive and negative exemplars of transition against six theoretical propositions. The research found that the notion of transitional alignment in the structure, heart, and dynamics of the process are precursors to more positively experienced executive/founder transition. Conversely, where less transitional alignment is present, the process will be more negatively experienced.


Willingness to Take Risk and Psychological Ownership as Moderators of the Team Climate for Innovation to Innovative Work Behavior Relationship

James Anthony Ward | 2016


The purpose of this team innovation research was to investigate two understudied variables (willingness to take risk and psychological ownership) as moderators of the team climate for innovation (TCI) to innovative work behavior (IWB) relationship. This study built on the team innovation research started by West (1990). The research tested the significance of two innovation literature threads. First, it has become normative in the innovation literature that employees with psychological ownership, or a stake, in the business take better care of, have more pride in, and have more motivation to innovate (Avey, Avolio, Crossley, & Luthans, 2009). Second, innovation is an inherently risk-based process, enhanced by individual willingness to take risk that challenges the group (Kheng, Mahmood, &amp; Beris, 2013; Saleh & Wang, 1993). Seven self-report instruments were used to collect data (N = 142) from engineering design build and financial companies in the southeastern United States. Nine hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated the willingness to take risk moderated the task orientation to IWB relationship, and stake moderated the task orientation and support to IWB relationships. The results bear support for the willingness to take risk and stake as important variables in the TCI model. This research added to the understanding of TCI as a descriptive and prescriptive tool. The team innovation theoretical model is complex with risk and stake being but two parts of the puzzle. The theoretical implications built on Bain, Mann, and Pirola-Merlo’s (2001) work that TCI could be expanded to include a context-sensitive basket of IWB indicators. Leaders who modelled these behaviors and had development programs to create a sense of ownership had higher team IWB (Seshadri & Tripathy, 2006) and willingness to stand up and confront the group with new ideas. Innovation is one of a limited number of tools that are sources of competitive advantage—a key to long-term organizational survival (Christensen, 1997). Toward this end, the practical implications included measuring, training, and modelling as a leader’s practical tools to enhance the willingness to take risk and stake to strengthen the TCI–IWB relationship. Recommendations for future research are provided.


Steward Followership Measurement

George B. Warton | 2016


Undergraduate leadership institutions pride themselves on their ability to produce graduates with the requisite leadership tools to navigate the organizational milieu their fledgling leaders will encounter. However, gaps in the theoretical underpinnings of leadership, particularly followership, likely leave the recent leadership graduate without the necessary tools to navigate the leadership requirements in today’s organization (Chaleff, 2009; Kelley, 2010; Uhl-Bien, Riggio, Lowe, & Carsten, 2014). The purpose of this dissertation is to establish the steward follower as a theoretical outworking of courageous, exemplary, implicit, and ethical followership together with coproduction of leadership established within a steward leader paradigm (Carsten & Uhl-Bien, 2012, 2013; Chaleff, 2009; Kelley, 1992; Rich, 2012; Rodin, 2010; Sy, 2010). Following the conceptual establishment of the steward follower, an instrument originally proposed as a three-dimension followership measure (Kaak, Reynolds, & Whyte, 2013) is redesigned into the two-construct Steward Followership Measurement contrasting steward and egoistic followership. The instrument was rewritten as a result of the original design not meeting reliability and validity standards determined through statistical testing. The first survey of 1,576 cadets at the U.S. Air Force Academy (USAFA) in August 2014 (Warton & O’Donnell, 2014) found that the dimensions of maturity and compliant followers factored to a single dimension describing the traits of the steward follower. The dimension of resistant follower was found to be unreliable and, therefore, rewritten for a subsequent survey in October 2015 of 1,146 cadets and renamed the Egoistic Follower Scale (Warton & O’Donnell, 2015). The results from the second survey utilizing the Steward Followership Measurement containing the steward follower and egoistic follower scales were determined to be both reliable and valid. Further, the results of the two surveys are instructive to the USAFA and others beyond the scope of this research focus.


Effects of Innovation Training on Innovative Work Behaviors

Bruce E. Watley | 2016


This study examined the effects of innovation training on innovative work behaviors. Anderson, Potocnik, and Zhou’s (2014) comprehensive state-of-the-science review identified a gap in the existing body of knowledge concerning innovation training and its use in an organizational setting to improve individual innovativeness. Argyris’ (1970) intervention theory, where effective and successful interventions produce behavioral changes in people, and Kirton’s (1976) adoption-innovation theory, where everyone is located on a continuum that ranges from adaptiveness (i.e., doing things better) to innovativeness (i.e., doing things differently), are the theoretical frameworks for this study. The literature review covered the theoretical framework, innovation, creative problem solving, innovation training, self-efficacy, and innovative work behaviors. The research question asked: To what extent does innovation training affect innovative work behaviors? I presented three research hypotheses to test the differences of innovative work behaviors and self-efficacy among groups who received innovation training compared to groups who did not. I used a Solomon Four-Group design where I introduced a proprietary innovation training curriculum as a treatment to individuals in a regional health care organization that employs over 6,000 people. I used a two-way analysis of variance to determine the effects of innovation training on individual innovative work behaviors using DeJong’s (2006) Innovative Work Behavior Questionnaire as well as modified it to measure a participant’s self-efficacy toward innovative work behaviors, which I called the Innovative Work Behavior Appraisal Inventory. The findings indicated there was no statistically significant difference among groups who received innovation training compared to groups who did not for innovative work behaviors or self-efficacy. However, the knowledge gained from this seminal research created a foundation for which to build future research studies.


The Relationship of Professional Values and Spirituality with Motivation to Lead: The Mediating Effect of Social Justice Importance

Michele R. Wells | 2016


Motivation to lead (MTL) is an individual differences construct used as a measurement of an individual’s motivation to take on leadership roles and responsibilities (Chan & Drasgow, 2001). The current exploratory study examined the values of a professional organization—the National Association of Social Workers (NASW)—and individual spirituality as predictors of the four forms of MTL—affective identity (AIMTL), social normative (SNMTL), noncalculative (NCMTL), and ideological (Amit, Lisak, Popper, & Gal, 2007; Chan & Drasgow, 2001). In previous studies using military samples, researchers have controlled for attitudes toward military service (Chan & Drasgow, 2001; Clemmons & Fields, 2011), but the norms of a professional organization have not been previously studied as a predictor of MTL. Previous studies have explored spirituality as a predictor of MTL, finding both positive and negative correlation with the Chan and Drasgow (2001) forms (AIMTL, SNMTL, NCMTL) of the MTL construct (Clemmons, 2008; Porter, 2011; Smith, 2010). Ideological MTL had not been studied using professional norms or spirituality as independent variables. The current study further explored the importance of social justice as a mediator of the relationship between professional norms, spirituality, and the four forms of MTL. The sample participants were professional social workers (N = 302) who by virtue of their education as social workers adhere to the NASW (2008) Code of Ethics. The Code of Ethics is a guide for social workers’ conduct and the promotion of social justice inherent to the mission of social work (NASW, 2008). This study used quantitative measures to examine the relationships among the variables. Theoretical and practical implications are addressed as well as limitations, delimitations, and direction for future research.


Internal Factors That Enable Positive Deviance to Occur in Leaders: A Phenomenological Description

Brian Arthur Williamson | 2016


While Spreitzer and Sonenshein (2003, 2004) and Lavine (2012) provided a strong conceptual foundation from the existing literature regarding positive deviance, Lavine noted that little has been done to date to build upon this initial work. The current phenomenological study explored the internal factors that enable positive deviance to occur in leaders. In-depth interviews were utilized to capture the lived experience across six leaders who were deemed positively deviant by a referent group of eight followers. Data were explicated and resulted in an articulation of the following internal factors that enable positive deviance to occur in leaders: values (prioritization and care for others, values driven, growth and reproduction mind-set, sense of meaning, courageous action, shared approach to leadership, emotional intelligence, integrity), behaviors (connection and care for others, growth and reproduction mind-set, learning and improvement mind-set, courageous action, creativity, shared approach to leadership, emotional intelligence), and attitudes (positivity, humility, abundance, visionary, courage, gratitude). Research and practitioner reflections are presented along with limitations and recommendations for future research.


Hope: Exploring Nonprofit Leaders Generating Hope in Followers

Robert S. Zarges, Jr. | 2016


Leadership theories have included the construct of hope for many years (Helland & Winston, 2005). Luthans and Avolio (2003) asserted, “The force multiplier throughout history has often been attributed to the leader’s ability to generate hope” (p. 253). The current study examined how executive directors in the nonprofit sector describe the experience of generating hope in their followers. A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to develop a composite description of generating hope from participants who have experienced the phenomenon. This study included a review of the theoretical literature that generated the interview questions. Additionally, this study includes a discussion of the qualitative design rationale for data collection and analysis. Six executive directors were interviewed; the key finding was that hope generation rests in quality relationship with followers characterized by teamwork, motivation, modeling, trust, and transparency and includes investing in follower professional development as an external resource through skill building and emotional support that results in personal and professional goal setting and achievement and, ultimately, organizational mission fulfillment. In the conclusion is a discussion of the limitations to this study and recommendations for further research.

2015 Dissertations – Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership Program

The final requirement for School of Business & Leadership Ph.D. students is the scholarly research dissertation. To access full-text versions of these dissertations, please contact your university’s library or UMI Dissertation Services. Regent students, staff and faculty may access full-text versions from the Regent University Library.


Breaking Through the Mental Barriers of an Entrepreneur

Susan E. Anderson | 2015


The diversity in entrepreneurial activity has been shown in literature to represent a complex set of knowledge, resources, and skills yet also has been shown to prevent scholars from finding the universal chords intrinsic to becoming a successful entrepreneur. This dissertation specifically looks at the mental barriers faced by entrepreneurs through a qualitative, phenomenological design, employing interviews to collect data from the perspective of people’s experiences. The study explores the question: What breaks through the mental barriers of an entrepreneur? Expanding on the distinction made in this exploration that there is a difference between internal factors and the placement of external influences related to the process required for breaking through Chopra’s (1999) mental barriers of (a) getting past one’s initial reaction and (b) creating a desired change, this exploration confirmed that a mental barrier breakthrough is possible only by those contenders to a process to be completed. The findings further articulate that depending on one’s willingness and specific path taken, results will reflect either long- or short-term benefits. These findings provide a significant contribution in understanding those areas to develop in regard to one’s ability to break through these mental barriers and where future research may be most beneficial. This dissertation also provides a way for these developments to be articulated into a practical application. Learning the process for breaking through mental barriers takes time and requires exploration, experience, and knowing what to remove or avoid when seeking a clear vision to assess an idea, situation, or obstacle. Future research considerations are also provided.


Understanding Servant Leadership as a Phenomenon Through the Lived Experiences of Leaders of Private Organizations and NGOs in Ibadan and Lagos in Southwest Nigeria: A Qualitative Study Using Q-Sorts

Olofunmilayo O. Akinyele | 2015


This study examines the phenomenon of servant leadership in the Nigerian context. It sought to understand the phenomenon from the lived experiences of leaders of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and private organizations in Ibadan and Lagos in the Southwest region, particularly given the pre-Colonial legacy in the Ibadan kingship-leadership structure. The study (a) discusses Nigeria as the context for the study and (b) identifies and explains differences in pre-Colonial leadership styles of the Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba ethnic communities as well as contemporary organizations in Nigeria and the challenges they face. The study uses the framework of Patterson’s (2003) servant leadership model, particularly service, vision, and humility which have been shown to be common descriptive elements of servant leaders (Hale & Fields, 2007; Ihenacho, 2011), and Hofstede’s (2001) cultural dimensions of (a) individualism vs. collectivism and (b) power distance. The researcher collected data by (a) interviewing senior executives, (b) examining relevant historical and leadership documents, and (c) keeping field notes and a reflective journal. The researcher then conducted a Q-sort. The data were analyzed using Schmolck and Atkinson’s (2000) PQMethod software, deriving three factors of (a) ?m?luabi serving with collaboration and humility, (b) chief servant leading by example with humility and (c) passionate visionary humbly modeling the way through service. Implications for Nigeria, leadership theory and practice, and recommendations for future research are discussed.


Emotional Intelligence, Leader-Member Exchange, Job Stress, and Job Satisfaction: A Study of Practicing Attorneys

Oral Beason | 2015


Some levels of job stress result in productivity, ingenuity, and satisfaction. However, as job stress increases, job satisfaction tends to decline and compromise work results. Internal individual differences and external contextual factors may buffer the effects of negative aspects of stress. This study investigated the buffering effects of emotional intelligence (EI) and leader-member exchange (LMX) on the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. A structured survey questionnaire was used to gather data from 214 attorneys licensed in the State of Florida. The study investigated whether the results of moderated multiple regression analysis of the collected data would show that the interaction of EI and job stress would have buffered the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. Similarly, the study investigated whether the results of moderated multiple regression analysis of the collected data would also show that the interaction LMX and job stress would have buffered the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. However, the results of the study did not support a finding of moderating effects on the independent variable and dependent variable relationship. Analysis of the data revealed that EI and LMX had a mediating effect on the independent variable and dependent variable relationship of the participants. Implications of the study on job stress theories of practice, research methodologies, conceptual limitations, and suggested directions for future research are also discussed.


Servant Leadership and Organizational Citizenship: A Moderated Mediation Model of Perceived Leader Effectiveness and Exchange Ideology in Rwanda

Timothy Brubaker | 2015


What effects do reciprocity expectations have on the relationship between servant leadership and organizational citizenship? The present study proposed and tested a moderated mediation model of the effects of servant leadership on two types of organizational citizenship behaviors (altruism and courtesy). First, the study hypothesized that perceived leader effectiveness mediates the relationship between servant leadership and these two types of organizational citizenship (H1). The study further hypothesized that employee exchange ideology moderates the indirect effects of perceived leader effectiveness in each of these models (H2). Three theoretical trajectories explain the proposed relationships between study variables: social learning theory (Bandura, 1977), cognitive categorization theory (Rosch, 1975), and reciprocity/clientelism (Gouldner, 1960; Landé, 1977). Adult Rwandans working in nongovernment settings comprise the sample for this study. Data collection yielded 194 usable responses (N = 194) which were analyzed based on study hypotheses. Data analysis showed adequate support for the full mediation effects of perceived leader effectiveness on the relationship between servant leadership and both forms of organizational citizenship. However, concerning the moderating effects of exchange ideology in the mediation models, analysis demonstrated that exchange ideology only moderated the mediation model with respect to courtesy and not altruism. The presentation concludes with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications along with suggestions for future research. This study makes an important contribution to leadership theory by better understanding the nature of leader-follower relationships in Africa and the importance of reciprocity in these relationships.


Exploring the Differences of Faith Manifestations and Entrepreneurial Orientations of Catholics and Protestants

David W. Bryant | 2015


There is a dearth of quantitative research that considers the integration of Christian faith and entrepreneurship. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to explore the differences of faith manifestations and entrepreneurial orientations of Catholics and Protestants at work. Based on the foundational relationships of sacred scripture, sacred tradition, and natural law, Catholics embrace a social magisterium that makes them unique not only among other religions but also within the Christian faith. If Catholics are different from Protestants, there should be observable differences in faith manifestations and entrepreneurial behaviors for Catholics and Protestants at work. Utilizing The Integration Box and the Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation instruments, no statistically significant differences for Catholics and Protestants were found. The theoretical implications of this research reveal that the hypothesized Catholic versus Protestant relationship at work may be a false dilemma. From a Catholic perspective, the practical implications of this research reiterate the need for radical Catholic reeducation of the tenets present in Catholic social teaching. Directions for future research are presented.


Leadership Malpractice in Higher Education: Effects of Organizational Ethical Culture and Followers’ Perceived Organizational Support on Abusive Supervision and Vicarious Abusive Supervision

Michelle Clawson | 2015


There has been a growing need to stop bullying from leaders in organizations and to support targets of this often ignored phenomenon. The death of Kevin Morrissey, the managing editor of the University of Virginia’s Virginia Quarterly Review, served as the catalyst in this research. The purpose of this cross-sectional quantitative study was to examine the effects of organizational ethical culture (i.e., ethical values, procedural justice, and interactional justice) and followers’ perception of organizational support on abusive supervision and vicarious abusive supervision in institutions of higher education. Using a sample of 747 administrators, faculty, and staff from 11 colleges and universities in the southeastern region of the United States, organizational ethical culture was found to make the largest statistically significant contribution and was the best predictor of abusive supervision. Followers’ perceived organizational support also made a contribution; however, it was not significant. When examining the individual dimensions measured in organizational ethical culture, interactional justice was highly related to abusive supervision. In relation to vicarious abusive supervision, organizational ethical culture made the largest statistically significant contribution and was the best predictor, although followers’ perceived organizational support made a statistically significant contribution. Position level (i.e., supervisors and nonsupervisors) did not differ in terms of the followers’ tolerance of abusive supervision and vicarious abusive supervision. On the other hand, an employee’s rank had an influence on abusive supervision. To the researcher’s knowledge, there were no studies on abusive supervision and vicarious abusive supervision in the postsecondary education field in the United States. The intent was to demonstrate if supervisory bullying occurred in a higher education setting and to bring awareness of incivility in academe. Implications of these findings are discussed as well as strengths and limitations of the study. Future directions for research of abusive supervision in higher education are suggested.


Measuring Individual Capacity to Lead: Development and Validation of a Theory Based Instrument

Michael J. Daniels | 2015


Few studies have presented a conceptually complete model describing capacity to be a leader. This study developed and tested a measure that operationalizes individual capacity to lead. The measure is based on integrating the conceptual models of Popper and Mayseless (2007), Dries and Pepermans (2012), and Chan and Drasgow (2001). The resulting measure may significantly improve an organization’s ability to select individuals for training and development who have the highest capacity to succeed as leaders. Ultimately, this may prove useful for human resources selection, development initiatives, succession planning, and recruiting. This measurement tool was developed using a four-step process: (a) item development, (b) scale identification and validation through use of a Delphi panel, (c) item reduction and identification of underlying dimensions through use of a large sample (N = 467) of working adults, and (d) assessment of construct validity of the capacity-to-lead instrument. The measure has three components: follower-focused (? = .961), focused on leading and influencing others; learning agility (? = .925), focused on the idea of a leader being adaptable to changing environments, situations, and stimuli; and intellectual curiosity (? = .891), focused on a leader having a curiosity that stems from an intellectual framework and pursuit. Future research ideas, limitations of the study, and practical applications for this instrument are provided.


Examining the Endorsement of Authentic Leadership, Organizational Commitment and Perceived Leader Effectiveness among Nigerian Employees

Amara Emuwa | 2015


This study examined the endorsement of authentic leadership and its relationships with follower outcomes of perceived leader effectiveness and organizational commitment among employees in Nigeria. The study contributes to the incremental understanding of cross-cultural leadership behaviors by comparing the relationship of authentic leadership with desired outcomes in Nigeria to similar relationships observed in previous studies in U.S. employees. In addition, this research examined the extent to which contingent leadership behaviors interact with authentic leadership to strengthen its relationship with employee outcomes. This study used cross-sectional survey data collected from a sample of 212 Nigerian employees across multiple industrial sectors.


The Relationship between Perceptions of Diversity Climate and Value Congruence/Person-Organization Fit: A Focus on Nonminority and Minority Employees’ Differences in Perceptions

Rodney L. Fields | 2015


This quantitative study advances the theoretical discussion of affirming diversity climate in organizations. The study had a sample of 120 participants from various organizations throughout the metropolitan area of Atlanta, Georgia. A three-model hierarchical multiple regression and an independent-samples t test (special case of one-way analysis of variance) were used to test the relationship between perceptions of diversity climate and value congruence/person-organization (P-O) fit while comparing perceptions between nonminority and minority employees. The results support a statistical significance for the following two claims: (a) lower perceptions of diversity climate lead to lower P-O fit and (b) perception of diversity climate differs by ethnicity (nonminority vs. minority). Future research is needed to test other variables that contribute to the relationship between perceptions of diversity climate and value congruence/P-O fit, including expanding the regional scope of participants and organizations and expanding the research globally. Diversity offers a rich platform to further examine the benefits and challenges of the effect diversity, now and in the future, and how it impacts employees and organizations.


The Effect of the Accountability Variables of Responsibility, Openness, and Answerability on Authentic Leadership

Heidi R. Frederick | 2015


One of the unique aspects of authentic leadership that scholars have posited is the possibility that it can be developed (Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008). However, the paucity of research on authentic leadership as a dependent variable reveals a gap that must be addressed. The purpose of this cross-sectional quantitative study is to examine the proactive three-factor accountability theory of responsibility, openness, and answerability practices (Wood & Winston, 2007) as an antecedent to authentic leadership. Using survey results from a sample of full-time employees at private Christian higher education institutions in the United States, a predictive relationship was investigated through multiple regression analysis and a subsequent hierarchical regression analysis. The results indicated that the variables of responsibility, openness, and answerability predict the perception of authentic leadership. One-way analyses of variance, t tests, and post hoc tests were also performed to identify differences in demographic data. Significant differences were found in tenure with the leader. As was expected, high correlation was found among all four scales. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed as well as strengths and weaknesses of the study. Future directions for research of authentic leadership and proactive accountability are suggested.


Social Identity Theory and the Prototypical Ecclesial Leader in Paul’s Letters to Timothy

Michael Gilbert | 2015


One does not need to look far to notice that a leadership crisis is occurring in nearly every industry and field. Leadership is central to the success of a quality-led organization, requiring support and commitment from top management. Despite attempts or perceptions that reduce the significance for a theory of ecclesial leadership, the modern leadership crises under discussion continue to reveal a more desperate need for an appropriate model of ecclesial leadership like never before. This study employs a joint methodology of social-scientific criticism and sociohistorical analysis of the epistles of 1 and 2 Timothy. The results contribute to the reduction of the paucity in literature concerning the role of social identity theory within the field of ecclesial leadership. Beyond social identity theory, the Apostle Paul employed a social identity model of leadership, through leadership succession, to promote Timothy as the prototypical leader over the ecclesia at Ephesus. From the results, the model of prototypical ecclesial leadership constructs surface comprising of (a) mimetic apprenticeship, (b) shared suffering, (c) confronting error, (d) spiritual formation, (e) wealth management, (f) public spirituality, and (g) kingdom focus. The model construct of prototypical ecclesial leadership attempts to inform the divinity academe of the solid gains made by the leadership academe in regard to the contributing construct of the Pauline prototype.


Examining the Relationship Between Group Cohesion and Group Performance in Tuckman’s (1965) Group Life Cycle Model on an Individual-Level Basis

Troy B. Hall | 2015


What leaders currently know about the topic of group cohesion and performance is a reflection of the literature as studied from a group-level basis. The literature has clearly asserted that group cohesion positively impacts group performance when the group is collectively studied. Greer (2012) noted individual-level analysis was needed to extend the literature on this topic. The current study serves two purposes. First, this study’s design supports research to examine the correlation between group cohesion and group performance in all stages of Tuckman’s (1965) group development model from an individual-level perspective. This view of group development, as seen from the individual’s perspective, provides leaders with valuable insight about the group life cycle at the point at which cohesion occurs. Providing leaders with the perspective of when and to what degree cohesion occurs within group development contributes to a leader’s ability to influence, motivate, and enable organizational success. Second, the study’s research design uses the Group Life Cycle Cohesion and Performance Questionnaire (GLCCPQ) created from the works of Carmeli and Waldman (2010), Dobbins and Zaccaro (1986), and D. Miller (2003). Employees of businesses associated with a southeastern U.S. metro Chamber of Commerce accessed the online GLCCPQ and provided data reflecting an individual-level perception used to examine the four study hypotheses. Using correlation analysis for each hypothesis, the expected results confirmed a positive correlation existed between the two variables (cohesion and performance) in the forming, storming, and performing stages of a group’s life cycle. The strongest correlation occurred in the forming stage, contradicting Tuckman’s findings. The lack of correlation within the norming stage data set was unexpected. The study’s conclusions contribute to leadership effectiveness in the areas of influence, motivation, and organizational success. The findings extend the literature, offering an individual-level perspective examining the correlation between group cohesion and group performance at each stage of the group life cycle and not of the group as a whole. Finally, this research design and the GLCCPQ survey offer a strong foundation to spur future research and discovery on this topic.


Examining the Leader Development Process: The Development and Validation of a Leader Education and Development Model

Nicole Hawkins | 2015


The premise of the study was to maximize the capacity of human capital and social capital relationships in organizational leaders through a multistage educational model. Traditional leader development efforts have tended to focus on the collective unit of leadership within an organization, that is, how leaders and followers interact for the greater good of the group or organization. The model suggested in this research encompasses individual leader development and interpersonal content. This research operationalized a framework for a multistage leader development model for developing individual leaders, maximizing leadership capacity, and gaining insight into the evolving process of leader development. The nascent literature of leader development theory and the multidimensional and ever-evolving construct of leader development was also examined. Utilizing Kegan’s (1980) framework of constructive-developmental theory as validated by McCauley, Drath, Palus, O’Conner, and Baker (2006), the current research operationalized Day, Fleenor, Atwater, Sturm, and McKee (2014) identified content areas for leader development (the dimensions of intrapersonal and interpersonal development) into an applicable model that can be utilized to guide leader development in organizations. A mixed-method approach was utilized to determine validity of the proposed model by conducting a single data collection from two groups (identified as subject matter experts and practitioners). The first group involved a qualitative process by interviewing five subject matter experts. The second data group consisted of 57 practitioners from industry and academia who participated via a quantitative survey. Findings indicate support of the suggested model and the emergence of the evolved leadership capital development model


An Examination of the Role of Spirituality in the Development of the Moral Component of Authentic Leadership through a Sociorhetorical Analysis of Paul’s Letter to Titus

Joshua D. Henson | 2015


This study examined the role of spirituality in the moral development component of authentic leadership in comparison to leadership principles found in the Epistle to Titus. The study of moral development was drawn from the literature on authentic leadership theory, spiritual leadership theory, and preexisting frameworks of moral agency, self-concept, and the stages of moral development. The exegetical process followed the methodology of sociorhetorical analysis and was interpreted for the moral, ethical, and leadership principles found in the pericope. The study yielded five themes of leadership from which 10 principles of leadership were discovered as found in Paul’s letter to Titus. It was found that the principles in Titus generally support the literature on the moral development component of authentic leadership theory. In the case when there were differences, it was found that principles of Titus expand and elevate the standards found in the literature. The study concluded that there is an intimate relationship between sacred and secular contexts such that the moral and ethical standards of the Christian community engage the moral standards of a given social and cultural context and reconfigures them in light of the gospel of Jesus Christ. The 10 core values of ethical behavior discovered in Titus were compared to the constructs of authentic leadership theory, spiritual leadership theory, and the core values of spirituality, and they were found to transcend each construct. The study created a framework for the future study of the core values of morality and ethics in multiple constructs: biblical, secular, and sacred.


On Developing a Deeper Understanding of Authentic Leadership: Interpreting Matthew 3:11-5:48—Using Intertexture Analysis and Social and Cultural Texture Analysis

Stephen L. Kalaluhi | 2015


This inductive, qualitative research study explore the construct of authentic leadership within the context of organizational leadership as demonstrated within the Matthew 3:11 – 5:48 pericope. Using the Matthew 3:11 – 5:48 pericope as a foundation for authentic leadership, this study seeks to answer the following research question: How does the pericope within the Christian sacred text that describes Jesus’ baptism, temptations, subsequent start of ministry, and initial teachings as found in Matthew 3:11 – 5:48 contribute to our current understanding of how organizational outcomes are affected by leader morality when applied from within the intrapersonal, interpersonal, developmental, and pragmatic perspectives of authentic leadership? This research followed the exegetical foundation as described by Robbins (1996a, 1996b), and focused primarily on the frameworks associated with intertexture analysis and social and cultural texture analysis. Nine themes emerged from the data, suggesting the authenticity of Jesus was further enhanced through the intrapersonal perspective, the interpersonal perspective, the developmental perspective, and the pragmatic perspective. Specifically, the nine themes identified the following aspects of authentic leadership: (a) use of traditions, regulations, and pre-existing laws, (b) recitation of traditions, regulations, and pre-existing laws, (c) reconfiguration of traditions, regulations, and pre-existing laws, (d) use of reference, allusion, and echo to build authenticity as a leader, (e) use of social knowledge and its use in establishing authenticity, (f) use of reformist discourse to emphasize different authentic leadership approaches, (g) the concept of ascribed honor and its importance to authentic leaders, (h) the concept of challenge-response and its use in authentic leadership, and (i) the concept of purity and its role in authentic leadership. A discussion about the research findings and their implications to the contemporary organizational leadership context is included. This research also addresses the limitations of this study, as well as provides guidelines pertaining to possible future research related to the topic of authentic leadership studied from within a Christian worldview.


Service Learning Experiences and University Students’ Motivation to Lead

William Lamb | 2015


In an effort to improve service-learning (SL) experiences among students at university campuses, it is valuable for educational leaders to measure the impact that these experiences may have on students. In addition, a responsibility of universities is to prepare students for leadership beyond the collegiate experiences. This study expanded previous research by identifying the relationship of SL experiences with student motivation to lead (MTL). In addition, this study also examined social justice attitudes, problem-solving skills, and perceived leadership skills as possible mediators in the relationship between SL and student MTL. Although there is adequate literature on the three dimensions of motivation to lead (affective-identity, social-normative, and noncalculative), there seemed to be a gap in the investigation of the relationship of student’s SL experiences and MTL. Therefore, this research study utilized a quantitative approach for gathering and analyzing empirical data which revealed outcomes that will be beneficial to expanding the research on SL and MTL. The sample of students, ranging from freshman to seniors at a faith-based institution in the United States participating in this study totaled 407. Control variables included general self-efficacy, gender, race, and previous leadership experience. Two questions guided this study: Does the extent of a student’s SL program experience have a positive multivariate relationship with a student’s MTL? Do student problem-solving skills, beliefs in social justice, and leadership role experiences mediate the relationship between a student’s SL program experiences and student MTL? The results of this research revealed that (a) SL does have a direct relationship with student’s affective-identity MTL, (b) perceived leadership skills fully mediate the relationship between SL and affective-identity MTL, (c) SL is not a predictor of social-normative motivation to lead, (d) neither problem-solving skills nor social justice attitudes mediate the relationship between SL and AIMTL.


A current view into implicit leadership theories and the applicability of servant leadership in Polish universities

Joanna Leontaris | 2015


The primary purpose of this quantitative study was to (a) explore potential cross-generational differences in leadership style preferences depicted by the GLOBE (House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004) project between Polish middle-level managers of 1996/1997 and Polish university employees of 2015, (b) compare the extent to which servant leadership was experienced by followers employed in the higher education sector in Poland and the United States, and (c) investigate the existence of a positive relationship between servant leadership and organizational commitment among Polish employees. The sample was comprised of 113 faculty and staff working at a Polish university located in southern Poland. The participants were on average about 35 years of age and mostly occupied non-leadership positions with women comprising 71.7% of the sample. The data were gathered via an online surveying process during the months of March and April 2015. The questionnaire utilized the following measures to assess the main variables: six leadership style scales designed by the GLOBE project, a parsimonious version of the Essential Servant Leadership Behaviors scale (Winston & Fields, 2015), and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (Mowday, Steers, & Porter, 1982). Polish employees of 2015 preferred team-oriented and participative leadership modes to a lesser extent when compared against their counterparts from the GLOBE project. Polish employees of 2015 also exhibited less tolerance for autonomous leadership style than Polish middle-level managers of 1996/1997. Additionally, servant leadership was practiced more frequently among the contemporary employees in the United States than in Poland. Servant leadership appeared to positively impact organizational commitment among Polish employees when controlling for age, job tenure, and task-oriented leadership (? = .208, p < .05). These findings suggest that future leaders ought to be cognizant of the impact time; major political, social, and economic shifts; and cultural underpinnings may have on the cross-generational and cross-cultural perceptions of the effective and desired leadership practices. Finally, servant leadership may be considered a variable leadership style for Polish employees and by projecting a positive influence on organizational commitment, it may also positively contribute to reducing the extent of the brain drain Poland is currently experiencing.


The Influence of the Big Five Personality Traits and Locus of Control on Organizational Commitment in Historically Black Colleges and Universities Libraries

Brandolyn Love | 2015


This dissertation addresses Neal’s (2005) call for more research on the influence of personal characteristics on turnover in historically Black colleges and universities (HBCU) libraries by assessing the relationship between the Big Five personality traits, locus of control, and organizational commitment. The research focuses on follower perception of the leader using the Big Five personality traits and self-evaluation using organizational commitment. The research includes a double measure of locus of control to measure follower perception and self-evaluation. Each of the Big Five personality traits—openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism—were tested individually. The hypotheses were tested using a nonexperimental, quantitative design that included the widely used and validated Big Five Inventory-10, Internal and External Locus of Control Scale, and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Sample data were collected using the website SurveyMonkey as the host for the questionnaires. The HBCU Library Alliance listserv and website were also used to access sample participants. Multiple regression analysis in SPSS was utilized as the means for analysis of the results of the study. No significant influence existed in the self-perception of locus of control of the follower and organizational commitment. However, the perception of internal locus of control of the leader by followers was found to have a significant negative influence on commitment. Additionally, openness and conscientiousness of the Big Five personality traits were found to have a significant positive influence on organizational commitment in HBCU libraries.


Individual Readiness for Change: The Impact of Organizational Learning Culture and SDL’s Learning Motivation

Sharmane C. Miller | 2015


This cross-sectional study quantitatively investigated the impact of organizational learning culture (OLC) on individual cognitive readiness (COGRE) and emotional readiness (EMRE) for organizational change. Additionally, the moderating influences of the self-directed learning construct of employees’ learning motivation on the relationships between the single dimension of creating continuous learning opportunities (a dimension of OLC) and COGRE and EMRE for organizational change were examined. Using the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ; Watkins & Marsick, 1993), the Readiness Scale of the Organizational Change Questionnaire-Climate of Change, Processes, and Readiness Scale (OCQ-C, P, R; Bouchenooghe, Devos, & Van den Broeck, 2009), the learning motivation scale of the Self-Directed Learning Instrument (SDLI; Cheng, Kuo, Lin, & Lee-Hsieh, 2010) and a demographic questionnaire, perceptual data were obtained from a sample (N = 130) of public, primary school teachers who were embarking on a major organizational change initiative in The Bahamas. Using multiple hierarchical regressions, the findings indicated first that there were statistically significant relationships between EMRE for change and the seven dimensions of OLC. Second, age influenced the relationship between individuals’ perception of their OLC and their EMRE for change. Third, the study found no statistically significant relationships between level of education and EMRE or COGRE for change. Finally, this study found no moderating effects and inferred no causal relationships because of low R2 values. Understanding the influence of the variables of OLC and learning motivation on individual readiness for organizational change provides valuable insight about how organization leaders can adequately prepare for and execute successful change.


Phenomenological Study of the Mentoring Behaviors of the Four Quadrants of Situational Leadership Within the Department of Defense

Noah Mitchell | 2015


This study examined the mentoring behaviors displayed by supervisors in the four quadrants of the situational leadership (SL) model as they focus on the human resource development side of the workforce. Although no study exists that has examined the mentoring behaviors supervisors demonstrate or employ in the four quadrants of the SL model, Kram’s (1988) study was used as the base for identifying the mentoring behaviors supervisors exhibit. A qualitative phenomenological research was conducted to determine the mentoring behaviors in the four quadrants exhibited by supervisors using the SL model and found that supervisors exhibit acceptance, challenging task, coaching, exposure/visibility, and empowerment. Eight supervisors and eight followers were interviewed. The phenomenology focused on “exploring how human beings make sense of experience and transform experience into consciousness” (Patton, 2002, p. 104) and attempted to understand those “who have directly experienced the phenomenon of interest” (p. 104). This study addressed the theoretical framework of the study, research design, sample size, data collection, data analysis, and conclusion. Results are presented along with a discussion. The results will assist supervisors with developing mentoring relationships and utilizing the appropriate mentoring behavior in each SL quadrant to mentor employees. The results also will serve to assist in developing and improving employee performance and productivity that will lead to employees becoming self-directed learners to complete assigned projects and tasks.


Personal Responsibility in the Financial Services Industry: The Cognitive Antecedents and Behavioral Consequences of an Employee’s Sense of Responsibility in Organizations

Kelly D. Monahan | 2015


The purpose of this research was to define and examine the cognitive antecedents and behavioral consequences of personal responsibility within the workplace. A quantitative research design was conducted on a sample of 200 full-time employees working at The Hartford. Confirmatory structural equation modeling confirmed the a priori model, a full mediation model, as the best fit to represent the relationships found within the personal responsibility model. Self-concept beliefs, as manifested by locus of control and self-efficacy, were strong predictors of one’s ascription of responsibility back to the self. Contextual job beliefs, however, were not found to predict personal responsibility and were rather an indirect influence based on the covariant relationship with self-concept beliefs. As predicted, attitudes towards personal responsibility were a strong predictor of whether one intended to engage in helpful behaviors. Therefore, helpful behavioral intentions were found as a direct consequence of personal responsibility. This study provides an extensive model that evaluates the motivational cognitions and intentions of personal responsibility within the workplace based on the theory of reasoned action framework. The findings call into question the job characteristics model as the most appropriate measure of personal responsibility, which states personal responsibility as a byproduct of autonomy. Rather, personal responsibility may be defined as a cognitive process and individual tendency to attribute the consequences of one’s action back to the self. Perhaps rather than focusing on the amount of autonomy one has within the workplace, research should focus on explaining why some employees have a higher sense of personal responsibility and test the stability of that trait. The call for future research invites greater attention and dialogue to the self-cognitions that drive one to ascribe responsibility back to the self.


Exemplary Lives in Speech, Conduct, Love, Faith, and Purity: An Analysis of 1 Timothy 3-4 for Ethical Leadership

Aaron Perry | 2015


Ethical leadership theory concerns the relationship between ethics and leadership. Brown, Trevino, and Harrison (2005) developed a nomological definition for the purpose of developing the ethical leadership scale that is being used widely (Eisenbeiss, 2012; Hunter, 2012). However, the whole construct of ethical leadership lacks grounding. While Brown et al.’s definition has been more commonly used to measure the effects of this version of ethical leadership, Ciulla (2014) and Eisenbeiss (2012) suggested an interdisciplinary approach to provide a stronger foundation and deeper understanding, including such subjects as effectiveness, virtue, and rule-based ethics. In order to answer this challenge to study ethical leadership with an interdisciplinary approach, this study examined 1 Timothy 3-4 for ethical leadership. The study values theology as a contributing discipline to ethical leadership, but the reader may still engage the analysis of 1 Timothy 3-4 without theological commitment. First Timothy is analyzed using sociorhetorical research, specifically the different textures of the text (Robbins, 1996) including intertexture, social texture, and cultural texture. In this light, 1 Timothy presents qualities for leadership in terms of virtue, skill, and maturity of faith. First Timothy uses categories of virtue for leaders found in contemporary and ancient sources, including military leadership and household leadership. The study concludes that ethical leaders are virtuous people, ethical leaders model to empower followers, ethical leadership is necessarily effective to certain ends, and ethical leadership is formed contextually.


A Correlation Analysis of Person-Job Fit, Job Satisfaction, and Motivational Gifts of Entrepreneurs

Andrea M. Pierce | 2015


The purpose of this research is to extend the inaugural work of DellaVecchio and Winston’s (2004) Romans 12 motivational gifts profile. The research explores the differences in job satisfaction and person–job fit based upon the seven Romans 12 motivational gifts profiles. Specifically, the research examines the variables while evaluating the entrepreneurial population. A convenience sample of 150 entrepreneurs from the continental United States were asked to participate in an online survey comprised of the Romans 12 motivational gifts instrument (DellaVecchio & Winston, 2004), the job satisfaction instrument (Weiss, Dawis, England & Lofquist, 1967), and the person–job fit instrument (Saks & Ashforth, 1997). Cluster analysis was used to examine and identify motivational gifts profiles among the sample. Analysis of variance was conducted to determine the differences in job satisfaction and person–job fit based upon clusters identified of the seven Romans 12 motivational gifts. Additional analysis of variance was conducted to determine which motivational gifts had a significant relationship with job satisfaction and person–job fit. The cluster analysis confirmed two significant clusters, both showing the presence of the Romans 12 motivational gifts. Analysis of variance confirmed a significantly higher correlation between one cluster with the reported high to medium scores of the seven Romans 12 motivational gifts scales. Additional correlation tests found a significant relationships between the Romans motivational gifts, job satisfaction, and person–job fit with weak Pearson product-moment correlations reported for all motivational gifts.


Innovative Behavior in Local Government: Exploring the Impact of Organizational Learning Capacity, Authentic Leadership, Psychological Empowerment, and the Moderating Role of Intrinsic Motivation

Leana Polston-Murdoch | 2015


While conventional wisdom may consider innovation in public service a paradoxical concept, an organizational cultural shift that supports knowledge sharing, learning, and exploration is essential to meet the increasing needs and demands of stakeholders. The pace of innovation is increasing in local government as a result of forward-thinking and risk-taking government leaders who partner with subject-matter experts and academic researchers who continue to transform the historical risk-adverse bureaucratic leadership to a culture that cultivates innovative behavior. This study set out to investigate cognitive and contextual factors that influence innovation in local government. The overarching purpose of this study was to investigate how organizational learning capacity, authentic leadership, psychological empowerment, and intrinsic motivation influence innovative behavior within local governments. This framework offers multitheoretical support to understand innovative behavior in local government. Through the lens of social cognitive theory, this research brings into focus how the environment, behavior, and cognitive factors contribute toward innovative behavior within local government. Drawing from self-determination theory, this study examined how psychological empowerment influences innovative behavior. Authentic leadership theory explains how employees’ perception of authentic leaders influences innovative behavior. Self-determination theory clarifies how intrinsic motivation influences the relationships between organizational learning capacity, psychological empowerment, and authentic leadership with innovative behavior. This study used a single-period cross-sectional design. Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to examine survey responses from a sample of 302 local government employees within the United States.


Understanding Team Effectiveness in Culturally Intelligent Intercultural Teams

Scott Reitz | 2015


Globalization has stimulated unprecedented global migration, creating and demanding cultural diversity in organizations and in their teams. Organizations today are increasingly diverse, and intercultural teams are no longer multinational concepts alone. Within national borders, populations are increasingly diverse, and organizational teams reflect this diversity. Regardless of how small cultural differences appear, they have the potential to create significant differences in how teams communicate, perform, and make decisions. Livermore (2009) argued that no two team members respond to the same cultural value in the same way. The current study expands the understanding of how culturally intelligent intercultural teams view effectiveness by identifying key themes drawn from episodic interviews with team members. The more significant emergent themes is the firmly held belief that effective intercultural teams require trust, shared values, service to others, and a respect for team and team members.


Self Efficacy in the Leadership of Jesus’ Disciples: An Inner Texture Socio-Rhetorical Analysis of the Gospel According to John

Davina Sandifer | 2015


Leadership development is a well-known component of successful organizations. As such, leadership development programs are a viable solution for equipping employees with desired skills and characteristics. This study assessed self-efficacy as a generalizable methodology for creating effective leadership development programs. The premise was based on the validity, reliability, predictability, and generalizability of self-efficacy theory and measurement instruments. Through inner texture sociorhetorical analysis of self-efficacy in the leadership development of Jesus’ disciples, sources of efficacy and corresponding learning activities were identified. The following components of self-efficacy in the disciples’ leadership development process were found: the use of a prevalent source of efficacy to cultivate belief in specific thematic content, the utilization of multiple sources of efficacy to cultivate belief in specific thematic content, the use of a prevalent learning activity for specific thematic content, the use of a variety of learning activities to cultivate efficacy as it relates to each category of thematic content, an organized progression of the content, and learning activities facilitated by an authoritative figure. These components were adapted into the self-efficacy leadership development model, a methodology for creating leadership development programs that utilizes sources of efficacy in determining what learning content and learning activities will be most effective in accomplishing leadership development goals.


Twelve Steps Toward Leader Humility: A Sociorhetorical Analysis of Benedict of Nursia’s Chapter on Humility

Jake Stum | 2015


This inductive, qualitative research study explored the construct of leader humility within the context of organizational leadership as demonstrated in the writings of Benedict of Nursia, specifically Chapter 7 of Rule of Saint Benedict. This study further sought to understand factors of humility and answer the following three research questions: What is the process of humility development as described in Chapter 7 of the Rule of Saint Benedict? Do the descriptions of organizational humility provided by Galbraith and Galbraith (2004) effectively define the construct of organizational humility promoted by the Rule of Saint Benedict? How does the organizational humility proposed by Benedict reflect or challenge current models of humility in organizational research? The research method employed in this study emerged from the theoretical approach of hermeneutics as described by Gadamer (2004) and Patton (2002), using sociorhetorical critical analysis (Robbins, 1996a) as the interpretative method with a focus on both the inner textuality and the intertextuality of Chapter 7 of the Rule. Following Robbins’ (1996b) recommended framework, the applied analyses included separate study of inner texts and intertexts. Inner texture analysis included (a) repetitive, (b) progressive, (c) narrational, (d) open-middle-closing, and (e) argumentative textures and patterns. Intertexture exploration included (a) oral-scribal, (b) cultural, (c) social, and (d) historical analysis. A progressive, descriptive model of leader humility emerged to indicate a process of development including the following steps: (a) revelation, (b) commitment, (c) abnegation, (d) submission, (e) patience, (f) honesty, (g) contentment, (h) dependency, (i) measured speech, and (g) saturation. A discussion of the research findings and implications for contemporary organizational leadership is included in addition to potential study limitations and possible future research related to this topic.


Traditionally Inherited Leadership Among the Ewes in Togo, West Africa—Reasons and Beliefs: Building an Integrative Approach

Boniface Toulassi | 2015


Leadership in Africa is still characterized by authoritarian durability—a perpetual presidential incumbency syndrome. To have a deeper understanding of this phenomenon, this dissertation used problem-focused ethnographic methods to investigate reasons and beliefs associated with inherited leadership and how agapao leadership and hope theory could be useful in the construction of an integrative approach to Ewe leadership with shared and participative leadership among the Ewe-Mina in Togo, West Africa. The study (N = 65) employed participant observation, directed observation, and interview-based participant listening with chiefs, queens, notables, royal family, youth, and a district officer to collect rich qualitative data. After coding emergent themes and categories, thick descriptions of Ewe leadership formed a foundation for analysis. Emergent themes were first analyzed using indigenous typologies and then analyst-constructed typologies before being interpreted to present an indigenous portrayal of the characteristics of the Ewe traditionally inherited leadership, its roles, and concerns—and how decisions are made. Royal ancestorship, Zipki, and Fa indicated inheritance and support for the Duto, who, with a successful role play of functional lordship and leadership, facilitates balance and control of power through his prerogative to approve or not any chief appointed by the royal council. Though hierarchical, the flow of information and communication is facilitated by a traditional organ, Kpavi, which is a framework for collegiality, participation, and representation from the people. Though male-dominated, Ewe leadership is open to youth leadership and a substantial growing female leadership with a special focus on female development and emancipation. Data also pointed at critical changes, compelling chiefs to derive their respect and worth from pragmatist and utilitarian angles of instead of from its institutionality. Drawing from the data, suggestions are offered regarding the integration of theory (agapao and hope) and leadership in the construction of the Ewe integrative approach (Togbui, Mama, and Sohefia) keeping Kpavi as a way to claim important traditional aspects.


Development of the Authentic Followership Profile (AFP) Test Instrument

Leroy P. VanWhy | 2015


Until recently, the concept of followership has been a relatively general term; an individual who was not a leader was a follower. However, just as differing types of leadership theories have emerged, followership theories are an evolving concept. One such theory is authentic followership (AF), which has only started to emerge in the last decade. Although scholars such as Avolio and Reichard (2008); de Zilwa (2014); Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, May, and Walumbwa (2005); and Goffee and Jones (2006) have developed various models and conceptualizations of AF, to date, there has been no empirical instrument to measure the construct (de Zilwa, 2014). The current research developed and validated a Authentic Followership Profile (AFP) instrument using the attributes that the aforementioned authors used to describe an authentic follower. A panel of five subject matter experts was enlisted to help define a more concise list of attributes of AF from 155 characteristics extracted from the literature. After review and adjudication, the list was narrowed to 74 items that were submitted to a sample participation group via an online survey; 301 completed responses were received. To establish test criterion-related validity, a 20-item test instrument for courageous followership (Dixon, 2003, 2006; Muhlenbeck, 2012) and a nine-item test instrument measuring antisocial behaviors (Fields, 2002; Robinson & O’Leary-Kelly, 1998) were included in the survey that established, as expected, a positive and negative correlation to AF. Component factor analysis results revealed four distinct components within the 74 characteristics that explained 52.48% of the variance. The four components include internalized moral perspective, self-awareness, relational transparency, and psychological ownership, which closely parallel the construct of authentic leadership (Northouse, 2013; Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008) as anticipated. Reliability is very strong with Cronbach’s alphas of .84, .83, .81, and .85, respectively. The final AFP scale contains 23 items. The results of this research open a previously unavailable avenue for future scholarly exploration, as well as potential practitioner application for employee evaluation on this important followership construct.


A Situational Examination of Motivation to Lead: Gendered Implications in Leader Development

Teresa Watson | 2015


Previous research studies have indicated that there are fewer women than men in leadership positions. The causes for this are less understood. This study adopted a different approach to reviewing the situation by focusing on the leader development aspect of motivation to lead (MTL) and whether or not it is impacted by environmental aspects of the organization in the forms of political perceptions, relationships with a current leader, and work-family conflicts. Each of these factors has been shown to have a relationship with gender. This research investigated whether or not gender affects their relationship with a composite form of MTL by examining gender as a moderator variable. Data from a sample of employed individuals in different industries, including government, partially support some hypothesized relationships between MTL, leader-member exchange, and political perceptions. Gender implications are discussed. Limitations and future research for MTL and leader development are addressed.


An Examination of Leadership Charisma From the Perspective of the Apostle Paul and Max Weber With a View Toward an Ecclesial Charismatic Leadership Theory: A Sociorhetorical Interpretation of 1 Corinthians 12

William D. West | 2015


This qualitative study examines the concept of charisma found in 1 Corinthians 12 with a view toward exploring an ecclesial charismatic leadership theory. The sociorhetorical method of interpretation is the primary exegetical method used to explore 1 Corinthians 12. The specific concepts of spiritual gifts presented in 1 Corinthians 12 have long been examined by theologians throughout the history of the church. However, very few articles or books have considered the Pauline concept of charisma as the power and authority the Holy Spirit provides to each individual within the ecclesia. It is the charisma that not only brings the spiritual gift but also provides the power and authority for the individual to provide leadership within the ecclesia through the use of his or her particular spiritual gift for the common good. Paul is credited with coining the term charisma which is grossly misappropriated by Weber (1903/1978). Paul considered power and authority within charisma to be from God and immutable, while Weber described power and authority as being held by the followers who retain the potential for withdrawal by the followers. The sociorhetorical interpretation of 1 Corinthians 12 reveals a model for ecclesial charismatic leadership that begins with God who provides the charisma to each individual of the ecclesia through the indwelling of the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit provides each individual with a particular spiritual gift. Once the individual understands his or her particular spiritual gift and expresses the gift, two things happen. First, the individual fulfills the individual goal for which his or her spiritual gift is given. Second, as each individual expresses his or her spiritual gift, the organizational goal of the common good of the ecclesia is achieved. Therefore, the expression of each individual’s spiritual gift results in greater organizational commitment for the individual and greater overall organizational effectiveness of the ecclesia.

2015 Outstanding DSL Project

Next: Reinventing Your Future Through Innovation

By Seth M. Stone

This manuscript contends that those leading and working in today’s organizations regardless of the industry need to develop a greater focus on innovation as a competitive advantage for future success and sustainability. This starts by developing a new understanding of what innovation is versus what society at large tends to portray it as. When we see a sleek new product enter the marketplace we deem that as innovation. The reality is that is just the end result of a much more elaborate process and this manuscript attempts to break down this process in a way that organizational leaders and employees can implement practically and effectively. Further, it goes on to address key areas of any organization that directly impact the ability to innovate by those in the organization. These areas include leader and follower dynamics, organizational design, strategy, information sharing and learning, values and ethics, organizational culture and human capital development. This manuscript offers tools and suggestions for creating alignment between each of these critical areas and a new or revamped innovation program. Finally, it challenges the reader to reconsider how they are going to go about executing their organizational vision and strategy based on the information in the manuscript and suggests key overarching principles to focus on when attempting to embed a culture of innovation.