Volume 6, Issue 3 / 2011
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From the Editor
Dail Fields

This issue of the International Journal of Leadership Studies continues to present opportunities to develop global perspectives on the role of leaders and followers in organizations. Our authors continue to bless us with excellent material, and we continue to work hand-in-hand with authors to present interesting, educational, and professional research. The diversity of topics and authors presents insightful alternative views on leadership processes and results.

We are happy to welcome two new additions to our editorial board. Dr. Gilbert Jacobs is dean of graduate studies and director of the Organizational Leadership Graduate Program at Mercyhurst College located in Erie, PA. Dr. Jane Waddell is an adjunct professor with Mercyhurst College, specializing in the linkages between emotional intelligence and leadership.

Prospective authors should take note that the IJLS now has more than 3,000 subscribers, receiving our issues free of charge via the Internet. We continue to seek new manuscripts and subscribers, so bring them on!

Practitioner’s Corner
Tracy H. Porter

Positive Organizational Behavior (POB) is a field of research that has gained attention in recent years for "looking at those human strengths and psychological capacities that lend themselves to developmental approaches specifically designed to enhance workplace performance" (Luthans, 2003). In much of the literature, the POB construct of confidence is described as based upon self-efficacy; therefore, many theorists have stated that the terms are interchangeable. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of the current literature regarding each construct with the intent of conducting future research. Also included is correspondence with Drs. Bandura and Luthans (2009) regarding this topic. [more]

Cultural Profile of Russian Leadership
Grigory Ambrozheichik

The study presented in this paper aims to formulate a composite profile of Russian organizational leadership based on a review and analysis of research conducted in the last 15 years by Western and Russian scholars. Russian leadership will be approached from the perspectives of cross-cultural organizational research and implicit leadership theory. First, perceptions of effective Russian leadership will be explored in a number of studies, including the GLOBE project. Other studies will also be used for evidence of current organizational leadership practice in Russia. A comparative analysis within and between both sets of studies is then expected to reveal areas of commonality, general trends, and principles with regard to how leadership is perceived and practiced in Russia. The projected results of this study include better cross-cultural understanding, comparison, and assessment of Russian leadership by foreign and local organizational members. [more]
It's Happiness that Counts: Full Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction on the Linkage from LMX to Turnover Intention in Chinese Companies
Shuhong Wang & Xiang Yi
This study suggests mediation analysis as a better way to understand inconsistency of findings regarding how leader member exchange (LMX) relates to turnover intention in Chinese companies. Job satisfaction and job stress are hypothesized as two possible mediation paths. In a relationship-oriented culture setting, such inquires are particularly important and meaningful. Findings show that job satisfaction fully mediates the relationship between LMX and intention of turnover, and that job stress does not mediate the linkage between LMX and intention of turnover. Theoretical and practical implications, including cross-cultural meanings, are discussed. [more]
Exploring Leadership Profiles from Collaborative Computer Gaming
Anna Siewiorek & Erno Lehtinen
The purpose of this study is to examine if leadership styles can emerge in teams playing a strategic game in a computer gaming environment. The research questions are: 1) What leadership styles would emerge, if any, during the gaming session, and 2) What leadership styles, if any, could be exercised through playing the strategic computer game? In order to get a better understanding of what leadership styles would emerge during the gaming session, researchers observed students' interactions while they played a strategic computer game. The goal of this observation was to determine how many students, if any, would assume leadership roles. In the study, a group of Stanford University graduate students participated in the gaming session. The participants' task was to manage an estate company in small teams. There were three teams with three members on each team; teams competed against each other. Students developed goals, discussed problems, and tracked progress in order to win the game. Results showed that various leadership styles emerged during the gaming session. The leadership styles that emerged are described in the paper. In conclusion, the gaming environment served as a tool to exercise shared leadership. [more]
A Developmental Approach to Global Leadership
Joana S. P. Story
Global leadership development has received increased attention in recent years from practitioners and researchers. Drawing from global mindset, constructive development, and intercultural sensitivity literatures, this article proposes a model for developing global leaders. While developmental activities are challenging for most individuals, it is proposed that training domestic leaders to develop psychological capital will facilitate their growth into global leaders. [more]
Emotional Intelligence, Leader-Member Exchange, Organizational Justice, and Outcome Variables: A Conceptual Model
Jahanvash Karim
The purpose of this study was to test a model of relations among emotional intelligence (EI), Leader-Member Exchange (LMX), organizational justice perceptions, and work-related attitudinal outcomes. The model postulated that EI is related positively to LMX. The LMX was postulated as positive predictor of both distributive and procedural justice. Organizational justice was posited as a positive predictor of job satisfaction and organizational commitment, but a negative predictor of turnover intentions. A total of 106 participants voluntarily participated in the study. Hypothesized relationships were examined using Partial Least Squares (PLS) Structural Equation Modeling. As predicted, EI was a positive predictor of LMX. LMX was a positive predictor of both distributive and procedural justice. Distributive justice was a positive predictor of job satisfaction and a negative predictor of turnover intentions. Finally, procedural justice was a positive predictor of both job satisfaction and organizational commitment and was a negative predictor of turnover intentions. [more]
Sustainable Leadership Development: A Conceptual Model of a Cross-Cultural Blended Learning Program
Linda D. Grooms & Kathaleen Reid-Martinez
This longitudinal cross-cultural case study demonstrates that sustainable leadership can evolve from carefully orchestrated educational programs. Using a mixed-methods approach to study learners during a two-year graduate program and two years post-graduation, this research confirmed that leadership sustainability was an intricate weaving of multiple factors in three critical areas: (a) sustained communication in the ICT/Blended environment, (b) sustained mentoring, and (c) sustained curriculum and learning. In response to the research question—how do we enhance leadership sustainability in a cross-cultural blended learning leadership education program—we found the synergy of sustained educational and communicational elements to be key. Together, they immersed learners in a virtual/blended learning environment that focused on ethics, values, and transformation at the personal and organizational levels. Through modeling and mentoring, learners received intentional leadership support while learning to build leadership sustainability within themselves and their followers. Such learning creates a cycle of ongoing leadership development that continuously moves current and future leaders from information to the creation of reservoirs of knowledge and wisdom, further deepening and sustaining leadership. This continuous leadership growth provides an important constant in the evolution of sustainability, demonstrating that like sustainable development, sustainable leadership represents a process, not an end state. [more]
The Influence of Personality Factors on Transformation Leadership: Exploring the Moderating Role of Political Skill
Simone T. A. Phipps & Leon C. Prieto
Several articles have resolved that a leader's individual personality plays a role in determining his or her leadership style. This review addresses this verdict by providing a theoretical examination of the relationship between the "Big Five" and transformational leadership (TFL), introducing political skill as a potential moderator. It investigates the dimensions of the Big Five as independent variables and explores how these intrinsic qualities correlate with transformational leadership. It also defends its proposal of political skill as a moderator of the Big Five-TFL relationship. Propositions concerning direct relationships and interactions are provided, as well as a conceptual model, implications, and suggestions for future research. [more]

Please note: Views and opinions expressed in the articles published in the International Journal of Leadership Studies (IJLS) represent each author's research and viewpoint and do not necessarily represent IJLS or its sponsors. IJLS and its sponsors make no representations about the accuracy of the information contained in published manuscripts and disclaims any and all responsibility or liability resulting from the information contained in the IJLS.

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