From the Editor
Bruce E. Winston, Ph.D.

Welcome to Volume 9, Issue 1 of Emerging Leadership Journeys (ELJ). This issue contains qualitative and quantitative research articles produced by students in the School of Business & Leadership's Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership program. These articles provide excellent examples of the type of work our students produce during their program of study.


Followership and Performance in Acquisition, Research and Development Organizations
Valentin Novikov

Although Kelley (1992) contended that approximately 80 percent of the organization's success may be attributed to followers, the concept of followership remains an understudied phenomenon (Uhl-Bien, Riggio, Lowe, & Carsten, 2014. One study, conducted by Oyetunji (2013), focused on the impact of followership styles on job performance in the Botswana culture. It included only in-role behaviors (IRB) and not organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) even though Blanchard, Welbourne, Gilmore, and Bullock (2009) posited that exemplary followers exhibit proactive behaviors and take the initiative leading to actions far beyond the minimum job requirements. Since this may have caused Oyetunji's (2013) study results to be inconsistent with Kelley's (1992) followership model, a cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted for the first time on the impact of followership styles on both IRB and OCB job performance. The research results supported the supposition that there is a difference in average job performance and work group performance of exemplary followers in comparison to pragmatist followers. Furthermore, the results supported the hypotheses that correlations exist between the active engagement dimension of followership with both job and work group performance, as well as the critical thinking dimension of followership and job performance. Finally, the study found no statistically significant correlation exist between critical thinking and work group performance. These results pointed to the need for future empirical research on the relationships of followership styles and dimensions with job and organizational performance.
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An Understanding of Humility-Based Leadership Impacting Organizational Climate
Robert B. Huizinga

Humility has been studied both as a separate entity and as seen within various forms of ethical leadership. Collins (2005) describes 'Level 5 leadership' as one where the leader combines intense professional will with personal humility. Humble leaders place the needs of the followers above the organization, and this humbleness allows an organization to move forward. Using social-rhetorical criticism on Peter's writings to newly converted Christians demonstrates the importance of a humble heart attitude. Humility includes a lowliness of mind, an occasion to witness through leadership and the need for peacefulness despite the situation. A review of the literature notes that presence of validated scales for self-assessment, and one scale for follower assessment of humility which has not had further development. More work should be done to develop the understanding of humility-based leadership, an understanding of follower valuation of humility-based leadership and the impact of humility on organizational culture.
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Ideological Texture Analysis of Daniel 1 and Diaspora
Suzana Dobric Veiss

This study of Daniel 1, which is primarily an ideological texture analysis, attempts to determine the significance and implications of Daniel's deportation. Daniel 1:1-21 presents a story of Daniel, a young man, who was captured in his hometown, Jerusalem, and taken into captivity to Babylon. The analysis explores the assimilation attempts by king Nebuchadnezzar and Daniel's response. Finally, the study examines the possible application to the field of cross-cultural leadership, specifically in-group collectivism, cultural intelligence, and diaspora. This study includes the following sections: a) definition of ideological texture analysis; b) description of Daniel 1 pericope; c) the ideological texture analysis on Daniel 1; d) examination of crosscultural leadership, specifically in-group collectivism, cultural intelligence, and diaspora; and e) implications for further research.
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Women in Leadership in the Nuclear Power Industry
Tamara R. Kenney

This paper presents a research study on women in leadership positions within the nuclear power industry. There is very limited existing research into women in leadership within the male dominated world of nuclear power generation. The current state of women in leadership roles in general is reviewed as well as the roles of women in science and engineering based industries. An interview based study was conducted to investigate the career background and leadership actions of women in leadership roles within the nuclear power generation industry. Common themes of glass ceiling, stereotypes, effort, career influences, technical skills, women in nuclear, and openness/innovation were found in the participant's responses. This study contributes to the body of knowledge on women in leadership in male dominated industries like nuclear power and also provides insights into practices for developing additional women to take on leadership roles in this technically complex industry.
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Augustine as a Culture Migrant: An Integral Historical Analysis with Contemporary Applications
Jonathan Allbaugh

This research examines the present cultural challenges of the Church, and attempts to contribute insights and solutions from a historical analysis of Augustine of Hippo. Beginning with the exploration of presenting problems in current ecclesial leadership and structure along with questions that emerge from the identified problems, a synopsis of previous literature on Augustine was arranged to set the stage for a transdisciplinary analysis. Socio-cultural, philosophical, and organizational disciplines are used to observe the key influencers, educational development, occupational roles, preaching ministry, theological ministry, pastoral ministry and philosophical contributions of Augustine. Socio-cultural mapping of Augustine's life revealed the significant themes of culture icons, resisting authority structures, compliance versus volition, and socio-cultural impact upon preaching. From these historical themes, an application to current ecclesial challenges was presented.
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Qualities Distinctive to Christian Researchers: A Quest for Spiritual Significance
Irini Fambro

Significance is not only a distinction made in quantitative research, but it is one held by the Christian scholar doing quantitative research as well. Yet for the Christian scholar, the significance level is both statistically and spiritually informed. Three distinctive qualities of the Christian quantitative researcher contribute to the discussion of practical and meaningful significance in research. The three qualities include: a supernatural calling on the researcher's life; engagement with God on what to research, the research, and how to further research; and the worldview based upon biblical principles.
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