From the Editor
Bruce E. Winston, Ph.D.

Welcome to Volume 8, Issue 1 of Emerging Leadership Journeys (ELJ). This issue contains qualitative and quantitative research articles produced by students in the School of Business & Leadership's Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership program. These articles provide excellent examples of the type of work our students produce during their program of study.


Christian Spirituality and Small Group Effectiveness: A Socio-rhetorical Analysis of Acts 6:1-7
William Sawyer

This qualitative research study examines the relationship of Christian spirituality in the context of small groups as demonstrated in the pericope Acts 6. The paper seeks to addresses the exegetical gap in the research that answers the research question: Do the Scriptures provide exegetical support that Christian spirituality relates to diverse work team's effectiveness in achieving the organization's desired outcome? The research method uses Patton's (2002) hermeneutical theoretical approach and Robbins' (1996) socio-rhetorical criticism of the ideological texture of the sacred Christian text of Acts 6:1-7 NKJV. The discussion will include research analysis and implications for Christian spirituality in the context of small groups with recommendations for potential future qualitative research.
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Empowerment and Coworker Response to Leader Tactic and Organizational Hope
Larry D. Phillips

Socio-cognitive approaches to leadership study remain the front-runner in research; this study presents a model, which shows the quality of coworker exchange and organizational hope significantly influence workplace empowerment. The mode clearly presents the power of reciprocal behavior from leader influence tactic and statistical significance of coworker exchange quality, which responds as an influence multiplier for organizational hope. The follower's perception of a leader is shown to affect the characterization image held by the follower and the conclusions drawn of the leader and by the leader. The nature of leadership is analyzed to reveal an environment type that is conducive to workplace empowerment so that work is optimized and goals exceeded. Coworker social exchange is poised through the studied model as a cognitive constructed influence emerging through the follower's implicit image. The nature of the memory-held image emerged unnoticed by the member from an information processing perspective based on past situational trait patterns. The reciprocal nature of the leader-follower relationship and coworker exchange is shown to mediate and moderate organizational relationships such that emancipation of control occurs through an empowered work force.
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Effects of Servant Leadership on Satisfaction with Leaders: Inclusion of Situational Variables
Duky Charles

This paper presents a research study exploring whether the effects of servant leadership on follower satisfaction with the leader can be moderated by some situational variables. It builds a model constituting of five theories, namely servant leadership as the independent variable, satisfaction with the leader as the criterion variable, job demands, fairness in pay and perceived organizational support as situational variables. It employs a cross-sectional survey from a combination of five questionnaires pertaining respectively to each variable under investigation to collect data from 123 employees working in five small organizations in northern Haiti. Using regression analysis, the results indicate that only the first hypothesis is supported and that none of the situational variables yield significant moderating effects. The paper explains what may cause such results and suggests further investigators test the model with leader-member exchange relationship as a situational variable.
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Group Formation in a Cross-Cultural Environment
C. Victor Herbin III

Globalization presents organizational leaders with a series of challenges towards developing, building, and creating effective groups/teams within the modern work environment. While a culturally diverse work environment poses unique challenges to group formation within the 21st century, a review of Romans Chapter 1-3 suggests evidence of this organizational phenomenon existed millennials ago. This paper provides an exegetical analysis of Romans 1-3 that examines the question of how organizational leaders build group formation within a cross-cultural environment. Paul's experiences in the selected scriptures reveals three applicable themes: (a) The elimination of racial and ethnic barriers to develop universal acceptance; (b) Foster an environment of unconditional love despite social identity; and (c) creating faith will neutralize real or perceived differences. Although workplace demographics changed over the years, organizational objectives to develop and maintain strong relationships, improve employee morale, and maximize production remains unchanged. Ultimately, the modern day work environment requires bold, adaptable, and flexible organizational members with a high level of cross-cultural competence to lead in this effort.
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Perceived Organizational Support and Job Overload as Moderators on the Relationship between Leadership Effectiveness and Job Satisfaction
C. P. Weaver, Jr.

Effective leadership should be the goal of any organization that desires to be efficient and competitive. The positive perception of effective leadership can enhance individual outcomes such as job satisfaction. Therefore, understanding any influences on the association between effective leadership and job satisfaction will guide leaders to relationships that are more effective. This study examined the predictive ability of leader effectiveness on employee job satisfaction and the ability of perceived organizational support and job overload to moderate that relationship. Survey data from three different economic sectors produced 70 cases for a moderated hierarchical multiple regression. A significant main effect for leader effectiveness on job satisfaction was found, but neither moderator provided an influence on that relationship. Although leader effectiveness is most often used as an organizational outcome in leadership studies, this research supports the variable as a predictor of organizational outcomes.
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