From the Editor
Bruce E. Winston, Ph.D.

Welcome to Volume 5, Issue 1 of Emerging Leadership Journeys (ELJ). This issue contains seven of the best research course projects submitted by students in their first, second, third, and fourth semesters of the Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership program. The Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership program has, as one of its objectives, to prepare students to conduct research and publish the findings. During the first year of the program, the focus on research is more on the conceptual, literature review and model/proposal side, thus the focus in ELJ on these types of papers. I am pleased to present these seven articles for your reading and consideration.


The Development and Use of the Theory of ERG: A Literature Review
Jane R. Caulton

This literature review discusses twenty-three articles that have contributed to the development and understanding of the theory of existence, relatedness, and growth (ERG). The theory is traced from its outgrowth of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs through efforts to further understand and expand its implications. ERG is mostly applied to the study of human motivation in the work place as a tool for increasing morale and productivity. It has helped researchers to understand what constitutes job satisfaction and to identify incentives. The literature includes empirical studies, mostly quantitative, and discussions of ERG as a means for promoting a cause. The range of literature shows that the theory has broad relevance, including sociological, psychological, and organizational.
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Leadership Behavior and Organizational Climate: An Empirical Study in a Non-profit Organization
Joseph B. Holloway

The primary purpose of this research paper is to present an empirical study framed by the theory that task-oriented and relations-oriented leadership behaviors are positively related to the employees’ perceptions of organizational climate. The study examined the following research question: Are task-oriented and relations-oriented leadership behaviors related to different dimensions of organizational climate in a non-profit organization? The study introduces the theoretical perspective and examines the relevant literature that supports the significance of leadership behavior and organizational climate. The methodology for collecting the data was through the combination of two quantitative instruments into a web-based questionnaire consisting of 79 questions aimed at determining the relative contribution that the independent variables (task-oriented and relations-oriented leadership behaviors) have on the dependent variables (the different dimensions of organizational climate). The following control variables were collected from the sample and were statistically controlled in the data analysis: age, educational level, gender, job rank, and job tenure. The results of the study show that certain leadership behaviors do have an impact on a few dimensions of organizational climate.
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Acts 2: An Example of the Divine Empowerment of Leaders
Wayne R. Sass

The Holy Bible reveals the pre-existent nature of leadership, provides examples of divinely ordained leader-follower relationships, and forms the basis for leadership theory. Through intertexture analysis of the second chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, this paper explores the use of the gift of prophecy, through the Holy Spirit, to communicate God’s divine empowerment of leaders in the early Christian church as in the Old Testament. Through summary examinations of contemporary leadership theories, early Christian leaders’ behaviors are compared to the salient leadership behaviors associated with each of the theories as revealed in Acts chapter 2. The present piece demonstrates that, while the theoretical description and classification of these theories may be contemporary, their practice is ancient. Following a pattern that is evident in Scripture from before the beginning of time, Jesus Christ and subsequent leaders of the early Christian church divinely received their authority and empowerment to lead believers from God through the Holy Spirit.
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A Review of the Literature Concerning Ethical Leadership in Organizations
Kelly Monahan

The following article explores the literature regarding the topic of ethical leadership. Thirty-eight articles were identified that are written by authors who focused on four main topics. These topics are the definition of ethical leadership, the personal integrity and morality of a leader, how a leader ethically influences followers, and current challenges facing ethical leaders. These four topics are explored in further detail within the literature review. Overall, it is found that ethical leadership is complex and a relatively newer field of study. Yet, common themes include the need for establishing trust and gaining ethical knowledge by way of study and application. Also, major organizational failures, such as Enron, have ignited an interest within the field. Possible further research is recommended at the end of this review.
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Divine Empowerment: An Intertexture Analysis of Acts 2
Bruce E. Watley

The purpose of this article is to conduct an intertexture analysis of Acts 2, to understand the passage as it relates to divine empowerment and leadership theory. Using socio-rhetorical criticism analysis, and more specifically, oral-scribal, historical, social, and cultural intertexture, we are able to identify unique layers within the text. This aids in developing a richer meaning to aspects of the text that individuals often overlook when reading. God, through the Holy Spirit, gives divine empowerment to help individuals develop specific leadership styles. This article builds the case for (a) where divine empowerment comes from, (b) how it manifests in authentic Christ-centered leaders, and (c) how it applies to transformational leadership. Transformational leadership involves leaders who use idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, individual consideration and inspirational motivation with the sole intent of developing the follower to accomplish what they once believed was impossible. The result is a follower who develops through (a) vision, (b) empowerment, (c) motivation, (d) morality, and (e) individual growth. When a follower is fully developed they begin to change others through the same process.
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Development of Moral Reasoning at a Higher Education Institution in Nigeria
James D. Rose

The growing number of Nigerian higher education institutions should improve development of moral reasoning in Nigeria, assuming these institutions have a similar impact as institutions have had in the United States. To test this hypothesis, this study completed a cross-sectional survey of a Christian higher education institution in Nigeria using the Defining Issues Test (DIT2), a proven tool for measuring moral reasoning. The survey confirms that moral reasoning improves during undergraduate studies when students have contact with their professors outside of class. Although DIT2 scores were lower than United States norms, results indicate that the DIT2 N2 index can be used to measure relative moral reasoning levels in Nigeria. Additional research is needed to determine whether the lower Nigerian DIT2 scores are due to lower moral reasoning or other factors such as cultural differences.
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Divine Empowerment of Leaders: An Intertextual Analysis of Luke's use of Joel 2, Psalm 16 and Psalm 110 in Peter's Sermon in Acts 2
Edward W. Hatch

Applying the socio-rhetorical school of interpretation to Peter’s sermon in Acts 2, this paper attempts to gain insight into Luke’s understanding of the concept of the divine empowerment of leaders. This intertextual analysis of Acts 2 explores Luke’s use of Joel 2, Psalm 16 and Psalm 110 to show how Luke employs oral, social and cultural intertextualization to recontexualize and reconfigure certain Old Testament texts in order to prove that Jesus is the prophetic fulfillment of Lord and Messiah. Three principles of leadership empowerment are elicited from the analysis: Empowered leaders seek the good of the group not their own glory; divinely empowered leaders are divinely accountable; and empowered leaders speak boldly into chaos. Three contemporary leadership theories are associated with the results of this study: Bolman and Deal’s Reframing Leadership Theory, DuRue and Ashford’s Social Process of Leadership Identity Construct Theory, and Uhl-Bien’s Relational Leadership Theory.
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