From the Editor
Bruce E. Winston, Ph.D.

Welcome to Volume 13, Issue 1 of Emerging Leadership Journeys (ELJ). This issue contains qualitative and quantitative research articles produced by students in the School of Business & Leadership's Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership program. These articles provide excellent examples of the type of work our students produce during their program of study.


Millennial and Generation Z's Perspectives on Leadership Effectiveness
M. Jake Aguas

A large body of literature suggests that defining effective leadership continues to be a challenge to theorists and practitioners alike. The construct has been characterized in terms of "traits, behaviors, influence, interaction patterns, role relationships, and occupation of an administrative position" (Yukl, 2013, p. 2). Depending on the field of study, occupation, or vocational context, leadership is described in numerous fashions. Layer generational differences onto the equation and another dimension of complexity emerges. This qualitative phenomenological study responds to these challenges by addressing the descriptives and behaviors associated with effective leadership through the lens of America's two youngest generational cohorts— Millennials and Generation Z. Based on an analysis and theming of 12 one-on-one interviews that utilized In-Vivo and Pattern Coding, emerging generations describe effective leadership as influential, results-driven, and leading by example with a servant's heart. Effective leaders are emotionally intelligent; they prioritize their team's needs and operate with transparency and consistency in communication.

Keywords: leadership effectiveness, Millennials, Generation Z, leadership behaviors
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Perceived Servant Leadership Impact on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment Across Cultures
Brian T. Moore

The quantitative study explored servant leadership behaviors across two cultures and serves as a step toward answering a call for future research to investigate the qualitative "why" of servant leadership. Theoretical underpinnings rested on Greenleaf's construct of servant leadership represented by three measures, (a) cross-cultural measure of servant leadership behaviors, (b) overall job satisfaction, and (c) shortened organizational commitment questionnaire. I used a (a) quantitative research study, (b) quasi-experimental design, (c) cross-sectional, and (d) convenience sampling with (e) t-test and (f) multiple regression analysis to investigate the potential differences between two cultures concerning followers' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and perceived servant leadership behaviors of their leaders. I collected 215 usable responses from 35 cultures via email and social media using a 40-question online survey. Using t-tests for the five research questions, I found there was (a) no statistically significant differences for perceived servant leadership dimensions (service, humility, and vision) of the leaders between US and non-US followers, (b) no differences in followers' job satisfaction between US and non-US followers, or (c) no differences in followers' organizational commitment between US and non-US followers. Using multiple linear regression for the four hypotheses, I found perceived servant leadership traits (service, humility, and vision) of leaders are positively related to US and non-US followers' job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Additionally, the multiple linear regression models indicated that only service and vision were significant predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment for US and non-US followers.

Keywords: quantitative, quasi-experimental, multiple regression, t-test, United States
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Managing Group Conflict in the Multicultural Church: An Exegetical Research Analysis of Ephesians 2:11-22
Angela Nicholas

This chapter presents an exegetical research analysis to understand how Apostle Paul managed the conflict between the multicultural groups in the First Century Church. The analysis examined Ephesians 2:11-22 according to Robbins' (1996) socio-rhetorical analysis. Specifically, the researcher examined the pericope's inner texture to determine how Apostle Paul mitigated cross-cultural conflict among the members of the Church in Ephesus. The socio-rhetorical analysis revealed insights to answer the following questions: (1) How did Apostle Paul advise the Church in Ephesus on how to handle conflict among members of different cultures? and (2) Did Apostle Paul propose a multicultural experience or monocultural experience to mitigate cross-cultural conflict among the members of the Church in Ephesus? The socio-rhetorical analysis revealed that Apostle Paul advised the members of the Church in Ephesus to overcome conflict by embracing peace and unity through the inclusive nature of God. . The analysis also revealed that Apostle Paul proposed a monocultural experience to mitigate cross-cultural conflict among the members of the Church in Ephesus. This exegetical research study informs Church leaders with multicultural congregations how best to resolve cultural or interracial group conflict. This study also contributes to the research of group conflict in multicultural churches.

Keywords: group conflict, multicultural church, diversity, multiculturalism, cultural heterogeneity, socio-rhetorical analysis
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Christian Virtues in the Workplace When Not Everyone is a Christian
Deborah Lin McCain Podolinsky

Adding depth to the existing fruit of the Spirit (FOTS) instrumentation of Bocarnea et al. (2018), this study sought to explore differences in how Christians and non-Christians rate managers on the nine fruit of the Spirit scales. In this cross-sectional quantitative research that used an online survey, this study supported the reliability of Bocarnea et al.'s measure. Additionally, results supported the statistical difference in how the two groups of followers (Christian and non-Christian) rated their managers in six of the nine scales.

Keywords: Leadership, religious diversity, Christianity in the workplace, Christian virtues
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