From the Editor
Bruce E. Winston, Ph.D.

Welcome to Volume 11, Issue 1 of Emerging Leadership Journeys (ELJ). This issue contains qualitative and quantitative research articles produced by students in the School of Business & Leadership's Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership program. These articles provide excellent examples of the type of work our students produce during their program of study.


Literature Review of GLOBE's CLT: Culturally Endorsed Implicit Leadership Theory
Brian T. Moore

This study provides a beginning step in an exhaustive literature review of articles related to the culturally endorsed implicit leadership theory within the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) project from 2008 to 2018. While there are many articles related to the GLOBE project since its inception in 1991 and beginning research in 1994, this study is limited to scholarly and peer-review journal articles available in the Regent University Summon database that specifically cover or use GLOBE's culturally endorsed implicit leadership theory. Each article is summarized by author, GLOBE project year, study method, cultural and leadership dimensions associated with the culturally endorsed implicit leadership theory, and article highlight. This literature review includes the following observations: (a) researchers in most articles from 2014 to 2018 used GLOBE 2004 because data was reliable, publicly accessible, and the only data available in specific areas; CLT leadership dimensions are effective tools for measuring cross-cultural leadership effectiveness within countries and clusters or across regions; and unlike some other leadership theories, GLOBE's cultural and CLT leadership dimensions remained relatively unchanged for more than two decades; (b) that although GLOBE defined nine cultural dimensions and six global CLT leadership dimensions, the 21 primary dimensions and 112 leadership attributes are undefined, which was considered ambiguous; (c) that while GLOBE included 62 societies in its 2004 report, it did not contain specific data for each country, or it consolidated data into broad clusters containing dissimilar countries; and finally, (d) that although GLOBE published a report in 2014, researchers in this small sample of articles continued to use GLOBE 2004 data rather than the newer data in GLOBE 2014.
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Extending Winston's Circular Model of Servant Leadership: A Phenomenological Study
Elizabeth K. Hunt

The following research study presents a mixed methods study designed to further Winston's (2003) conceptualization of a circular model of servant leadership. Winston (2003) presented this circular model as an extension of Patterson's (2003) seven-factor model of servant leadership. The study included previously collected data identifying a servant leader at a small private liberal arts and professional college in the upper Midwest. The second portion of the study used phenomenological methods to interview followers of the identified leader to reveal the lived experiences of the identified leader's followers in relation to the variables of commitment to the leader, self-efficacy, and intrinsic motivation, as presented by Winston (2003). The study found support for the three variables of commitment to the leader, self-efficacy, and intrinsic motivation in the themes of quality relationships, transparent communication, self-efficacy supported by quality relationships, and role modeling. The study provided empirical evidence which may be used to develop a valid instrument to test the circular model presented by Winston (2003) in the future.
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Leadership Impostor phenomenon: A Theoretical Causal Model
Elaina Range Jackson

The impostor phenomenon (IP) is a well-researched occurrence that describes highly successful people who cannot internalize their success and believe their achievements in life or their career were the result of chance or extraordinary effort. The concept was originally thought to occur more frequently in women. However, further investigation illustrates that both men and women experience impostor feelings. Researchers have associated IP with concepts such as the fear of failure, a lack of confidence, and procrastination. This article presents a theory of leadership impostor phenomenon that addresses how leaders might experience IP. The research makes seven propositions about how leaders might encounter IP. The seven propositions are then used to develop a theoretical causal model of leadership impostor phenomenon demonstrating that high achievement leads to the fear of failure, which results in a lack of confidence and procrastination. The model also includes outcomes leaders could experience because of IP, including risk aversion, indecisiveness, and procrastination. The study extends the current body of research on IP and offers a path for further investigation of the theory.
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The Formational Journey of Emerging Ecclesial Leaders
Wilson Teo

The objective of the paper is to propose a formational model that comprises the ecclesial leader's theology, spiritual formation, and character. Emerging ecclesial leaders who desire to have the longevity of ministry will need to take heed of these three important formational components which are constantly interacting with each other in leaders' life journey. The three components have direct relationships with leadership theories and praxis as they shape leaders' values and behaviors. The Bible also supports the importance of these three formational components as written in God's dealing with many Bible characters which will be examined together with the constructs of these components.
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In Pursuit of Organizational Wisdom: An Exegesis of Proverbs 22:17 - 24:22
Thomas R. Ulrich

Proverbs 22:17- 24:22 comprises a collection of ancient wisdom sayings which the text self-identifies as "thirty sayings of counsel and knowledge" (Proverbs 22:20, English Standard Version). These 30 sayings are particularly interesting for analysis because, although they are part of the Hebrew Scriptures, scholars have established that this collection was influenced significantly by the Egyptian wisdom collection known as the Instructions of Amenemope. For this reason, it is argued that this collection of wisdom sayings is not linked to a single religious tradition and may be more readily accepted in a pluralistic context. As such, using a hybrid of historical-grammatical analysis, social- rhetorical analysis, and qualitative coding, the text was analyzed with the intent of identifying principles of ancient wisdom applicable to the modern study of organizational spirituality. In all, four major themes emerged from the analysis: the value of wisdom, wisdom for dealing with people, wisdom for dealing with injustice, and wisdom for dealing with temptation. The analysis also produced an outline intended for use in introducing concepts of ancient wisdom to an organization. Furthermore, the analysis confirmed two previously published models of organizational spirituality. Finally, the results contribute to practice by emphasizing organizational justice; specifically, the results suggest that organizations should employ wisdom to avoid strategies which, even if they are legal, involve either (a) taking advantage of the poor or (b) obtaining generationally owned land against the current owner's will.
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Leadership Service: Fostering Spirituality in Modern Organizations
Patrick A. Tamakloe

The notion of service is often attributed to sacrifice and submission or obedience and self- denial, whether it is within an organization or as an individual willing to make a difference by serving another. Yet this notion does not ring more resounding than the Biblical representation of a leader stooping to serve his followers as the example highlighted in the Gospel of John 13: 1-17 where it is evident that Jesus Christ cherishes service and uses this gesture to demonstrate the power of leadership and humility as a basis for fostering honor and service by followers. This exegetical research study sheds light on the power of leaders modeling service to followers as a measure to foster spirituality within organizations. The study focuses on an exegetical general texture methodology approach that leverages the entire passage of John 13 through verse 17 to address the symbolic magnitude of servant leadership and follower loyalty. The perspectives employed highlight essential Biblical tenets that are encouraged in organizational spirituality to foster a more fulfilling and endearing workplace environment. The relationships between service and spirituality within the organization are explored. Research will suggest the benefits of fostering organizational spirituality in the workplace as employees realize their voice and place within the organization's strategic initiatives in order to be more productive and yield best results for the bottom- line and value for the customer.
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Emotional Intelligence of Leaders and its Effect on Burnout in Police Leaders
Mike Thomas

Police officers endure a great amount of stress as a result of facing critical, often life- threatening situations on a regular basis. Chronic stress from operational experiences as well as organizational stress can cause police officers to face burnout and become emotionally exhausted, depersonalized, and experience a decline in personal accomplishments. Research indicates that police officers face a high burnout rate, but there is a gap in the research as it pertains to police leaders. Previous research also indicates that an individual's emotions can mitigate how they react to stressful situations and environments. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between police leaders' emotional intelligence and their burnout. This was done by examining emotional intelligence and burnout of police leaders in a mid-sized southern police department using the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Survey and burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. This study also examined if there was a difference in emotional intelligence and burnout between leaders assigned to field operations and investigative services bureaus.
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