From the Editor
Bruce E. Winston, Ph.D.

Welcome to Volume 10, Issue 1 of Emerging Leadership Journeys (ELJ). This issue contains qualitative and quantitative research articles produced by students in the School of Business & Leadership's Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership program. These articles provide excellent examples of the type of work our students produce during their program of study.


Spiritual Leadership in Collectivist and Individualist Cultures
Valentin Novikov

Although interest in spiritual leadership has been on the increase, empirical research was needed to understand the applicability of the spiritual leadership paradigm in different cultures. Consequently, a quantitative study was performed to investigate if differences exist in how the seven spiritual leadership characteristics measured by the spiritual leadership scale (Fry, Vitucci, & Cedillo, 2005) differ in the horizontal collectivist and individualist cultural patterns posited by Singelis, Triandis, Bahwuk, and Gelfand (1995) that were measured using the INDCOL 95 instrument questionnaire (Triandis, 1995). The study was conducted with 80 participants with different individualistic and collectivistic cultural backgrounds that were voluntarily obtained from the increasingly multicultural regions of the United States that has evolved into a global microcosm (Stevens & Ogunji, 2011), which has been referred to as a medley of diverse cultures rather than a melting pot of indiscriminate cultures (Griffin & Moorhead, 2007). The study results indicated the existence of a difference in participant perceptions in five of the seven spiritual leadership characteristics based on the participants' collectivistic or individualistic cultural orientation. Additionally, the results suggested that spiritual leadership may be more prevalent in collectivistic rather than individualistic cultures.
| article pdf |

A Study of Power Relations Within Groups Through the Lived Experiences of Elected Officials
Gia Tatone

This study aimed to examine the understanding of power relations within groups through the lived experiences of elected officials using qualitative research methods. The data revealed these leaders to express three types of need for power through achievement, affiliation, and institutional need for power (McClelland & Burns, 1976) as they work within their groups that are a mix of the two major U.S. political parties; Democrats and Republicans. This study used purposive sampling and the participants were interviewed to obtain data using structured questions. This study also examined the data to determine if the elected officials used their power within their group for personalized reasons or socialized reasons. In addition, a literature review explored different types of power, and how groups might express power. The study aimed to function as a pilot test and be used to create a prototype for future studies on the expression of power relations within groups.
| article pdf |

Reducing Groupthink: An Exegetical Research Analysis of 1 Corinthians 13:11-14:25
Benjamin Stoffel

This article examines 1 Corinthians 13:11-14:25 through an inner textural exegetical analysis (Robbins, 1996) towards a better understanding of how the apostle Paul addressed in-group cohesiveness among the church members at Corinth. The findings of the exegetical analysis are discussed in relation to the organizational behavior construct, "groupthink" (Janis, 1972). The research is framed around the following question: How can leaders reduce groupthink? As a construct of group behavior, researchers have correlated groupthink with reduced group and organizational performance (Janis, 1972). Researchers have positively correlated group cohesiveness with groupthink and have referred to a group member's desire to remain in the group (Dailey, 1977). Group cohesiveness - the desire to remain in a group – can negatively impact the group member's ability to share or involve outside opinions that contradict the in-group culture (Sims & Sauser, 2013). Ignoring the input of outsiders has been associated with groupthink and has led researchers to suggest adding a group role that intentionally adopts an outsider's view or bringing in an outside consultant (Andrew Sai, 2005; Burdon & Harvey, 2016; Schütz, & Bloch 2006). This article posits that in the pericope of 1 Corinthians 13:11-14:25, Paul is the outside consultant, writing to an in-group – the Christians at Corinth.
| article pdf |

A Phenomenological Inquiry into Engineers' Motivation to Follow
Thomas R. Ulrich

A phenomenological study of engineers' motivation to follow was conducted. Creating a mirror image of a phenomenological investigation into why some engineers choose to become managers (Ulrich, 2017), the present investigation was intended to unearth insight related to why some senior engineers, who are qualified to act as engineering managers, prefer to remain in non-management roles. The study was based upon a set of six semi-structured, 30-minute interviews guided by an eight-question interview guide derived from the literature. The participants, all of whom work at the same high technology medical device manufacturer in Southern California, were senior engineers who prefer to remain in non-managerial engineering roles. Each interview was transcribed and first-cycle-coded immediately following the interview. Saturation was recognized following the fifth interview, but a sixth interview was conducted as confirmation. Using in vivo and pattern coding (Saldaña, 2016), a total of 30 themes were identified. Overall the results suggest that these engineers prefer non-managerial roles because, in their context of high technology medical devices, the same factors that drive some engineers to become managers motivate these engineers to continue in non-managerial roles. In other words, these engineers perceive their non-managerial roles as the optimum expression of their character, organizational commitment, and common sense. In addition to providing a new understanding of these engineers' motivation to follow, a new six-fold paradigm (doing, knowing, teaching, mentoring, relating, modelling) of engineering is proposed. Finally, three insights into retaining top engineering talent are provided.
| article pdf |

Hosea 7:1-16 and Destructive Leadership Theory: An Exegetical Study
Daniel B. Holmquist

This qualitative hermeneutical study of Hosea 7:1-16 examined Hosea's insights into leadership and how they might enhance, critique, or refine destructive leadership theory (DLT). After performing a general hermeneutical and genre analysis of the biblical text and uncovering its leadership implications, these implications were intersected with the three domains of the toxic triangle theory of DLT: destructive leaders, susceptible followers, and conducive environments. Although the situation in Hosea 7 illustrated well the toxic triangle of DLT, a number of areas for potential refinement of DLT emerged, especially related to the theory's reliance upon modern psychology, ethics, and views of culture. DLT remains in the formative stages of development and could benefit from building stronger ethical foundations, investigating additional processes involved in destructive leadership situations, studying the interaction between the three domains of the toxic triangle, and exploring potential solutions to destructive leadership. Insights from Hosea 7, as well as from additional exegetical research of scripture, show promise for further gains toward a more robust theory of destructive leadership.
| article pdf |

Christian Spiritual Formation
Wilson Teo

The term spiritual formation has been used in many Christian contexts given its recent popularity and yet this term can carry different meanings in these various contexts. The history of this word is traced to Roman Catholicism, and yet it has a different meaning within the Christian evangelical world. This literature review will focus on the various dimensions of spiritual formation such as its definitions, the underpinning theological foundation, the formational elements and the desired outcomes. The paper will also suggest the possible gaps that will require further attention so that the concept of spiritual formation is beneficial to the formation of the Body of Christ.
| article pdf |

Regent University School of Business & Leadership | © 2017
1000 Regent University Drive | Virginia Beach, VA 23464 | 757.352.4550 | | ISSN 1941-4684