The Power of Transformational Leadership: The Effect on Self-Efficacy, Spirituality, and MTL
Tracy H. Porter
In contemporary society, leadership and the ability to remain current with respect to the appropriate application of leadership are more important than ever (Krishnan, 2005). Much of the original leadership research has taken a value-neutral approach and has focused solely on the traits, behaviors, power, situations, and cognitive theories largely used to describe effective leadership (Riera, 2008). Contemporary leaders find themselves in a new and changing world in which new ways of approaching leadership are necessary (Riera, 2008). In the past 2 decades, much of the leadership research has focused on the application of transformational leadership to organizations (Krishnan, 2005). For a number of decades, leadership research has looked into the follower characteristics moderating the relationship between numerous leader behaviors and subsequent follower performance (Villa, Howell, Dorfman, & Daniel, 2003). However, many of the empirical studies have failed to support the proposed interaction effects or have led to inconclusive results (Blank, Weitzel, & Green, 1990; Fernandez & Vecchio, 1997; Podsakkoff, MacKenzie, Ahearne, & Bommer, 1995). Not a great deal is known about how the various antecedents proposed as being important to leadership effectiveness actually work together (Iddekinge, Ferris, & Heffner, 2009). The multiple linkages that very likely occur between leader traits and follower performance is critical to future research (Iddekinge et al., 2009). Therefore, the central premise of this research endeavor was to investigate the moderating effect of transformational leadership on employee self-efficacy, spirituality, and followers‘ subsequent MTL.
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