An Application of Ancient Chinese Philosophical Beliefs of Leadership as Defined Within Sun Tzu's The Art of War: Creating an Instrument to Measure the Strategic Intelligence of a Leader
Jeffrey L. Guichard
Based on the literature review, from the paradigms of intelligence and leadership, a holistic measure of a leader‘s intelligence was created from the initial writings of Sun Tzu‘s classic, The Art of War. As a means of highlighting the importance of leadership, Sun Tzu defined five primary attributes of a leader to include intelligence, trustworthiness, humaneness, courage, and sternness (Cleary, 1998). To modern standards of research, Sun Tzu did not come out and clearly define the behaviors associated with his definition. The findings from the literature review produced five intelligence factors which formed the Leadership Strategic Intelligence Survey version-2 (LSISv2) instrument. As with similar forms of exploratory research, principal component factor analysis analyzed the data. All item and behavioral factor loadings are within specified limits. Behavioral and total reliability measures of Cronbach alpha proved favorable. Item bivariate correlations are positive and meet the given acceptance criteria. Correlations complemented the factor analysis. Because of a low sample population, the analysis investigated the factor loadings for five decreasing sample sizes. Factor loadings across all populations remained consistent. As well, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) Measure of Sampling Adequacy (MSA) and Bartlett‘s tests of sphericity determined the data was acceptable for a principal component factor analysis. All test-retest Pearson correlation statistics are significant at the p < .001. The correlation values suggest the LSISv2 instrument is consistent over time and multiple administrations.
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