From the Editor
Corné J. Bekker

Welcome to the 2012 edition of the Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership. I remain encouraged by the growing interest in the study of organizational leadership within the Hebrew and Christian scriptures. JBPL continues to experience an increase in both the submissions we receive and in our reader audience.

This edition of JBPL continues to broaden the horizon of exegetical-based research in organizational leadership in both scope and research methodology. Some of the highlights in this edition include a provocative article on leadership intelligences and the possibilities for our study of Biblical leadership, two grounding studies in Old Testament approaches in the practice of organizational leadership, several new explorative studies on leadership roles in Paul’s pastoral letters, and, finally, two articles on leadership behaviors focusing on the wisdom material in the letter of James. more

  Leadership Reflection
Bruce E. Winston

As the years go by, it becomes harder and harder to remember exactly whose thoughts about what topics have influenced my thinking and beliefs, so I extend a thank-you to all the folk, whether I have met them or not, who have influenced my thinking on this topic. Note that this reflection does not use the phrase “integration of faith in learning” simply because I see integration as taking two or more dissimilar things and bringing them together—each still separate but forming a new collective whole. The integration model according to Jacobsen and Jacobsen degenerates into conflict and scholarship needs to build from a healthy base. Thus, this reflection is more about the foundation of scholarship and teaching rather than a model of how to do something right versus how others do the same thing wrong. more

   
AN INTELLIGENT CRITIQUE OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES: A CHRISTIAN REVIEW FOR LEADERS
David A. McGee and Bryce Hantla
Prior to Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences (MI), the prevailing view on intelligence was that each individual possessed a general intelligence guiding human behavior and cognition. Gardner’s MI is based on naturalistic evolution, but his observations can be clearly observed in the human person, prompting consideration in ecclesiastical and university contexts. We trace the evidence of MI through a number of scriptural stories and characters, asserting that the Bible upholds the plausibility of Gardner’s theory regarding intelligence. Finally, we provide practical applications for implementing effective teaching methods to improve the overall learning of students and parishioners alike. download/print article
   
GOD’S NATURE AND CHARACTER IN LEADING SOLOMON: A SACRED TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF 1 KINGS 3:5-14
Jacqueline Faulhaber
Free will, freedom, and liberty are important values to most people. Important, however, for these values is a foundation of morality. Today, more often than not, the demand for liberty is not constrained by morality. The public decries and defends legalization of immoral behavior under the mask of freedom and liberty. Public leaders can, however, play significant roles in ensuring freedoms and liberties are constrained by morality. Because morality’s source is virtue, and virtue’s source is God, it is important to gain a Biblical understanding of morality, virtue, and ethics. To gain this perspective, this paper analyzes a dialogue between God and King Solomon. Sacred texture analysis results of 1 Kings 3:5-14 reveal God’s wisdom, character, and methods of developing King Solomon. These passages further provide some ethical guidelines for public leaders to carry out their duties in a way that honors God. But most importantly, these passages reveal the virtuous qualities of God that are not only necessary to emulate, but serve as a foundation for one of the most important virtuous qualities a public leader can have, justness. download/print article
   
CONTRASTING LEADERSHIP STYLES IN POSTEXILIC JUDAISM—A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EZRA 9:1-5 AND NEHEMIAH 13:23-27
Eric Coggins
This paper examines the leadership styles of Nehemiah and Ezra, two figures in postexilic Hebrew society. Their leadership styles are examined through the use of a historical intertexture textual analysis of the Hebrew scripture texts in which they are found; namely Ezra 9:1-10:1 and Nehemiah 13:23-27. Through this analysis, it is posited that Ezra and Nehemiah exemplified different forms of leadership approaches and that each was effective in a large degree. It is further postulated that both Ezra and Nehemiah demonstrated spiritual leadership as defined in a practitioner sense by Blackaby and Blackaby, but that beyond spiritual leadership, Ezra demonstrated what Collins defines as level 5 leadership while Nehemiah demonstrated what Hersey and Blanchard describe as situational leadership. Finally, it is argued that effective leaders lead with an understanding of their respective personality types and not necessarily according to some one-size-fits-all leadership typology. download/print article
   
AUTHORITY IN CHRIST: THE CHASTENED FREEDOM OF SPIRITUAL LEADERS
Aaron H. M. Perry
This article explores the notion of authority and Christian leaders. Through an intertextual study of Acts 2 and engagement with various notions of authority, it develops implications for the nature of Christian leadership. The authority of Christ is shown through intertextual analysis of Acts 2 and Joel 2 and various Psalms which show the authority of Jesus over David. It also has historical intertexture with the Table of Nations and the Tower of Babel that define the activity of Acts 2 in bearing a universal gospel. Acts 2 also has cultural intertexture with Feast of Weeks from Jewish history and the outpouring of the Spirit. This intertexture forms the basis of the authority of Jesus, as the ascended Christ, who has authority over David, the story of Israel, and is enabled to give the Spirit. This notion of authority, however, remains relational rather than positional, which is common in management literature. Pictures of authority from leadership and management, sociology, and theology are offered, which allow interpretation of the authority of Jesus. The article ends with consideration of authority for those in the mission of Christ. The authority of Christ provides both freedom and restraint for leaders who follow Christ. download/print article
   
DEVELOPING VALUES AND ETHICS—PREPARING LEADERS: A SOCIAL AND CULTURAL TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF TITUS 1-3
Karen D. Bolser
What was expected of early church leaders, and how can those requirements inform leadership development in modern times? Titus 1-3 gives leaders a deeper insight and understanding of the social and cultural implications of values and ethical requirements of leaders in early Christian communities. The social and cultural values and ethical requirements presented in the book of Titus are examined carefully, as these requirements can provide applicable recommendations in moral leadership development today. The exploration of pastoral letters from Paul’s writings in the book of Titus implores Christian leaders to pursue good in all situations. This article examines Paul and the characteristic of his leadership “value system” with respect to his society using social and cultural texture analysis of socio-rhetorical criticism. In addition, the textual analysis examines the requirements of what was expected of early church leaders. It also shows how the application of the values and ethical requirements of that society could inform, as well as benefit, leadership development in today’s present organizations. download/print article
   
TOWARD A RESTORATIONIST THEOLOGY OF LEADERSHIP: ELDERSHIP IMPLICATIONS
Michael Mahan
For several decades, Restoration studies have noted deficiencies in the treatment of the theology of leadership and of practical ecclesiology. This paper responds to the lack of research linking ecclesiology to organizational design and to the theology of leadership in the Church of Christ tradition by building upon the ecclesiological framework composed of theological tradition, church metaphor, worldview, and organizational leadership perspectives. Elder role and congregational structure are considered in light of these perspectives, showing the ecclesiological framework as a broad scale and functional approach to these issues. This paper concludes that democratic congregationalist and corporal congregationalist church structures are most in line with Church of Christ theological emphases. Elder function is collocated within these structures as pastoral leadership, emphasizing the spiritual development of both individual members and the local body. download/print article
   
CONTROLLING ONE’S TONGUE IN LEADERSHIP: A SOCIO-RHETORICAL INNER-TEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF JAMES 3:1-12 AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS PILOT STUDY
Tonya Banks
A socio-rhetorical inner-textural analysis of James 3:1-12 is conducted to determine the outcomes for control and noncontrol of the tongue. Leadership concepts and constructs are revealed through this analysis which can benefit organizations. Specifically, four variables—accountable, responsible, trust, and confession—are identified as characteristics for a leader. Five variables—perfection, faithful actions (commitment), faith, perseverance, and self-control—are identified as outcomes for a leader’s control of the tongue. Six variables—iniquity, defilement, death, judgment, destruction, and no integrity—are identified as outcomes for a leader’s noncontrol of the tongue. It was also determined that wisdom is needed for one to control the tongue. A measurement scale, Controlling One’s Tongue in Leadership Survey (COTILS) was developed to measure the outcomes for control and noncontrol of the tongue. DeVellis’s process of steps was used as a guideline in the scale development process. The measurement scale was distributed to three church groups and made available to those who wished to provide their response online. SPSS was used to perform correlation analysis, factor analysis, and frequency statistical information of data collected from 52 respondents. Results revealed that the leaders who were rated seem to be overall good leaders; however there is indication that leaders have destroyed one’s reputation, destroyed one emotionally, have been judged by higher authorities, may not have integrity, and do not confess their sins. It was also revealed that one’s self-esteem has been lowered, and that one’s performance has been lowered because of what a leader has said to their staff. download/print article
   
WISDOM FOR LEADERSHIP: A SOCIO-RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF JAMES 1:2-8 AND 3:13-4:10
Michelle Vondey
This paper offers a socio-rhetorical analysis of James 1:2-8 and 3:13-4:10. These passages deal with wisdom and suggest the relevance of wisdom for leaders. James distinguished between two kinds of wisdom: the kind that is earthly and begins with envy and self-seeking, and the kind that is godly and begins with humility. James was clear that Christian believers should seek out the wisdom “from above” that would sustain them through the trials they faced and that would be evident in their conduct toward others. The way to receive that kind of wisdom is through prayer, faith, and humility. Leaders who bear the fruit of such wisdom put the needs of others before their own personal interests and recognize their dependence on God. download/print article
   
INCLUDING THE PERSPECTIVE OF CHRISTIAN LEADERSHIP: A REVIEW OF THE JBPL
Russell L. Huizing

This article contains a scholarly review of the articles published in the Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership (JBPL) from 2006-2011. Each article is summarized with a listing of methodologies and leadership theories that the article interacts with. Four recommendations are made for future publications: (1) encourage the use of recognized qualitative research methods rather than a general exegetical approach; (2) encourage the use of inductive data analysis, especially in historical Hebrew and Christian sacred writing, rather than a deductive approach of identifying contemporary approaches in ancient literature; (3) call for papers that seek to add confirmability of theoretical material in modern contexts; and (4) continue to broaden the thematic elements of the journal. download/print article

   
TOWARD DEEPER SYNTHESIS OF BIBLICAL PERSPECTIVES IN ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP: A LITERATURE REVIEW OF JBPL
Mary Jo Buchard

Until recently, the fields of leadership and theology did not attempt to seek to inform one another. The Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership (JBPL) has been a primary venue for an initial movement toward an increased dialogue between Biblical studies and leadership studies. This literature review examines the various approaches to research found in JBPL that have attempted to synthesize these fields to create new constructs and perspectives on leadership that are inherently Biblical in nature. Sections include: (1) scriptural treatment of established leadership theory, (2) Biblical perspectives on leadership praxis, (3) Biblical approaches to leadership assessment, (4) Biblical approaches to ecclesial leadership, (5) contemporary leadership applications to Biblical texts, (6) Christological approaches to leadership studies, and (7) proposed directions and trends for future research. download/print article

   

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