From the Editor
Corné J. Bekker

I remain encouraged by the growing interest in the study of organizational leadership within the Hebrew and Christian Scriptures. JBPL continues to experience an increase in both the submissions we receive and in our reader audience.

This edition of JBPL continues to broaden the horizon of exegetical-based research in organizational leadership in both scope and research methodology. Some of the highlights in this edition include a ground-breaking article on social identity and leadership formation in the Corinthian church by Jack Barentson from the Evangelische Theologische Faculteit in Belguim; more

  Leadership Reflection
Justin A. Irving

As interest in leadership studies continues to grow, servant leadership is uniquely positioned to address the leadership challenges of our day. Not only is servant leadership a biblically-consistent approach to leadership practice, it is also demonstrably effective. This reflection engages both biblical perspectives on servant leadership—drawing from Matthew 20, Mark 10, and John 13—and goes on to presents a model for effective servant leadership practice based on regression analyses. The model highlights nine core servant leadership practices that focus around three conceptual clusters. more

   
STEPHANAS AS MODEL LEADER: A SOCIAL IDENTITY PERSPECTIVE ON COMMUNITY AND LEADERSHIP (MIS) FORMATION IN CORINTH
Jack Barentsen
This paper studies Paul’s recommendation of Stephanas as leader against the background of community formation in Corinth. The divisions in the Corinthian church are shown to be a cultural response to the development of subgroups which expressed loyalty to different Jewish teachers. This resulted in intragroup competition, heightened social tensions, and a communication breakdown between subgroups and their leaders. Social identity theory helps to interpret these events as conflicting norms and values from cross-cutting social identities; the divisions can be understood as benevolent attempts to maintain Christian distinctiveness and social cohesion for these subgroups according to Corinthian cultural patterns. Paul, however, re-envisions the subgroups as nested social identities in an overarching Christian social identity with its focal point in Christ crucified. Thus, he reorients their search for honor towards the glory of the gospel which is shameful to outsiders and their search for social cohesion towards mutual respect and service. To implement his proposed changes in beliefs, norms, and values, Paul sends a letter, sends Timothy, and plans a personal visit. However, his key for long-term effectiveness is Stephanas, recommended as worthy of imitation in the new Christian leadership style needed for the expanding community. download/print article
   
WHAT WAS PAUL THINKING? AN IDEOLOGICAL STUDY OF 1 TIMOTHY 2
Russell L. Huizing
The primary battleground of the Church’s clash over a woman’s role in church leadership has been 1 Timothy 2. Using the ideological component of socio-rhetorical criticism, this work seeks to draw out of the text philosophies and beliefs of the Early Church as recorded by Paul. It is the goal of this work to deepen and strengthen the understanding of female leadership identification and development in the Early Church, as well as allow the text to critique and point possible avenues of future research for modern theory. download/print article
   
ANTECEDENTS OF CHRISTIAN LEADERSHIP: A SOCIO-RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF
1 TIMOTHY 3:1-7
David A. Oginde
Whereas spiritual leadership has been closely associated with transformational leadership, some have questioned the morality of both. But are moral virtues legitimate antecedents of successful leadership? This question is addressed through a socio-rhetorical analysis of 1 Timothy 3:1-7 by identifying the antecedents of Christian leadership as required of the overseer, the highest level of leadership in the first-century church. These are compared with various leadership theories—transformational, authentic, legacy, and spiritual leadership—found in extant literature. Christian leadership is identified with a commitment to self-control and mastery of passions; and a proven track record both at home and in the public arena. According to Paul, these are antecedents—irreducible minimums—for successful Christian leadership. download/print article
   
THE MENTOR RELATIONSHIP: AN EXPLORATION OF PAUL AS LOVING MENTOR TO TIMOTHY AND THE APPLICATION OF THIS RELATIONSHIP TO CONTEMPORARY LEADERSHIP CHALLENGES
Stacy E. Hoehl
The mentor relationship has received increasing amounts of attention from both organizational leadership researchers and leadership practitioners alike. Successful mentor relationships result in benefits to the mentor, the protégé, and the organization. In the New Testament, the apostle Paul recognized the value of developing Timothy into a more effective minister of the gospel. Paul carefully selected Timothy to work with him in the ministry, equipped him for ministerial tasks, empowered him for success, employed him in a challenging work environment, and communicated to Timothy the value of their relationship. By following similar strategies, today’s leaders can develop mentor relationships that prepare tomorrow’s leaders to handle the challenges of an ever-changing workplace. download/print article
   
REVELATION, FORESIGHT, AND FORTITUDE: HOW AWARENESS OF THE FUTURE AFFECTED THE EARLY CHURCH AND HOW THEIR PAST MIGHT INFLUENCE OUR FUTURE
Thomas D. Hollinger
John’s Revelation to the Christian churches of Asia provided a powerful apocalyptic message, helping early Christians to struggle through Roman oppression and emerge beyond the shadow of Second Temple Judaism. Ideological texture analysis from socio-rhetorical criticism deciphers the revelatory model at work in John’s message, while a discussion of present-day foresight models establishes a contemporary corollary for comparative purposes. Where John’s model was based on prophetic, apocalyptic imagery, contemporary foresight models involve a systemic process of envisioning plausible futures that can help to build resiliency into planning processes. Both models have contemporary value. Radical change and incredible complexity have increased the need for hope in the future and for strategic foresight to deal with extraordinary levels of uncertainty. Nevertheless, foresight without biblical wisdom can lead to selfish utilization of the earth’s finite resources. Revelation and eschatology can help to ensure that foresight motives and applications are consistent with God’s intent. Ultimately, it is the combination of foresight applications and biblical wisdom that will lead to a future that is, as Ted Peters related, both “human and divine.” download/print article
   
INTEGRAL BIBLICAL LEADERSHIP
Steven S. Crowther
Integral theory views different disciplines through the lens of four quadrants of knowledge. These four quadrants or perspectives—the subjective, intersubjective, objective, and interobjective—can facilitate the development of theory and practice in leadership. This theory includes aspects of spirituality but it is critiqued and expanded in this study through exegesis of the biblical text. This process includes expansion of the four quadrants for leadership theory through application of biblical texts. Then the theory is expanded proposing a fifth aspect to the four quadrants through a critique from Scripture. This fifth aspect of knowing is a suprapersonal aspect of knowledge, and it becomes an important perspective in developing an understanding of leadership. A model for leadership is developed from the perspective of this expanded integral theory in conjunction with appropriate biblical exegesis. download/print article
   
THE IDEOLOGY OF ACCEPTABILITY: HOW CONSIDERATIONS OF ETHNOGRAPHY INFORM THE DOING OF LEADERSHIP
Angela N. Spranger
Luke the Apostle’s record in Acts 8:26-40 of the Gaza Road encounter between the newly spirit-filled Philip and his first convert, the treasurer of the Ethiopian royal court, is placed by some as historiography and by others as apologetic literature. Relative to contemporaneous literature, it represents a literary concession to the reaction of the common and acceptable to the extreme and alien, regardless of education or occupation. Considerations of the various spheres of ideology at work in the Gaza Road encounter affect how modern leadership scholar–practitioners go about the business of “doing leadership.” Examining how the Ethiopian Chamberlain was, literally, the stereotyped and the unacceptable, and how Philip’s behavior, Luke’s account, and the historical interpretations of each offer guidance for those seeking to make positive change in the lives and attitudes of others today. download/print article
   
THE SERVING ORGANIZATION: JESUS VS. HIERARCHY IN MATTHEW 20:20-28
John H. Wilson
There seems to be a fundamental belief among many authors in the extant literature that Jesus’ teachings support an organizational structure that depends upon an elite few individuals with a high concentration of power constructing subordinate positions of power through which they accomplish their intended outcomes. In contrast, other authors have associated Jesus’ teachings with flatter, more organic organizations. This article presents an analysis of hierarchy as an organizational design in terms of Jesus’ response to attempts on the part of the Zebedee family to stratify the disciples in terms of leadership roles in Matthew 20:20-28. Using social and cultural textures of socio-rhetorical criticism, this periscope is analyzed for evidence of a reformist and/or utopian response to hierarchical organizational designs in contrast to nonhierarchical designs. Further research is proposed based on this framework as to the kind of organizational design is most conducive for supporting a collection of authentic servant leaders. download/print article
   
PERSONAL LEADERSHIP IDENTITY AND THE LOVE OF GOD: INSIGHTS FROM THE LIFE OF DAVID
Diane J. Chandler
This paper argues that receiving and drawing upon the love (hesed) of God is integral to every Christian leader’s core identity and leadership perseverance. As an exemplar from the Hebrew Bible of receiving the love of God, David demonstrates a secure attachment to God, as seen through the lens of attachment theory and forged from a young age into adulthood. An overview of the events of his life in 1 and 2 Samuel and the Davidic psalms sets the stage for an analysis of Psalm 31, chosen as a representative psalm that examines David’s understanding of God’s hesed against the backdrop of multiple leadership challenges from which he cries out to God for deliverance. This paper provides a prototype for contemporary leaders on how to draw upon the love of God by defining hesed and presenting sixteen leadership benefits, as derived from Psalm 31. When godly and obedient leaders are confronted with discouragement, obstacles, rejection, and opposition that threaten their leadership identity and vitality, they can, as David did, draw upon the faithfulness of God and lay claim to God’s steadfast love in complete dependence. download/print article
   

The Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership is a publication of the
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