From the Editor
Corné J. Bekker

Welcome to the Winter 2010 edition of the Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership. This is again the largest edition of JBPL yet, and I am encouraged to report that the volume and quality of the submissions to the journal continue to show improvement.

This edition continues to build the base of scholarly perspectives and research on the phenomena of leadership in the Hebrew and Christian Scriptures. It is my hope that the articles in this edition will serve to further extend the base for rigorous and well-grounded exegetical research in leadership. more

  Leadership Reflection
Michael Hartsfield, Ph.D.

An often quoted statement by Warren Bennis says, "Leaders are people who do the right thing; managers are people who do things right." What does it mean to be right? This article discusses three concepts that show why answering this age-old question is not easy. Sir Francis Bacon's concept of confirmation bias, Peter Senge's mental models, and Gabriel Marcel's concept of creative fidelity give insight into the way we form and cling to opinions. It is suggested that defining right must be based on a more absolute standard; a standard evidenced in the Biblical accounts of Barnabas. more

   
A BIBLICAL–THEOLOGICAL AESTHETIC OF IMAGINATION AND CREATIVITY AND ITS APPLICATION FOR LEADERS
Michelle Vondey
The complexity of today's organizations requires creative imagination on the part of both leaders and organizational members. One way for leaders to face the complex environment and to influence creativity in their followers is through a Biblical–theological aesthetic of imagination and creativity, which is concerned with values of beauty, truth, and goodness. Imagination and creativity are God-given gifts that allow human beings to evoke these values. Aesthetic leaders can cultivate these values within the organization by relating stories that stimulate both cognitive and emotive responses. The parables of Jesus offer an example of how leaders can imaginatively communicate a vision for the organization and inspire creativity in their followers. download/print article
   
INTEGRATING LIFE COACHING AND PRACTICAL THEOLOGY WITHOUT LOSING OUR THEOLOGICAL INTEGRITY
Karl Inge Tangen
The purpose of this paper is contribute to the reflection on how one can integrate the late modern practice of life coaching with practical theology by employing Biblical perspectives on this practice. I present the so-called coaching revolution, and try to frame questions that may be followed up in later papers and discussions. I begin by describing coaching as a concrete practice, before I locate it within a larger socio-cultural process and take a closer look at the psychological theories and worldviews that have grounded and now guide the practice. This presentation of what I loosely define, as the coaching paradigm is followed by theologically motivated questions that I see as crucial on the journey of integrating late modern coaching into Evangelical theology and Pentecostal spirituality. In this process, Biblical perspectives are employed in order to facilitate a constructive and critical analyses. download/print article
   
THE JERUSALEM COUNCIL: A PIVOTAL AND INSTRUCTIVE PARADIGM
J. Lyle Story
In this article, I argue for the centrality of the Jerusalem Council in the Book of Acts and the ways in which Luke provides direction for his community in resolving conflict in such a way that leads to the advance of the gospel (Acts 15:1-16:5). This is a critical moment in terms of the relationship between Jewish Christians and Gentile Christians. This narrative of conflict-resolution–advance serves as a case study for Luke's readership in terms of various processes that help the community find the will of God in changing circumstances. Dynamics include the divine initiative, the inclusionary and saving activity of God, commitment to unity, shared stories of experience and precedent, the Holy Spirit, Scripture, decisions, compromise, and clear communication. He helps the early communities to relive the event and its nuances, to embrace and to adopt his point of view in the process of conflict resolution in an ever-changing landscape. Such elements in the conflict resolution process possess implications for leadership and groups in understanding and application of the text to twenty-first century contexts. download/print article
   
PILATE'S UNJUST CONDEMNATION OF JESUS IN MATTHEW 27:11-26: HOW GOD BRINGS TO LIGHT HIS STANDARD OF JUSTICE IN GOVERNANCE AND LEADERSHIP AND OVERTURNS MAN'S CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING OF JUSTICE
Jacqueline Faulhaber
Most accounts of Pontius Pilate associate the trial and crucifixion of Christ as an unjust act, and this author is in agreement with that assessment. Yet, when the act of Pontius Pilate is evaluated under its social–cultural context of the first-century, many fascinating aspects of the pressures Pilate faced beg the inquiry of whether leaders today might have done the same. The goal of this research is to shed light on what might be learned from Pilate's ethical failure, of which is also recognized that God allowed to occur to bring salvation to all of mankind. This paper addresses the following areas: first, how justice is defined by Plato and Cicero in an effort to identify philosophical and political discourse on the topic of justice that could have influenced Pilate; second, Pilate's decision in light of its first-century social–cultural context; third, Pilate's personality and vice (lack of virtuousness) characterizations; fourth, the role of religion and the influence Claudia (Pilate's wife) had on Pilate's decision; fifth, God's standard of justice interpreted through the trial and crucifixion of Christ; and sixth, some questions leaders can ask themselves to ascertain if they exemplify Christ's character of holiness, or that of the world. download/print article
   
THE SEASONS OF ECCLESIAL LEADERSHIP: A NEW PARADIGM
Russell L. Huizing
The contemporary model of spiritual realization (completing or accomplishing specific experiences as a sign of spiritual maturity) is an insufficient model of spiritual growth. Rather, researchers and theologians should adopt a seasonal paradigm. This work applies this model to ecclesial leadership, recommending the seasons of calling, formation, role identification, and praxis. This model suggests that these four seasons are recurring in the life of the ecclesial leader with perennial growth as the outcome. Additional research is recommended to confirm that these seasons are the best descriptions of an ecclesial leader's development and whether other seasons exist. download/print article
   
DYSFUNCTIONAL LEADERSHIP'S CONTENTION WITH ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING
Raymie Grundhoefer
In a global knowledge-based economy, organizational learning and innovation are the most critical assets for achieving sustainable organizational performance with a competitive edge. A learning organization is a culture where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together. Still dysfunctional leadership fails to foster supportive learning cultures or implement tools shown to improve employee development and increase the propagation of information. Narcissistic leaders, for example, stagnate learning by devaluing autonomous learning, social collaboration, communication, and democratic staples such as strong shared values, empowerment, participation, and creativity in organizations. download/print article
   
INVESTIGATING CHRISTIAN LEADERSHIP AND PRUDENCE: GLOBALLY, IS THERE A CONNECTION?
Paula A. Tucker
This paper shares a socio–rhetorical intellectual discourse analysis of Christian leadership and prudence in global organizations as it relates to the Christian Scripture pericope of Philippians 1:1-17. This paper also defines Christian leadership and prudence from the aspects of scholarly publications and journals to examine the connection of both constructs. The paper proposes a qualitative case study research to help clarify the issue of Christian leadership and prudence in a local church. Additionally, the paper shares an exploration of Christian leadership and prudence in times of economic crisis and financial ruins, along with a proposal for a future quantitative research from the data collected from the qualitative case study findings. download/print article
   
FIVE-FOLD MINISTRY: A SOCIAL AND CULTURAL TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF EPHESIANS 4:11-16
Jimmy D. Bayes
Are the gifts Paul lists in Ephesians 4:11 (apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, and teachers) references to ministry offices or ministry functions? This question is considered using Robbin's method of socio-rhetorical analysis. This study specifically considers the social and cultural texture of Ephesians 4. Textual analysis determined that there is some support for the designation of the offices of prophet and teacher, but there is little support for the designation of office of apostle, evangelist, or pastor. Textual evidence does suggest that the five gifts of Ephesians 4 are functions of individuals in the New Testament and through the first century. download/print article
   
LEADER EMERGENCE AND THE PHENOMENOLOGICAL WORK OF THE HOLY SPIRIT IN ACTS 2
Julianne R. Cenac
Are leaders born or made? To provide additional consideration to this question, this paper suggests that leaders emerge. Based in the theoretical studies of leader emergence, a socio-rhetorical analysis is performed using Acts 2 as a text. Subjects of leadership traits, leadership development, and leadership emergence are analyzed within the scriptural text to determine if strong support or evidence of leader emergence exists. Through the phenomenon of the Holy Spirit, the findings show there is strong support for leader emergence as a viable consideration of leadership origin beyond innate traits and training or development. download/print article
   

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