FROM THE EDITOR
Corné J. Bekker

Greetings!
Welcome to the new edition of JBPL. We remain deeply encouraged by the emerging interest in Biblical research in organizational leadership. This edition continues this quest for the uncovering of Biblical models and theories of leadership. The articles and authors represented in this edition come from diverse backgrounds and make use of many different approaches. We are confident that this edition will not only make unique contributions to the research stream, but also open new avenues for further exploration. We welcome further submissions. A special word of gratitude to our tireless production team and our international review board for all their efforts. more

  LEADERSHIP, INNOVATION, AND SPIRITUALITY: A BOOK REVIEW
Mary Jo Burchard

In Leadership, Innovation, and Spirituality (2014, Patrick Nullens & Jack Barentsen, Editors, Peeters Press), the authors from the Institute of Leadership and Ethics ambitiously set out to initiate interdisciplinary, scholarly dialogue between leaders from various spiritual and religious backgrounds, and leaders in the field of leadership studies. This pursuit is significant because, with few exceptions, scholars of leadership and scholars of theological traditions rarely possess the capacity to find enough deep common ground to produce rich dialogue that responsibly represents both disciplines. more

   
THE CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP OF JEPHTHAH IN JUDGES 11 AND DEUTERONOMY 12
Carrie Gilligan

This social and cultural textural analysis (Robbins 1996) explores two Old Testament texts, Judges 11 and Deuteronomy 12 (NASB). Using Biblical cultural anthropological principles, this analysis examines the parallels between Deuteronomical law and the leadership of Jephthah. As the main character in Judges 11, Jephthah's leadership decision making presumably arises due to his cultural position within the ancient tribe of Gilead. Born the son of a prostitute, Jephthah rises to a leadership position and attempts to regain integrity within this ancient culture. The analysis reveals that there a potential flaws in Jephthah's leadership capabilities that may be due to the cultural underpinnings of his background and his actions within the framework of the dominant society, particularly related to Deuteronomical expectations of behavior. Application to the contemporary period, limitations, and future implications are provided. download/print article

   
CHRISTIAN LEADERSHIP AND THE CRIPPLING EFFECT OF NARCISSISM: A HISTORICAL INTERTEXTURE ANALYSIS OF JUDGES 13-16
Robert Ball
The biblical story of Samson presents mysteries that men have for centuries tried to understand and unravel. The story presents the picture of a God-called leader who squandered perhaps one of the greatest opportunities ever afforded a man by God to be a true leader, hero, and deliverer of his own people. Yet, Samson wasted and squandered his potential by living out narcissistic characteristics in the majority of his life decisions. Samson's failure is epic in the annals of history. One finds in the story of Samson a clear presentation of the crippling effect of narcissism in the life of one who is called to serve God by serving others. The same crippling effects are still evident in the lives of Christian leaders who succumb to narcissistic behavior today. download/print article
   
CHARISMATIC AND SERVANT LEADERSHIP AS SEEN IN KING SAUL AND YOUNG DAVID: AN INNER TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF 1 SAMUEL 17:1-58
Carlo Serrano
This article employs an inner texture analysis of 1 Samuel 17:1-58 in order to extrapolate connections between charismatic leadership and servant leadership as discovered in the story of David and Goliath. Attention is given to the structural, repetitive-progressive, narrational, opening-middle-closing, and sensory-aesthetic textures of the pericope. This article discusses the differences between charismatic leadership and servant leadership and proposes the continued use of socio-rhetorical criticism as a valid tool for leadership research and practice. download/print article
   
INSIGHTS INTO THE LEADERSHIP DYNAMIC OF 2 JOHN AS INFORMED BY SITUATIONAL, CHARISMATIC, AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORIES
Garett C. Kenney
The text of 2 John is one of the shortest documents in the New Testament, relative in length to 3 John, Philemon, and Jude. It compares favorably in form to private letters of the first century. The author identifies himself as the Presbyter (verse 1) and addresses his correspondence to the "Chosen Lady" (verse 1), a probable reference for a local church. The central concerns of this letter are clarifications concerning correct doctrine (verse 7) and a boycott policy concerning the acceptance and recognition of traveling missionaries who do not adhere to correct doctrine (verse 10).

The writing of 2 John may be viewed as an act of leadership. An analysis of 2 John reveals much about the Presbyter's exercise of leadership and the phenomenon of leadership itself. The specific foci of analysis here are the ways in which the Presbyter addresses and interacts with adherents, the manner in which he refers to his opponents, the ways in which he legitimates the distinction between adherents and opponents, and his evident literary and rhetorical strategy. These analyses contribute to an overall assessment of leadership reflected in 2 John. download/print article
   
DANIEL AS AN EXAMPLE OF EXCEPTIONAL CROSS-CULTURAL LEADERSHIP
Debby Thomas
This paper presents Daniel as a prototypical model of an excellent cross-cultural Christian leader. The GLOBE project research on cross-cultural leaders is consulted and five cross-cultural leadership qualities are identified based on their acceptance in all cultures studied: integrity, performance oriented, visionary, inspirational, and team builder as found in Dorfman's research originating from the GLOBE project.[1] God's intervention in Daniel's leadership is also considered as a significant factor in Daniel's cross-cultural success as a leader. Exegetical analysis of Daniel 1 and 2 verifies that Daniel meets the criteria of an excellent cross-cultural leader as proposed by Dorfman. Daniel presents a strong model of a cross-cultural Christian leader who keeps his identity while respecting and embracing the host culture, staying in a vital relationship with God, and practicing exemplary cross-cultural leadership qualities. download/print article
   
AN IDEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE CONTEXTS OF LEADERSHIP AND LORDSHIP: A STUDY OF DANIEL AND NEBUCHADNEZZAR IN PRAXIS
G. R. Bud West
For over the past sixty or more years, much of the leadership and organizational literature has continued to present largely similar arguments. These arguments have tended to suggest that all efforts made to elicit desired behaviors from people, represent leadership, to greater or lesser extents. This study provides a review and ideological analysis of the behavioral artifacts exhibited by Daniel and Nebuchadnezzar, as recorded in the first chapter of the book of Daniel. The results of this analysis suggest that: (a) differences actually exist between several different types of providing direction; (b) those differences primarily relate to whether or not, known, standard procedures exist to help guide the required efforts, and who the directors primarily intendeds to benefit from the associated outcomes; and (c) most of the current literature actually addresses desired organizational culture, rather than desired behaviors unique to leadership. The study also includes recommendations for future research, based on these results and the associated conclusions. download/print article
   
NEW WINE SKINS: THEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS APPLIED TO LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
Daniel M. Collins
The Luke-Acts narrative uses parables to communicate the message of the gospel, inviting ideological change concerning outsiders and insiders within the kingdom of God. Using socio-rhetorical criticism to build on the work of other religious scholars, this article focuses on the historical cultural, intertextual, and ideological analysis of Luke 5:33-39. The exegesis includes the cultural historical contexts of Jesus as protagonist, of Jewish religious leaders as antagonists, of Luke as author and early church leader, and comparisons of the chreia within the synoptic gospels. The cultural symbols of fasting, weddings, and wine, along with the ideological message of insiders and outsiders emerged as key interpretive themes. Jesus' proclamation of a spiritual kingdom that included the excluded by offering forgiveness to the unclean was a revolutionary and conversionist message. Luke's narrative gave security to Gentile believers and hope to religious leaders through the message of redemption through Jesus the Messiah. Combining the fields of theology and leadership research, the hermeneutic is applied using three organizational constructs: field theory, learning organizations, and storytelling. download/print article
   
EXEMPLIFICATION OF MARTYRIOLOGICAL AND AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP
Valentin Novikov
The pericope of the apostles' second trial before the Sanhedrin in Acts 5:27-32 was analyzed using socio-rhetorical criticism's intertexture, social and cultural texture, and ideological texture analysis to identify the existence of possible behaviors related to the martyriological leadership theory proposed by Niewold.[2] The intertexture and social and cultural texture analysis provided an understanding on the text's background and foundational contexts. Since Avolio and Gardner contended that authentic leadership is a model that forms the basis for all other types of positive leadership models,[3] the contexts were analyzed to determine the potential applicability for authentic leadership's integration with martyriological leadership by Christian practitioners. The analysis suggests that martyriological leadership is empowered by the Holy Spirit and that there are four possible enabling behaviors. The analysis also suggests that integration of authentic leadership principles within martyriological leadership is essential.
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TOWARD A MODEL OF DIVINE EMPOWERMENT: A SOCIORHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF EPHESIANS 4:1-16
J. D. Bayes
This study found that leaders are divinely empowered and authorized to participate with God mediating the relationships between God and man and among men. This study addresses the divine aspect of leadership by examining the relationship between God and leadership roles in the first-century church. Ephesians 4:1-16 was analyzed to discover the relationship between the ascension of Christ and leadership empowerment. Ephesians 4:1-16 was chosen to be examined because of the importance of Paul's epistles to the development of the church and because it specifically associates deity—the ascended Christ—with leadership functions. Addressing the research question—What is the empowering relationship between the ascended Christ and the leadership ministries in Ephesians 4:1-16?—this research found that Christ represented the Trinity in exalted form, giving gifts and authority to the church for the purpose of building maturity and unity. Sociorhetorical analysis of the text found five components that comprise divine empowerment: calling, participation, membership, authority, and mediating roles. A model of divine empowerment was suggested.
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LEADERSHIP IN CORINTH: RECIPROCITY AND LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE IN 2 CORINTHIANS 6:11-13
Truls Åkerlund
The present article provides insight to the emerging field of Christian leadership by exploring the relationship between leader and followers in 2 Corinthians through the lens of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory. In contrast to the cultural norms of the first century and the universal principle of reciprocity explored in contemporary leadership research, the church in Corinth resists withholding a reciprocal relationship with the apostle Paul despite his sacrifices for the community. By investigating the community's reluctance to enter into the kind of relationship one should expect, the article pinpoints diverging views on leadership as a hindrance for the development of reciprocity and exchange, proposing that implicit leadership theories (ILT) may moderate the effect of benevolence on relationships in dyads and groups. Suggestions for further research are provided.
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GETTING GOD'S HOUSE IN ORDER: AN INTERTEXTURE ANALYSIS OF TITUS 1
Joshua D. Henson
The pericope of the apostles' second trial before the Sanhedrin in Acts 5:27-32 was analyzed using socio-rhetorical criticism's intertexture, social and cultural texture, and ideological texture analysis to identify the existence of possible behaviors related to the martyriological leadership theory proposed by Niewold.[2] The intertexture and social and cultural texture analysis provided an understanding on the text's background and foundational contexts. Since Avolio and Gardner contended that authentic leadership is a model that forms the basis for all other types of positive leadership models,[3] the contexts were analyzed to determine the potential applicability for authentic leadership's integration with martyriological leadership by Christian practitioners. The analysis suggests that martyriological leadership is empowered by the Holy Spirit and that there are four possible enabling behaviors. The analysis also suggests that integration of authentic leadership principles within martyriological leadership is essential.
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LEADERSHIP ETHICS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN REFORMED AND CATHOLIC ECCLESIOLOGY
John T. Moxen
Although moral theology and Christian ethics have always been grounded within the life of the Church, many outside the community of faith have attempted to usurp philosophical morality, from a particularly cerebral position by circumventing the Church in order to develop a non-ecclesial system of ethics. In the West, systems of morality continued to distance themselves from their ecclesial roots by claiming that the very principles, which drove the ethics practiced by the system's adherents were founded upon basic human reasoning. The Roman Catholic position continues to recognize that the gospel is mediated through reason and the sciences to particular conclusions that insist upon the necessity of structured institutions (Curran, 1984). An ecclesiology of ethics is properly understood through the notion of mediation, though not at the expense of reducing a leader's standard of morality to a common rank.
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