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From the Editor
Bruce E. Winston, Ph.D.

Welcome to Volume 4, Issue 1 of Emerging Leadership Journeys (ELJ). This issue contains seven of the best research course projects submitted by students in their first, second, third, and fourth semesters of the Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership program. The Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership program has, as one of its objectives, to prepare students to conduct research and publish the findings. During the first year of the program, the focus on research is more on the conceptual, literature review and model/proposal side, thus the focus in ELJ on these types of papers. I am pleased to present these seven articles for your reading and consideration.

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Leader’s Authenticity Influence on Followers’ Organizational Commitment
Artem Kliuchnikov

This study researches the influence of authentic leadership on three types of organizational commitment—affective, continuance, and normative—and examines the extent to which trust mediated this relationship. The study uses quantitative methodology that incorporates cross-sectional survey research. Convenience sampling (N=66) is utilized in the study. The results are discussed in terms of correlative data analysis. Future direction for this research is discussed and limitations of this study are outlined.
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Literature Review: e-Leadership
Probal DasGupta

This article reviews existing literature on e-leadership and the attendant concept of virtual teams. Current scholarship of e-leadership says the goals of leadership have not changed, but the new e-leader needs to implement those goals electronically on computer-mediated virtual teams that are dispersed over space and time. What is very different is that the e-leader may never physically meet one or more of the followers, and that the main communication medium is the computer. The new paradigm provides a range of new opportunities: the ability to instantly communicate one-on-one with employees, customers, and suppliers; the capability to use talent wherever it exists; the opportunity to enhance organizational performance by assembling better multi-functional teams, and to improve better customer satisfaction by using the “follow the sun” methodology; the ability to cut costs; and, scope for better knowledge management. These can positively impact an organization’s competitive advantage. However, e-leaders also have new challenges: how to bridge the physical distance from the followers; how to communicate effectively with far-flung team members; how to convey enthusiasm and inspire followers electronically; how to build trust with someone who may never see the leader; and so on. The article discusses what new skills the e-leader might require for success. It also examines the concept of the virtual team from various angles: structure, communication, degrees of virtuality, multi-cultural issues, trust-building, ethical issues, and so on. Finally, the technology that supports e-leadership and virtual teams is briefly discussed.
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Spirituality and Servant Leadership: A Conceptual Model and Research Proposal
GT Freeman

With confidence shaken in contemporary business leadership, there has been an increased interest in Greenleaf’s (1977) servant leadership theory, which promotes setting aside self-interest of leaders for the betterment of their followers (Liden, Wayne, Zhao, & Henderson, 2008; Sendjaya, Sarros, & Santora, 2008). However, while there has been increased research in the development of conceptual models and questionnaires, there is still little known about the conditions that facilitate servant leadership (Yukl, 2010). This paper explores the concept of spirituality, and its effect on the formation and effectiveness of servant leadership. A proposed conceptual model postulates spiritual beliefs (e.g., hope and faith in God) as a causal factor in the formation of a servant leader’s values and behaviors. Furthermore, the model posits that spiritual practices (e.g., praying, meditating, and reading scripture) are a moderating variable of servant leadership behavior and the outcome variable, leadership effectiveness, as perceived by followers. The paper reveals hypothesized relationships between four variables and proposes methods for measuring and testing the propositions.
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Instructor Transformational Leadership and Student Outcomes
Janelle L. Harrison

This study addresses the research question of how instructor transformational leadership behaviors and transactional leadership behaviors affect student outcomes of cognitive learning, affective learning, student perceptions of instructor credibility, and communication satisfaction in distance education. An overview of the theoretical underpinnings of the study is provided, as well as the tested hypotheses. A summary of the methodology, including sampling procedures, instrumentation, and data collection processes is presented, along with the procedures used for data analysis. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the relationships among the specified variables. Results support all four hypotheses, indicating that instructor transformational leadership behaviors are a more significant predictor of cognitive learning, affective learning, perceptions of instructor credibility, and communication satisfaction than instructor transactional leadership behaviors. The implications of the findings as well as the limitations of this research and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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Divine Empowerment of Leaders in Early Christianity
Tony Petrucci

The process of intertexture analysis is utilized to segment and interpret meanings and intentions based on Luke’s interpretation of Joel 2 as he authored Acts 2. This includes Luke’s development of the character Peter and his thoughts and intentions at the Pentecost. The concept of divine empowerment is brought to light. Topics such as law vs. spirit are explored, as well as the resurrection and other important moments in biblical history. Divine empowerment is analyzed to develop an understanding of empowerment in modern leadership theory. The focus, as guided through exegesis, is on empowerment, transformational leadership, organizational commitment, symbolism, and storytelling. These concepts were important in the connectivity of God’s message and divine empowerment, and in the beliefs and actions of followers. The concepts carry a similar purpose in the secular business world, relating instead to belief in the values, vision, and message and to creating action toward established goals in a manner that fosters ownership on behalf of the followers.
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Diverse Perspectives on the Groupthink Theory – A Literary Review
James D. Rose

This article provides a summary of research related to the groupthink theory. The review includes case studies, experimental studies, literature reviews, example applications, and proposed modifications to the groupthink theory. Groupthink has been applied to a broad spectrum of group settings and is seen as a major factor in many poor decisions. Despite close to 40 years of the existence of the groupthink theory, experimental studies are limited with only a few of the model’s 24 variables adequately tested. Testing limitations, and their mixed experimental results, lead to a wide diversity of perspectives regarding the model. Some conclude groupthink is no better than a myth, while others believe it is a brilliant construct. One recommendation is to address the ambiguity of the model; implementing previously proposed modifications (identified in this article) would achieve this objective. A further recommendation is to increase focus on testing groupthink prevention steps.
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The Relationship between GLOBE’s Future Orientation Cultural Dimension and Servant Leadership Endorsement
Shane Sokoll

Understanding cultural nuances, practices, and dimensions in today’s ever globalizing world is a key competency for today’s organizational leaders and those of the future. In an attempt to build upon the knowledge already presented the literature regarding cross-cultural interaction and multicultural leadership competencies, this model paper explores the cultural dimension termed future orientation that is used in the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) project and its relationship to and effect on followers’ reception of servant leadership behaviors. Future orientation is defined by House et al. (1999) as “the degree to which individuals in organizations or societies engage in future-oriented behaviors such as planning, investing in the future, and delaying gratification.” The distinctive, central focus and base of servant leadership behaviors, as explained by Liden, Wayne, Zhao, and Henderson (2008) and Fields and Winston (2010), is serving the needs of followers. Based on a comparison of the conceptual theories and empirical findings from the GLOBE study and the literature on servant leadership, this model paper makes two hypotheses: a) employees from cultures that value high future orientation will highly value servant leadership behaviors exhibited by leaders; and b) employees from cultures that hold a lesser value of future orientation will value servant leadership behaviors exhibited by leaders less than employees from cultures with a high future orientation.
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