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From the Editor
Mihai Bocarnea

The third issue of the Emerging Leadership Journeys (ELJ) includes five of the best research course projects submitted by students in their first and second semesters of the Ph.D. in Organizational Leadership program. These papers include (a) a model paper on the relationship among leader-follower exchanges, communication apprehension, and gender dissimilarity; (b) an intertextual analysis of Acts 2 with leadership implications; (c) a leadership exegetical study of John 21; (d) a conceptual paper on the use of metaphors describing organizations as cultures and psychic prisons; and (e) a literature review of the adaptation-innovation theory on cognitive tendencies and problem-solving styles. I am grateful to the five contributors—Joy Jones, Thomas Norbutus, Gregory Okaiwele, Lisa Renz, and Jake Stum—for their scholarly effort and to their grading professors serving as ELJ editorial members—Dr. Corné Bekker, Dr. Dail Fields, Dr. Jody Fry, and Dr. Bruce Winston—for this selection and the guidance they provided to the authors. I am also grateful to the production staff—Mrs. Julia Mattera and Mrs. Sarah Stanfield, as well as my colleague on the editorial staff, Mrs. Ashleigh Slater—for their dedicated work in making this third issue of the Emerging Leadership Journeys a reality.

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Gender Dissimilarity and Leader-Member Exchange: The Mediating Effect of Communication Apprehension
Joy A. Jones
Regent University

This article proceeds from the perspective that demographic variables directly affect social dynamics (e.g., communication), which in turn influence a variety of organizational outcomes, including leader-member exchange. This paper elaborates on previous studies of leader-member exchange that discuss personality traits and personal characteristics by providing an in-depth examination of two variables: communication apprehension and gender dissimilarity. Thus, by providing an in-depth examination of these two personal characteristics, this article proposes a model that may explain why some dyads have difficulty forming high quality leader-member exchange relationships. Testable propositions are presented for empirical testing in future research. | article pdf |

Acts 2: The Divine Empowerment of Leaders
Thomas J. Norbutus
Regent University

This paper is an intertextual analysis of Acts 2 that explores sources such as the New Testament, early Christian writings, Jewish apocryphal, and psuedopedigraphical texts. It identifies examples of divine leadership as explained through trust, interrelationships, and empowerment. Further, the study of intertexture differentiates the enduring, eternal character of the divine message of salvation in Acts from an inspiring secular message which may be received, processed, and even fondly remembered and passed on as history. The latter lacks the living fire of the message of eternal salvation. Personal power or the power of personality/charisma/etc. comes as close to Jesus’ power of personality as mortals can get. | article pdf |

John 21: An Exegetical Study of Leadership within the Mediterranean Context and the 21st Century
Gregory Okaiwele
Regent University

John 21:1-25 presents an account of Jesus’ appearance to his disciples upon resurrection. This article is a socio-rhetorical critical study exploring the social and cultural texture of this text, determining the leadership practices of the early Jesus communities within the Mediterranean context and how they relate to those of the 21st century. Specific social topics explored in this article include gnostic-manipulationist, thaumaturgical, honor, guilt and rights cultures, and dyadic and individualistic personalities, among others. Furthermore, the findings are compared and contrasted to transactional and transformational leadership theories. The findings indicate that the 1st-century Mediterranean culture is different from the 21st-century culture. However, a relationship exists between Jesus’ leadership style and transformational and transactional leadership theories. | article pdf |

Metaphor: Imagery Devices Used by Morgan to Describe Organizations as Culture and Psychic Prisons
Lisa M. Renz
Regent University

This article demonstrates the practical applications of metaphors in diagnosing problems and developing new theories in organizational development. Metaphors are defined as imagery tools that provide insight to complex issues, thus advancing the study of organizational change. They are liberating in orientation and provide fresh perspectives to both new and existing phenomenon. Metaphors benefit organizations by describing shared reality in organizations. In his book, Images of Organizations, Morgan used metaphors to describe organizations as cultures and psychic prisons. His use of metaphor provides a perspective of the unconscious factors that affect organizations. This article compares Morgan’s use of metaphor to Biblical principles, thus giving a Biblical perspective. | article pdf |

Kirton’s Adaption-Innovation Theory: Managing Cognitive Styles in Times of Diversity and Change
Jake Stum
Regent University

Kirton’s adaptive-innovative theory (1976) was developed in order to explain cognitive tendencies and problem-solving styles. Adaptors desire to do things better; innovators seek to do things differently. KAI is a theory that attempts to explain differences in creativity and, in this understanding, create more cohesion and collaboration among team members. The purpose of this article is to explore the value of KAI for managing diverse cognitive styles in times of change. The broad topic of KAI is examined and the focus narrows to utilizing KAI among diverse teams, especially during times of change and transition. By understanding the differences between adaptors and innovators, leaders can better influence and manage teams of people who are diverse in their cognitive styles. | article pdf |

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